Research Article
Influence of Empowerment on Teachers’ Organizational Behaviors

Darin Jan Tindowen


APA 6th edition
Tindowen, D.J. (2019). Influence of Empowerment on Teachers’ Organizational Behaviors . European Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 617-631. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.617

Harvard
Tindowen D.J. 2019 'Influence of Empowerment on Teachers’ Organizational Behaviors ', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 617-631. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.617

Chicago 16th edition
Tindowen, Darin Jan . "Influence of Empowerment on Teachers’ Organizational Behaviors ". (2019)European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 2(2019): 617-631. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.617

Abstract

This descriptive and regression research was conducted to determine the influence of empowerment on organizational behaviors of 215 teachers in Catholic Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines. The results revealed that Catholic teachers have high levels of teacher empowerment. Specifically, they have very high level of status, professional growth, self-efficacy, and impact and high level of decision-making and autonomy in scheduling. Meanwhile, they also high level of organizational behaviors. Furthermore, three of the subscales of teacher empowerment tend to predict almost all dimensions of organizational behaviors of teachers in the school. The research concludes that Catholic Higher Education teachers are empowered to their organization as they feel respected, have opportunities for professional growth, feel efficient and effective in the classroom, and have the capacity to influence students and the school life. However, they do not have enough avenues to be involved in the decision-making process of their institution and do not have enough freedom and opportunities to choose their own schedules and teaching loads. Furthermore, they exhibit positive organizational behaviors in their institutions as manifested in their strong attachment to their organization, high level of involvement to their work, harmonious relationship with their supervisors and middle level managers. Also, they exhibit discretionary actions that goes beyond their functions, and have a desire and passion to continue and uphold the teaching profession.

Keywords: Teacher empowerment, organizational behaviors, higher education institutions, catholic teachers


References

Acquaah, M. (2004). Human factor theory, organizational citizenship behaviors and human resources management practices: An integration of theoretical constructs and suggestions for measuring the human factor. Review of Human Factor Studies, 10(1), 118-151.

Aguado, C. L., Garcia, O. B., Laguador, J. M., & Deligero, J. C. L. (2015). Teaching Performance and Extent of Work Values among Faculty Members in one Asian Maritime Academy. International Journal of Management Sciences, 5(12), 805-816

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology63(1), 1-18. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x

Avalos, B. (2011). Teacher professional development in teaching and teacher education over ten years. Teaching and Tteacher Education27(1), 10-20. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.007.

Babu, M. R., & Venkatesh, K. (2016). Organizational climate among primary school teachers with respect to gender and management. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(3), 6-9.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents5(1), 307-337.

Batra, P. (2009). Teacher empowerment: The education entitlement– social transformation traverse. Contemporary Education Dialogue6(2), 121-156. doi:10.1177/0973184913411184

Batugal, M. L. (2009). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational culture of the faculty of some selected schools of the St. Paul University System (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Saint Paul University Philippines, Philippines.

Belen, E. M., & Cordova, F. F. (2007). Work values and job performance of CICM secondary school teachers in Northern Luzon. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of the Cagayan Valley, Cagayan, Philippines.

Bernardo, A. B., Ganotice, F. A., & King, R. B. (2015). Motivation gap and achievement gap between public and private high schools in the Philippines. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. 24(4), 657-667. doi:10.1007/s40299-014-0213-2

Berry, B., Daughtrey, A., & Wieder, A. (2009). Collaboration: Closing the Effective Teaching Gap. Center for Teaching Quality. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509717.pdf

Blau, W. J. (2010). Human resource management (8th ed.). Boston, CA: Irvine.

Boey, E. K. (2010). Teacher empowerment in secondary schools: A case study in Malaysia (Vol. 15). Munchen: Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag.

Bogler, R., & Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teacher’s organizational commitment, professional commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, . 20(3), 277-289. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2004.02.003

Branson, C. M. (2008). Achieving organisational change through values alignment. Journal of   Educational         Administration, . 46(3), 376-395. doi: 10.1108/09578230810869293

Brown, S. P., & Leigh, T. W. (1996). A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, . 8(1), 358-368.

Burma, Z. A. (2014). Human resources management and its importance for today’s organizations. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 1(2), 85-94.

Cafirma, M. C., & Lozada, N. M. (2017). Issues and challenges experienced by novice teachers of University of Saint Louis (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao, Philippines.

Calibayan, M. L. (2015, December). Teacher empowerment and organizational commitment in state colleges and universities of region XII. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Higher Education, Olongapo City, Philippines.

