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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS

'exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis' Search Results



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The aim of this research is to develop a scale to determine the language teaching methods used by English teachers. The research sample consisted of 300 English teachers who taught at Duzce University and in primary schools, secondary schools and high schools in the Provincial Management of National Education in the city of Duzce in 2013-2014 academic Year. Data collected were subjected to Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was computed. The Exploratory Factor Analysis results showed that the scale consisted of 5 factors. These factors were named as Active Teaching Method, Listening Based Teaching Method, Four Basic Skills Based Method, Speaking Based Method and Grammar Based Method. The total variance explained by the 5 factors was determined to be 54.69%. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis results confirmed the 5-factors structure. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was computed as .89. It is thought that this scale can be used to identify language teaching methods that English teachers use as a reliable and valid scale.

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10.12973/eu-jer.5.3.137
Pages: 137-148
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717
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1225
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The main objective of this study is to examine the attitudes of preschool teacher candidates and teacher candidates in other branches towards scientific research in terms of some variables. Survey method was used. The study group consists of 547 teacher candidates studying in education faculty of a private university in the spring term of 2015-2016 in Istanbul province. Personal Information Form, Scale of Attitude towards Scientific Research were used as data collection tool. According to the results; Preschool teacher candidates’ levels of reluctance to help researchers and negative attitudes towards research are lower when compared to Turkish language teacher candidates. Preschool teacher candidates’ positive attitudes towards researchs and researchers are higher when compared to Turkish language teacher candidates. Guidence and psychological counselor candidates’ negative attitudes towards research are lower when compared to Turkish language teacher candidates. The levels of reluctance to help researchers of male teacher candidates are higher when compared to female teacher candidates. Negative attitudes towards research of the teacher candidates who do not take the course of scientific research methods are higher when compared to the teacher candidates who take the research methods course. The teacher candidates’ attitudes towards research do not vary by age, grade level and the academic success average.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.1
Pages: 1-13
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642
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1766
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2

Student Centered Education Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

student centered education student centered education scale validity reliability

Zeynep Boyaci , Seyma Sahin , Hayriye Merve Eris Hasirci , Abdurrahman Kilic


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The purpose of the study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure the teachers’ levels of student-centered education practices. The Exploratory Factor Analysis sample included a total of 426 teachers and the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the scale was conducted on a total of 160 teachers working in the province of Duzce during the spring term of 2014-2015 education year. Exploratory Factor Analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the scale and the model was tested through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. For the reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha internal coefficient was calculated and item analysis was performed based on the corrected item total correlation. The final form of the scale included 32 items and one dimension. These 32 items explained 40.04% of the total variance. The results of the item total correlation analysis indicated that none of the item was below 0.30 and the lowest item correlation coefficient was 0.51. Cronbach’s Alpha was found to be 0.95 for the internal consistency of the scale. The reliability and validity results for the Student-Centered Education Scale suggest that this scale is a reliable and valid tool to measure the levels of student-centered educational practices among teachers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.93
Pages: 93-103
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1070
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1491
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The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Social Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Scale (SEOES) on Turkish. The sample group included two groups of university students (ns= 440, 359). The validity of the scale was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity, and the reliability was assessed using Cronbach Alpha’s internal consistency coefficient, test-retest method and item discrimination. The findings obtained from the exploratory factor analysis showed that 51.2 percent of total variance of the scale was explained and the scale consisted of two sub-dimensions like the original one. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable fit to the data. The concurrent validity of the SEOES was respectively studied using (.65) Scale of Perceived Social Self-Efficacy; (.29) Satisfaction With Life Scale; and (-.36) UCLA Loneliness Scale. As for the scale’s reliability, the internal consistency was determined to be .91; .92 for Social Efficacy Scale; and .81 for Outcome Expectations Scale. The results of test-retest result (.90) and the findings of item analysis showed that the items in Turkish version of the scales were compatible with the original one. The present results provide evidence supporting the validity and reliability Turkish version of the SEOES.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.2.213
Pages: 213-223
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684
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6

