logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
21st century learner skills 21st century teacher skills pre service teachers teacher training teaching and learning

Pre-service Teachers’ Opinions about the Use of 21st Century Learner and 21st Century Teacher Skills

Canses Tican , Sabahattin Deniz

The purpose of the current study is to determine pre-service teachers’ opinions about 21st century learner and teacher skills. The study group o.


The purpose of the current study is to determine pre-service teachers’ opinions about 21st century learner and teacher skills. The study group of the current research is comprised of 391 senior students from an education faculty. As the data collection tool, the 21st century Learner Skills Use Questionnaire and 21st Century Teacher Skills Use Questionnaire were employed. In the analysis of the collected data, frequencies, percentages, arithmetic means, independent samples t-Test, One-Way Anova, Correlation, Mann Whitney-U, Kruskal Wallis techniques were used. The findings of the study revealed that the pre-service teachers’ opinions about 21st century learner and teacher skills vary significantly depending on the variables of gender, department attended, academic achievement, experience of private tutoring and practicum teaching (doing practicum teaching at elementary and secondary schools). As a result, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers are ready for using 21st century learner skills (cognitive skills, autonomous skills, collaboration and flexibility skills, innovativeness skills) and teacher skills (administrative skills, technopedagogical skills, affirmative skills, flexible teaching skills, generative skills). However, it was also found that the pre-service teachers were not able to make enough use of learner and teacher skills during their practicum teaching at schools. Moreover, a positive, medium and significant correlation was found between 21st century learner skills and 21st century teacher skills.

Keywords: 21st century learner skills, 21st century teacher skills, pre-service teachers, teacher training, teaching and learning

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



AASL (American Association of School Librarians). (2009). Standards for the 21st century  learner in action. Chicago: ALA. 

Aksoy, M. E. (2010). Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards the profession of teaching. Social Sciences Research Journal, 2, 197-212.

Akgunduz, D., Aydeniz, M., Cakmakcı, G., Cavas, B., Corlu, M. S., Oner, T., & Ozdemir, S. (2015). STEM education Turkish report. Istanbul: Scala Basim.

Aydeniz, M. (2017, October). Our education system and our 21st century dream: An STEM-based economic route map for Turkey while we are progressing towards our goals. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved from https://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com.tr/&httpsredir=1&article=1019&context=utk_theopubs

Buyukozturk, S. (2007). A handbook for social sciences data analysis. Ankara: PegemA Yayincilik.

Buyukozturk, S., Cakmak, E. K., Akgun, O. E., Karadeniz, S., & Demirel, F. (2008). Scientific research methods. Ankara: PegemA Yayincilik.

Cretu, D. (2017). Fostering 21st century skills for future teachers. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 23, 672-681.  http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.05.02.82.

Coklar, A. N. (2008). Determination of pre-service teachers’ self-efficacies in relation to education technology standards (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Daghan, G., Nuhoglu Kibar, P., Menzi Cetin, N., Telli, E., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2017). 21st century learner and teacher characteristics from the perspectives of the pre-service information technologies pre-service teachers. Education Technology Theory and Practice, 7(2), 215-235. doi:10.17943/etku.305062.

Dede, C. (2009). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills.  Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Doganay, A., & Demir, O. (2011). Comparison of the level of utilizing cognitive awareness skills of pre-service teachers with low and high academic achievement while revising. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 11(4), 2011-2043.

Eryılmaz, S., & Uluyol, C. (2015). Evaluation of the FATIH Project in light of 21st century skills. GEFAD/GUJGEF, 35(2), 209-229.

Gunuc, S., Odabası, F., & Kuzu, A. (2013). Definition of the 21st century student characteristics by pre-service teachers: A Twitter application. Theory and Practice in Education, 9(4), 436-455.

Gurultu, E., Aslan, M., & Alci, B. (2018). Investigation of elementary school teachers’ competences in light of 21st century skills. Academic Social Studies Journal, 6(71), 543-560.

Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S., Mäkitalo-Siegl, K., Ahonen, A., Näykki, P., & Valtonen, T. (2017). Preparing teacher-students for twenty-first-century learning practices (PREP 21): A framework for enhancing collaborative problem-solving and strategic learning skills. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 23(1), 25-41. doi:10.1080/13540602.2016.1203772.