Campbell, J., Cook, A., & Dornan, L. (1995). Empowerment through student-initiated action research: exploring tertiary paths in a multiply disadvantaged school. Education Research and Perspectives, 22(1), 80-89.

Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2014). Towards organizational health stress, positive organizational behavior, and employee well-being. In G.F. Bauer & Hammig (Eds.), Bridging Occupational, organizational, and public health (pp. 29-42). Newyork, NY: Springer.

Castano, M. C. N., & Cabanda, E. C. (2007). Performance evaluation of the efficiency of                Philippine Private Higher Educational Institutions: application of frontier     approaches. International Transactions in Operational Research, 14(5), 431-444.       doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3995.2007.00599.x

Chacon, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education21(3), 257-272. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2005.01.001

Chew, J., & Chan, C. C. (2008). Human resource practices, organizational commitment and intention to stay. International Journal of Manpower29(6), 503-522. doi: 10.1108/01437720810904194

Cohen, A., & Kol, Y. (2002). Professionalism and organizational citizenship behavior: An empirical examination among Israeli Nurses. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(4), 386-405. doi: 10.1108/02683940410537945

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (2011). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi delta kappan92(6), 81-92.

Datta, D. K., Guthrie, J.P., & Wright, P. M. (2005). Human resource management and labor productivity: Does it matter? Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 135-145.

Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. In J. Bellance, & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn (pp. 51-76). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Delima, V. T. (2015). Professional identity, professional commitment and teachers’ performance. International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, 2(4), 1-12.

Demir, K. (2015). The effect of organizational trust on the culture of teacher leadership in primary schools. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 15(3), 621-634.

Duke, D. L., & Gansander, B. (1990). Teacher empowerment: the view from the classroom. Educational Policy, 4(2), 145-160.

Duncan, A. (2016). Why teaching is the most important profession. Retrieved January 4, 2017, from https://www.limkedin.com/pules/leadin703-g-from-classroom-arne-duncan.

Dysvik, A., & Kuvaas, B. (2013). Perceived job autonomy and turnover intention: The moderating role of perceived supervisor support. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology22(5), 563-573.

Ellen, B. P. III., Ferris, G. R., & Buckley, M. R. (2013). Leader political support: Reconsidering leader political behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(6), 842-857.

Finegan, J. E. (2000). The impact of person and organizational values on organizational commitment. Journal of occupational and Organizational Psychology73(2), 149-169.

Fu, W., & Deshpande, S. P. (2014). The impact of caring climate, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on job performance of employees in a China’s insurance company. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), 339-349.

Fulmer, I. S., & Ployhart, R. E. (2014). Our most important asset: a multidisciplinary/multilevel review of human capital valuation for research and practice. Journal of Management, 40(1), 161-192.

Gabcanova, I. (2011). The employee – the most important asset in the organizations. Human Resources Management & Ergonomics, 5(1), 1-12.

Garuba, A. (2004). Continuing education: an essential tool for teacher empowerment in an era of universal basic education in Nigeria. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(2), 191-203.

Hackman, J. R., & Lawler III, E. E. (1971). Employee reactions to job characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55(3), 259-286.

Hadar, L., & Brody, D. (2010). From isolation to symphonic harmony: Building a professional development community among teacher educators. Teaching and Teacher Education26(8), 1641-1651.

Hairon, S., & Dimmock, C. (2012). Singapore schools and professional learning communities: Teacher professional development and school leadership in an Asian hierarchical system. Educational Review64(4), 405-424.

Hallberg, U. E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). “Same same” but different? Can work engagement be discriminated from job involvement and organizational commitment. European Psychologist, 11(2), 119-127.

Harpell, J. V., & Andrews, J. J. (2010). Administrative leadership in the age of inclusion: Promoting best practices and teacher empowerment. The Journal of Educational Thought (JET)/Revue de la Pensee Educative, 44(2), 189-210.

Harris, D. N., & Adams, S. J. (2007). Understanding the level and causes of teacher turnover: A comparison with other professions. Economics of Education Review26(3), 325-337.

Hartiff, G. J. (2015). From attrition to retention: A narrative inquiry of why beginning teachers leave then rejoin the profession. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(1), 22-35. doi: 10.1080/1359866X.2014.932333

Hobbie, M., Convey, J. J., & Schuttloffel, M. J. (2010). The impact of Catholic school identity and organizational leadership on the vitality of Catholic elementary schools. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice14(1), 7-23.