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This research aims to complete Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability studies for the Math and Me Survey developed by Adelson and McCoach for use in determining the students’ attitudes towards mathematics in the transition from primary school to middle school. Within the scope of validity and reliability studies for the scale, data gathered from 1169 primary school students had item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis performed. In line with this, 18 items from the original scale were translated to Turkish and item equivalence between the original English and Turkish translation was ensured. During item analysis to determine the construct validity of the scale, an item with low item total correlation value was removed from the scale. The Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated as .93. The Cronbach alpha coefficients from the scale subdimensions of Enjoyment and Self-Perception were calculated as .91 and .88. The confirmatory factor analysis results for the scale revealed perfect fit with the construct determined in the exploratory factor analysis results. Thus, the Math and Me survey can be said to be a valid and reliable tool for use in Turkish culture.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.707
Pages: 707-714
cloud_download 432
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432
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938
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6

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5

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This study aims to conduct validity and reliability analysis of Organizational Structure Scale-University version (OSS-U) that enables us to determine organizational structures of universities. The scale was developed based on the Axiomatic Theory by Hage, literature review and expert opinions. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 655 faculty members working at state universities in Turkey. Psychometric features of the scale were tested with three different models. The content validity of the suggested models was tested with Lawshe Analysis; the construct validity with Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) while the reliability was tested with Cronbach alpha which is a measure of internal consistency. As a result of the analyses conducted, all of these three models were determined to be valid and reliable with the relevant sample. It was also revealed that OSS-U can be used as model 1 in which nine dimensions (number of occupational specialties, professional training, professional activities, participation in decisions, hierarchy of authority, standardization, professional latitude, difference in rewards and difference in status) describe one single concept (University Structure), or model 2 in which four subscales (Complexity Scale, Centralization Scale, Formalization Scale and Stratification Scale) are independent pieces of an umbrella term (University Structure) or model 3, as a combination of these two models (model 1 + model 2), where combined subscales that have dimensions in itself describe a hypernym (University).

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.775
Pages: 775-803
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696
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1545
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4

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4

Psychometric Assessment and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Grit-S Scale among Omani and American Universities’ Students

grit psychometric properties achievement goal orientations cross-cultural study

Amal Alhadabi , Said Aldhafri , Hussain Alkharusi , Ibrahim Al-Harthy , Hafidha AlBarashdi , Marwa Alrajhi


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The current study aimed to adopt and assess the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of Grit-S among Omani and American students (N = 487) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The scale’s construct validity was estimated by investigating its associations with achievement goal orientations (AGOs). EFA results suggested that a two-factor solution (i.e., perseverance of effort [G_PE] and consistency of interest [G_CI]) was the best factorial structure, explaining 47.74% and 51.02% of the variance in the Omani and American samples, respectively. The factors had good reliability coefficients in the two samples. Related to the intercultural differences, G_PE explained more variance among Omanis (31.02%) relative to American sample, whereas G_CI explained a larger proportion of variance among Americans (36.86%) compared with Omani sample. The first level of measurement invariance, configural invariance, was not supported, necessitating the investigation of the other levels of measurement invariance using a new sample. Grit correlated positively with mastery and performance-approach goals (r = .29 and .12, respectively) and negatively with avoidance goals (r = -.25), supporting the scale’s construct validity. These findings showed that Grit-S scale can be used as valid and reliable assessment tool to assess student interest and perseverance in the academic context in Arabic/Omani and American cultures.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1175
Pages: 1175-1191
cloud_download 393
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393
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768
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6

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6

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The purpose of this study is to develop an Interpersonal Mindfulness Scale-TR (IMS-TR) for Turkish culture. For the data collection process, four different sample groups participated in the study. To test the construct validity of the scale an exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results suggested a 13-item, two-factor solution as (1) awareness and (2) being in the moment. Two-factor structure explains 50.65% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis results showed good fit for two-factor solution. The Mindfulness in Parenting Questionnaire and the Mindfulness in Marriage Scale were used to examine a convergent validity and positive significant relationships were found between the scales. To test the reliability of the scale Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the overall scale was determined to be .826. To determine the stability coefficient of the IMS-TR, test-retest method was used and according to result there is a positive relationship between the scales. According to all of these results, it can be said that the IMS-TR has a validity and reliability.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.103
Pages: 103-115
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1451
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1131
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7