ISTE Standars-T. (2008). ISTE standards: Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/docs/pdfs/20-14_ISTE_Standards-T_PDF.pdf

ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education). (2018). About ISTE. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/about

Karasar, N. (2005). Scientific research methods. Ankara: Nobel Yayincilik.

Kana, F. (2015). Pre-service Turkish teachers’ motivational, cognitive and metacognitive competences. International Educational Sciences Journal, 2(4), 395-407.  

Lemov, D. (2010). Teach like a champion: 49 techniques that put students on the path to college (K-12).  San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Melvin, L. (2011). How to keep good teachers and principals: practical solutions to today's classroom problems.  Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield  Education. 

MEB. (2017a). A study on curriculum renewal and change works. Retrieved from https://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2017_07/18160003_basin_aciklamasi-program.pdf

MEB. (2017b). General competences of the profession of teaching. Retrieved from http://oygm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2017_12/11115355_yyretmenlyk_mesleyy_genel_yeterlyklery.pdf

MEB. (2018). A study on FATIH project in education. Retrieved from http://fatihprojesi.meb.gov.tr/proje-hakkinda/

Orhan-Goksun, D. (2016). The relationship between pre-service teachers’ 21st century learner skills and 21st century teacher skills (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Anatolian University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Orhan-Goksun, D., & Askım-Kurt, A. (2017). The relationship between pre-service teachers’ use of 21st century learner skills and use of 21st century teacher skills. Education and Science, 42(190), 107-130. doi:10.15390/EB.2017.7089.

Orhan, D., Kurt, A. A., Ozan, S., Som Vural, S., & Turkan, F. (2014). A general overview of national education technology standards. Karaelmas Journal of Educational Science, 2(1), 65-79.

OSYM. (2018). 2017 OABT evaluation report. Retrieved from https://dokuman.osym.gov.tr/pdfdokuman/2018/genel/2017_OABT_DRapor26072018.pdf

Partnership21 (P21). (2015). P21 framework definitions. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/docs/P21_Framework_Definitions_New_Logo_2015.pdf

Pedro, F. (2006). The new millennium learners: Challenging our views on ICT and learning. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38358359.pdf

Saavedra, A., & Opfer, D. (2012a). Teaching and learning 21st century skills: lessons from the learning sciences. New York: Asia Society. 

Saavedra, A., & Opfer, D. (2012b). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(2), 8-13.

Schleicher, A. (Ed.). (2012). Preparing Teachers and Developing School Leaders for the 21st Century: Lessons from around the World. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Sural, I. (2017). 21st century skills level of teacher candidates.  European Journal of Education Studies, 3(8), 530-538.

Sahin, M. C. (2010). Evaluation of education faculty students according to new millennium learners (OECD New millennium learners) standards (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Anatolian University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Sahin, C., & Sahin, S. (2017). Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards the profession of teaching, self-efficacy beliefs and level of knowing students. Turkish Educational Sciences Journal, 15(2), 224-238. 

Torun, B., & Karamustafaoglu, O. (2017). Determination of the pre-service science teachers’ content knowledge. In O. Demirel & S. Dincer (Eds.), Education in the globalizing world (91-118). Ankara: PegemA Yayincilik.

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times: learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Tsourapa, A. (2018). Exploring teachers' attitudes towards the development of 21st century skills in EFL teaching. Research Papers in Language Teaching & Learning, 9(1), 6-31.

Ustuner, M., Demirtas, H., & Comert, M. (2009). Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards the profession of science. Education and Science Journal, 34(151), 140-155.

Valtonen, T., Sointu, E. T., Kukkonen, J., Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S., Ahonen, A., & et al. (2017). Insights into Finnish first-year pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their 21st century skills. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2055–2069.

Valli, P., Perkkilä, P., & Valli, R. (2014). Adult preservice teachers: Applying 21st century skills in the practice. Athens Journal of Education, 1(2), 115-129.

Voogt, J., Erstad, O., Dede, C., & Mishra, P. (2013). Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning29(5), 403–413.

Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don't teach the new survival skills our children need-and what we can do about it. New York: Basic Books.

Yesilyurt, E. (2010). Evaluation of the suitability of pre-service teachers’ qualifications for the cooperation-based learning method. Dicle University Ziya Gokalp Education Faculty Journal, 14, 25-37.

Yildirim, A., & Simsek, H. (2011). Research methods in social sciences. Ankara: Seckin Yayinevi.

YOK. (2018). Teacher training undergraduate programs. Retrieved from http://www.yok.gov.tr