Ibrahim, M., & Iqbal, M. (2015). Teachers’ perception of professional commitment (affective, continuance, and normative commitment) to teaching profession. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(10), 64-80.

John, M. C., & Taylor, J. W. (1999). Leadership style, school climate and the institutional commitment of teachers. International Forum Journal, 1(2), 25-57.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), 1–39.

Kanungo, R. N. (1982). Measurement of job and work involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3), 341-349.

Khan, T.I., Jam, F. A., Khan, M. B., & Hijazi, S. T. (2011). Job involvement as predictor of employee commitment: Evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(4), 252-262.

Kramarski, B., & Michalsky, T. (2009). Investigating preservice teachers' professional growth in self-regulated learning environments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 161-175.

Lee, J. C. K., Yin, H. B., Zhang, Z. H., & Jin, Y. L. (2011). Teacher empowerment and receptivity in curriculum reform in China. Chinese Education & Society44(4), 64-81.

Levine, T. H., & Marcus, A. S. (2007). Closing the achievement gap through teacher collaboration: Facilitating multiple trajectories of teacher learning. Journal of Advanced Academics19(1), 116-138.

Lin, S.C., Hung, W. F., & Cheng, W. W. (2015, August). A study on the relationships among teacher empowerment, professional commitment, and school effectiveness. Paper presented at the International Conference on Political and Behavioral Sciences (ICPBS 2015), Venice, Italy.

Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49(1), 24–33.

Loeb, S., Darling-Hammond, L., & Luczak, J. (2005). How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 80(3), 44-70.

Lovat, T., Clement, N., Dally, K., & Toomey, R. (2010). Values education as holistic development for all sectors: Researching for effective pedagogy. Oxford Review of Education36(6),                 713-729.

Lucero, G. L., Penaso, A. M., & Silor, A. C. (2016). Influence of teaching task environment on teachers’ professional commitment. International Journal of Humanities and Management Science, 4(4), 319-324.

Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(3), 245-275. doi: 10.3102/01623737019003245

Mason, S., & Matas, C. P. (2015). Teacher attrition and retention research in Australia: Towards a new theoretical framework. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(11), 45-66. doi: 10.14221/ajte.2015v40n11.3

Mclnerney, D. M., Ganotice, F. A., King, R. B., Marsh, H. W., & Morin, A. J. S. (2015). Exploring commitment and turnover intentions among teachers: What we can learn from Hong Kong teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 11-23. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2015.08.004

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior61(1), 20-52.

Moorman, R. H., & Harland, L. K. (2002). Temporary employees as good citizens: Factors influencing their OCB performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(2), 171-187.

Mukeredzi, T. G. (2013). Professional development through teacher roles: Conceptions of professionally unqualified teachers in rural South Africa and Zimbabwe. Journal of Research in Rural Education28(11), 1-16.

Natale, J. A. (1993). Why teachers leave. The Executive Educator, 15(7), 14-18.

Neves, P. (2011). Building commitment to change: The role of perceived supervisor support and competence. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(4), 437-450.

Newstrom, J. W. (2007). Organizational behavious – human behavior at work. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Nijman, D. J. (2004). Supporting transfer of training: Effects of the supervisor (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Omebe, C. A. (2014). Human resource management in education: issues and challenges. British Journal of Education, 2(7), 26-31.

Pazy, A., & Ganzach, Y. (2009). Pay contingency and the effects of perceived organizational and supervisor support on performance and commitment. Journal of management, 35(4), 1007-1025.

Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational Research Quarterly29(1), 38-54.

Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive advantage through people: Unleashing the power of the work force. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Rastegar, M., & Memarpour, S. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among Iranian EFL teachers. System37(4), 700-707. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2009.09.013

Ravasi, D., & Schultz, M. (2006). Responding to organizational identity threats: Exploring the role of organizational culture. Academy of Management Journal49(3), 433-458.

Reyes, P. (1990). Organizational commitment of teachers. In P. Reyes (Ed.), Teachers and in their workplace: Commitment, performance and productivity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825-836.

Riveros, A. (2012). Beyond collaboration: Embodied teacher learning and the discourse of collaboration in education reform. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 31(6), 603-612. doi: 10.1007/s11217-012-9323-6

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (Eds.) (1999). Measures of political attitudes (Volume 2). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Ruble, L. A., Usher, E. L., & McGrew, J. H. (2011). Preliminary investigation of the sources of self-efficacy among teachers of students with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities26(2), 67-74.