Psychometric and Structural Evaluation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory Instrument

psychometric evaluation physics metacognition inventory problem solving

Haeruddin Haeruddin , Zuhdan Kun Prasetyo , Supahar Supahar , Elisa Sesa , Gazali Lembah


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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric and structural instruments of the Physics Metacognition Inventory (PMI) developed by Taasoobshirazi, Bailey, and Farley (2015). The PMI consists of 26 items in six factors. The English and Indonesian versions were tested on an English course (N = 37) in the Geophysics study program at Tadulako University. The trials were conducted separately within a two-week interval. The data collected from 364 students of the Physics Education Department, University of Tadulako were analyzed using the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Later, data were collected from 351 students of some Indonesian universities which have physics education study programs, and the data were analyzed using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The EFA result reveals six factors based on the rotation result with the maximum loading factor. The CFA result shows the RMSEA values of .018, 2 (284) = 316.32 (χ2 / df = 1,11), GFI = .93, CFI = .99, AGFI = .92 and NFI = .93 which meet the cut-off statistic value, and therefore, the model is considered fit, with the Construct Reliability Estimation (CR) of .93, Composite Reliability of  = .95, and maximum reliability of Ω = .96. The results obtained reveal that the PMI scale has good, valid and reliable psychometric properties. Therefore, PMI can be used to measure the level of metacognition of students when solving physics problems. Future studies using PMI are also discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.215
Pages: 215-225
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657
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826
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6

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7

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Current research on self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching indicates shortcomings in facing recent teaching challenges in secondary education and corresponding valid instruments. Thus, we designed the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Interdisciplinary Science Teaching (SElf-ST) instrument based on a pedagogical content knowledge model for science teaching. We ensured the factorial validity of ten factors. To bring construct validity down to a round figure, we examined convergent and divergent validity in this paper. For answering the overall research question regarding arguments for the convergent and divergent validity of the interpretation of the SElf-ST instrument’s test values (and related hypotheses), we analyzed data of pre-service, trainee, and in-service biology, chemistry, and physics teachers (n = 590) in a cross-sectional study. While the strong latent correlations of the ten SElf-ST factors with self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching in primary education (r = 0.40 – 0.63, p < 0.01) indicate convergent validity, the rather weak correlations with self-efficacy beliefs of general teaching (r = 0.17 – 0.54, p < 0.01), self-rated content knowledge in science (r = 0.13 – 0.40, p < 0.01), and perceived stress (r = -0.13 – -0.19, p < 0.01) support different divergent validity intensities. Thus, assumed relations within the nomological net surrounding the self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching construct were confirmed for secondary education. In sum, we shed light on a rarely explored aspect of construct validity in science education research regarding self-efficacy beliefs. Doing so, we gained strong arguments that the SElf-ST instrument’s test values can serve as indicators of self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching in secondary education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1435
Pages: 1435-1453
cloud_download 616
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616
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848
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7

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5

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The investigation of epistemological beliefs has become important in both pre-service and in-service education of teachers. Different scales have been developed to determine teachers’ epistemological beliefs. The same scale yields different results in different cultures especially due to the cultural aspects of education. Therefore, testing the scales in different cultures contributes to their use. Within this framework, the scale developed by Schommer and adapted to Turkish culture by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk was adapted to Kosovo culture. In the study, whether the Albanian, Bosnian and Turkish versions of the scale support the same factor structure was tested by employing the quantitative research method. First, the Epistemological Belief Scale was translated into Albanian and Bosnian and expert opinion was received. The scale was applied to 200 teachers who serve in schools where education languages are Albanian, Bosnian and Turkish. The scale comprised 35 items and 3 factors. Linguistic equivalence was prioritized, as the study was carried out in Kosovo. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis was employed to confirm the suitability of the three-factor structure of the scale. The analyses were carried out separately for each language and revealed acceptable fit indices. Reliability analysis produced satisfactory results.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.299
Pages: 299-312
cloud_download 545
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545
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711
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2

