Research Article
Reading Difficulty and its Remediation: A Case Study

Hayati Akyol, Yasemin Boyaci-Altinay

APA 7th edition
Akyol, H., & Boyaci-Altinay, Y. (2019). Reading Difficulty And Its Remediation: A Case Study. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1269-1286.

Akyol H., and Boyaci-Altinay Y. 2019 'Reading Difficulty And Its Remediation: A Case Study', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 1269-1286.
Chicago 16th edition
Akyol Hayati, and Boyaci-Altinay Yasemin. "Reading Difficulty And Its Remediation: A Case Study," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 1269-1286.


The aim of this study, in which one of the qualitative research approaches, the case study design, was used, was to remedy reading problems and develop reading skills in a fourth grade primary school student with sound, syllable and word recognition exercises. The study covers 38 lesson periods in the autumn term of the 2018-2019 academic year. For developing reading skills, the strategies of “prior listening to the paragraph”, “repetitive reading” and “word repetition” were used. For determining reading errors, the “Error Analysis Inventory” was used. Data were obtained by means of observation and document examination. In the study related to determining reading status, it was established that the student had made errors such as repetition, syllabication, omission, addition and failure to notice punctuation marks. Based on the data obtained, first of all, sound, syllable and word recognition exercises were conducted with the student, and then reading exercises were carried out with texts selected to suit the level of the student’s Turkish course books and story books. Analyses were performed by taking audio and video recordings of all exercises. As a result of the intervention, the student’s desire to read increased, he began to read out loud, he began to identify sounds that he previously did not recognise or confused, and improvements in his reading skill were observed.

Keywords: Fluent reading, repetitive reading, reading difficulties, comprehension, reading skills.


Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: thinking and learning about print. Retrieved from

Akyol, H. (2003). Turkce ilkokuma yazma ogretimi [Teaching first reading and writing in Turkish].  Ankara, Turkey: Gunduz Egitim.

Akyol, H. (2006). Turkce ilkokuma yazma ogretimi [Teaching first reading and writing in Turkish]. Ankara, Turkey: Pegem.

Akyol, H. (2008). Turkce ogretim yontemleri [Turkish teaching methods]. Ankara, Turkey: Pegem.

Akyol, H., &Yildiz, M. (2010). Okuma bozuklugu olan bir ogrencinin okuma ve yazma becerisinin gelistirilmesine yonelik bir durum calismasi [A case study to develop reading and writing skills of a student who had reading difficulties]. E-Journal of New World Sciences Academy, 5(4), 1690-1700.

Akyol, H. (2011). Turkce ogretim yontemleri [Turkish teaching methods]. Ankara, Turkey: Pegem

Akyol, H. (2013). Turkce ilkokuma yazma ogretimi [Teaching first reading and writing in Turkish]. Ankara, Turkey: Pegem.

Akyol, H, & Kayabasi Ketenoglu, Z. E. (2018). Improving the reading skills of a students with reading difficulties: An action research. Education and Science / Egitim ve Bilim, 43(193), 143-158.

Anderson, R.C., Hiebert, E.H., Scot, J.A., & Wilkinson, Ian A.G. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: The report of the commission on reading. Washington, D.C.

Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2015). Kids count: State trends in child wellbeing. Retrieved from

Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2010). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read (3th ed.). Developed by the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA). Washington, DC: The National Institute for Literacy (NIFL).

Baker, W., & Boonkit, K. (2004). Learning strategies in reading and writing: Eap contexts. Regional Language Centre Journal, 35(3), 299-328.

Basaran, M. (2013). Okudugunu anlamanin bir gostergesi olarak akici okuma [Fluent reading as an indicator of reading comprehension]. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice / Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(4), 2277-2290.

Bastug, M., & Akyol, H. (2012). Akici okuma becerilerinin okudugunu anlamayi yordama duzeyi [Predicted power of fluent reading skills on reading comprehension].  Journal of Theoretical Educational Science / Kuramsal Egitim Bilim Dergisi, 5(4), 394-411.

Bender, W. N., & Larkin, M. J. (2003). Reading strategies for elementary students with learning difficulties. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Bender, W. N. (2012). Ogrenme guclugu olan bireyler ve egitimleri [Individuals with reading difficulties and their education] (H. Sari, Trans.). Ankara, Turkey: Nobel.

Brassel, D., & Rasinski, T. (2008). Comprehension that works: Taking students beyond ordinary understanding to deep comprehension. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.

Cain, M. J. (2010). Linguistics, psychology and the scientific study of language. Dialectica,64 (3), 385-404.

Caldwell, J. S. (2008). Reading assessment: a primer for teachers and coaches. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Arastirma deseni [Research design] (Demir, S. B. Trans.). Ankara, Turkey: Egiten Kitap.

Dag, N. (2010). Okuma guclugunun giderilmesinde 3p metodu ile bosluk tamamlama (cloze) tekniginin kullanimi uzerine bir calisma [A study on regarding the use of the 3p method and the cloze technique in order to correct the reading difficulty]. Journal of Special Education of Ankara University Educational Sciences Faculty / Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakultesi Ozel Egitim Dergisi, 11(1), 63-74.

Demir, H. (2015). Yanlis Analizi Envanteri’nin ilkokul ogrencilerinin okumalarinin degerlendirilmesinde kullanimi [Use of Error Analysis Inventory in primary school students’ reading evaluation) (Unpublished master's thesis).  Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Doguyurt, M. F., & Doguyurt, S. B. (2016). Okuma guclugu ceken ogrencilerin okuma becerisinin gelistirilmesine yonelik bir calisma: Bir eylem arastirmasi [A Study to develop reading skills of students with reading difficulties: An action research]. Education and Society in 21st Century / 21. Yuzyilda Egitim ve Toplum, 5(14), 275-286.