Sambalud, M. D. (2014). Low pay and poor work benefits cause exodus of teachers in private schools. Retrieved January 3, 2017, from https://www/davaotody.com/mainhuman-rights/low-pay-and-poor-work-benefits-cause-exodus-of-teachers-in-private-schools

Santos, L. M. (2015). Leader member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior at De La Salle Lipa. DLSU Journal of Management, 2(1), 44-60.

Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived teacher self‐efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analyses. Applied psychology57(s1), 152-171. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00359.x

Shah, M., & Abualrob, M. M. (2012). Teacher collegiality and teacher professional commitment in public secondary schools in Islamabad, Pakistan. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 950-954. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.229

Shanock, L. R., & Eisenberg, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: relationships with their subordinates perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 689-695.

Short, P. M., & Rinehart, J. S. (1992). School participant empowerment scale: assessment of level of empowerment within the school environment. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 951-960.

Short, P. M., Greer, J. T., & Melvin, W. M. (1994). Creating empowered schools: Lessons in change. Journal of Educational Administration, 32(4), 38-52. doi: 10.1108/09578239410069106

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education26(4), 1059-1069. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2009.11.001

Somech, A., & Bogler, R. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of teachers’ organizational and professional commitment. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38(4), 555-577.

Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra-role behaviors in schools: The relationship between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy, and teacher’s extra-role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(5), 649-659.

Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., & Shamian, J. (2002). The impact of workplace empowerment, organizational trust on staff nurses' work satisfaction and organizational             commitment. In Dr. L. H. Friedman, J. Goes, G. T. Savage (Eds.), Advances in Health Care Management, Volume 3 (pp. 59-85). Bradford, England: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sullivan, M., Kiovsky, R. D., Mason, D. J., Hill, C. D., & Dukes, C. (2015). Interprofessional collaboration and education.  American Journal of Nursing115(3), 47-54. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000461822.40440.58

Sweetland, S. R., & Hoy, W. K. (2000). School characteristics and educational outcomes: Toward an organizational model of student achievement in middle schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(5), 703-729. doi: 10.1177/00131610021969173

Taylor, B. L., & Bogotch, J. E. (1994). School level effects of teacher participation in decision making. Educational Evaluation and Analysis, 16(3), 302-319. doi: 10.3102/01623737016003302

Tehseen, S., & Hadi, N. U. (2015). Factors influencing teachers’ performance and retention. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 233-244. doi: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n1p233

Thurlings, M., Evers, A. T., & Vermeulen, M. (2015). Toward a model of explaining teachers’ innovative behavior: A literature review. Review of Educational Research, 85(3), 430-471. doi: 10.3102/0034654314557949

Tindowen, D. J. C. (2015). The catholicity of the University of Saint Louis. International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts3(4), 32-40.

Tindowen, D. J. C., & Baricaua, T. C. (2016). Catholicity of the students as  manifested in their participation to religious activities: A    basis for an enhanced campus  ministry program. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Teacher Education and Indigenous Peoples Education, Cagayan, Philippines.

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 217-247.

Tuazon, A. P. (2016). Impact of perceived organizational support on job involvement of public school teachers. International Journal of Educational Science and Research, 6(3), 91-98.

Viel-Ruma, K., Houchins, D., Jolivette, K., & Benson, G. (2010). Efficacy beliefs of special educators: The relationships among collective efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. Teacher Education and Special Education33(3), 225-233.

Wall, R., & Rinehart, J. S. (1998). School-based decision-making and the empowerment of secondary school teachers. Journal of School Leadership, 8(1), 49-64. doi: 10.1177/105268469800800103

Wells, M. B. (2015). Predicting preschool teacher retention and turnover in newly hired head start teachers across the first half of the school year. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 152-159. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.10.003

Whitaker, T. (2003). What great principals do differently: Fifteen things that matter most. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Yangaiya, S. A., & Abubakar, A. (2015). Examining the relationship between empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior of secondary school teachers in Katsina State Nigeria. Proceeding of the 3rd Global Summit on Education (pp.468-475). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: World Conference Resources.

Yen, H. R., & Niehoff, B. P. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational effectiveness: Examining relationships in Taiwanese banks. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(8), 1617-1637.

Zembylas, M., & Papanastasiou, E. C. (2005). Modeling teacher empowerment: the role of job satisfaction. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11(5), 433-459.

Zhang, G., & Zeller, N. (2016). A longitudinal investigation of the relationship between teacher preparation and teacher retention. Teacher Education Quarterly, 43(2), 73-92.