Dundar, H., & Akyol, H. (2014). Okuma ve anlama problemlerinin tespiti ve giderilmesine iliskin ornek olay calismasi [A case study regarding definition and solution of reading and comprehensive problems]. Education and Science / Egitim ve Bilim, 39(171), 361-377.

Ekwall, E. E., & Shanker, J. L. (1988). Diagnosis and remediation of the disabled reader. Boston , MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-256.

Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Metsala, J. L., & Cox, K. E. (1999). Motivational and cognitive predictors of text comprehension and reading amount. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 231-256.

Hoover, W. A., & Gough P. B. (1990). The Simple View of Reading. Reading and Writing, 2(2), 127-160.

Homan, S.P., Klesius, J. P., & Hite, C. (1993). Effects of repeated readings and nonrepetitive strategies on student’s fluency and comprehension. Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 94-99.

Karatay, H. (2007). Kelime ogretimi [Word teaching]. Journal of Gazi Education Faculty / Gazi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 27(1), 141-153.

Kardas Isler, N., & Sahin, A. E. (2016). Bir ilkokul 4. sinif ogrencisinin okuma bozuklugu ve anlama guclugu: Bir durum calismasi [Comprehension and reading disabilities of a primary 4th grade student: A case study]. Journal of Mother Tongue Education / Ana Dili Egitimi Dergisi, 4(2), 174-18.

Kaskaya, A. (2016). Beyin etkileme metodu destekli ogretim ile akici okuma ve okudugunu anlamanin gelistirilmesi: Bir eylem arastirmasi [Improving reading fluency and reading comprehension with NIM-Assisted Teaching: An activity research]. Education and Science / Egitim ve Bilim, 41(185), 281-297. doi: 10.15390/EB.2016.4949

Kim, Y. S., Wagner, R. K., & Foster, E. (2011). Relations among oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, and reading comprehension: A latent variable study of first-grade readers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(4), 338-362. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2010.493964

Kodan, H. & Akyol, H. (2018) Effects of choral, repeated and assisted reading strategies on reading and reading comprehension skills of poor readers. Education and Science, 43(193), 159-179.

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6(2), 293-323.

Logan, G. D. (1997). Automaticity and reading: Perspectives from the instance theory of automatization. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 13(2), 123-146.

Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the national reading panel teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Ozbay, M., & Melanlioglu, D. (2008). Turkce egitiminde kelime hazinesinin onemi [The importance of vocabulary in teaching Turkish].  Journal of Hundredth Year University Education Faculty / Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 5(1), 30-45.

Paige, D. D., & Magpuri-Lavell, T. (2014). Reading fluency in the middle and secondary grades. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(1), 83-96.

Rasinski, T., & Hoffman, J. (2003). Theory and research into practice: oral reading in the school literacy curriculum. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(4), 510-522.

Rasinski, T. V. (2009). Fluency for everyone: Incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom. In C. M. Mooney (Ed.), Essential readings on fluency (pp. 17-20). New Delhi, India:  IRA.

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N. D., & Fawcett, G. (2010). Teaching children who find reading difficult. Boston, CA: Allyn and Bacon.

Richek, M. A., Caldwell, J. S., Jennings, J. H., &Lerner, J. W. (2002). Reading problems: Assessment and teaching strategies. Boston, CA: Allyn and Bacon 

Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32(4), 403-408.

Samuels, S. J. (1997). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), 376-381.

Sezgin, Z. C., &Akyol, H. (2015). Okuma guclugu olan dorduncu sinif ogrencisinin okuma becerilerinin gelistirilmesi [Improving readings kills of fourth grade elementary student who has reading disability]. Turkish Journal of Education, 4(2), 1-16.

Spear-Swerling, L. (2006). Children’s reading comprehension and oral reading fluency in easy text. Reading and Writing, 19(2), 199-220.

Stahl, S. A., & Heubach, K. (2006). Fluency-oriented reading instruction. In K. A. D. Stahl & M. C. McKenna (Eds.), Reading research at work: Foundations of effective practice. New York, NY: Guilford.

Stanovich, K. E. (1991). Word recognition: Changing perspectives. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 418-452). New York, NY: Longman.

Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading. Remedial and Special Education, 25(4), 252-261

Uysal Kanik, P., & Akyol, H. (2018) Reading disabilities and intervention: An action research. Education and Science, 44(198), 17-35.

Uzunkol, E. (2013). Akici okuma surecinde karsilasilan sorunlarin tespiti ve giderilmesine yonelik bir durum calismasi [A case study for identifying and overcoming the problems encountered during the fluent reading process].  Journal of Mersin University Education Faculty / Mersin Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 9(1), 70-83.

Yildirim, A. & Simsek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel arastirma yontemleri [Qualitative research methods in social sciences]. Ankara, Seckin Yay.

Yilmaz, M. (2008). Kelime tekrar tekniginin akici okuma becerilerini gelistirmeye etkisi [Influence of word repetition technique on developing fluent reading skills].  Journal of Turk Education Sciences / Turk Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(2), 323-350.

Yuksel, A. (2010). Okuma guclugu ceken bir ogrencinin okuma becerisinin gelistirilmesine yonelik bir calisma [A study to develop reading skills of a student who has reading difficulties]. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science / Kuramsal Egitim Bilim Dergisi,  3(1), 124-134.

Wise, J. C., Sevcik, R. A., Morris, R. D., Lovett, M. W., Wolf, M., Kuhn, M., Schwanenflugel, P. (2010). The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students who evidence different oral reading fluency difficulties. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(3), 340-348.