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2

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Recently, Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) has caused a considerable interest in the school community due to the wide-scale lockdown brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The curriculum's alteration necessitated a call to explore mechanisms for effective remote instruction delivery—including parental involvement. This research determined the psychometric properties of the "Strategies for Parental Involvement during Emergency Remote Teaching - Scale (SPIERT-S). The tool assesses the strategies used by teachers to facilitate parental involvement during ERT. Through a thorough literature review, 22 items about home and school collaboration and ERT were initially developed. Evidence related to content validity was established through two-round expert consultation, while data related to construct validity were gathered through factor analyses. The content validity analysis resulted in the deletion of four (4) items; hence, 18 items were retained. A three-factor structure was yielded from Exploratory Factor Analysis (parents as facilitators of learning, parents as sources of information, and parents as collaborators), and a total of 15 items were retained. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable level of the goodness-of-fit indices measured. The internal consistency of the factors and the whole scale showed excellent reliability. The results suggest that the SPIERT-S has good, valid, and reliable psychometric qualities and can be used to examine the strategies for parental involvement that teachers utilize during emergency remote teaching. Recommendations and limitations of the study are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.427
Pages: 427-439
cloud_download 599
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599
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722
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6

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5

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The aim of the study is to adapt Preschool Children’s Science Motivation Scale (PCSMS) developed by Oppermann et al. into Turkish and conduct the validity and reliability analyses. This scale is considered important in terms of evaluating the science motivation of preschool children through the science concepts they are familiar with, based on their daily life experiences. The research data were obtained from 303 children attending preschool education in central districts of Adana. The findings of exploratory factor analysis, a two-factor structure named self-confidence and enjoyment consist of 28 items was determined in accordance with the original structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that this two-factor structure showed good fit. Subsequently, the study proceeded to reliability analyses and Cronbach’s α and Composite Reliability values were calculated. In consequence of the study, it was seen that the original form of the scale and the goodness of fit and internal consistency values obtained within the scope of the adaptation form coincided. The findings of the study indicate that the Turkish version of the PCSMS is valid and reliable for Turkish preschoolers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.891
Pages: 891-906
cloud_download 510
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510
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845
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2

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1

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The current study investigated Student-Teacher Relationship Measure (STRM) psychometric properties using Rasch analysis in a sample of middle school female students (N = 995). Rasch Principal Components Analysis revealed psychometric support of two subscales (i.e., Academic and Social Relations). Summary statistics showed good psychometric properties. The category structure and individual statistics (i.e., items and person infit and outfit) were not ideal. Category structure showed that the distances between adjacent thresholds were lower than optimal criteria. Even though findings indicated that items mean square statistics (MNSQ) were optimal, standardized fit statistics (i.e., ZSTD) reflected many misfit persons and items in each subscale. After eliminating the misfit persons and items, the two subscales met the Rasch optimal criteria. The updated short 22-item scale had good psychometric properties, high item and person separation, and good item and person reliability for the two subscales and can be used as a reliable and valid scale.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.957
Pages: 957-973
cloud_download 510
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510
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762
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2

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2

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The purposes of this study were to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills and to develop a life and career skills in the 21st century test for undergraduate students. This research employed a mixed-method study adopting an exploratory design: instrument development model to generate research tools. This study was divided into two phases; Phase 1 was to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills in 21st century, by using a qualitative method to analyze relevant documents; Phase 2 was the development of a life and career skills in 21st century test by adopting a quantitative method to collect data from students studying in 12 universities of the north-eastern region of Thailand via the test. In the second phase, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Results revealed that the skills consisted of 6 factors and 35 indicators, and the test comprised 105 items. The quality of the test has been examined by five expertise, the reliability of all test items is acceptable, and all 6 factors demonstrated good construct validity. Factor loadings of six factors were 0.7940 -1.7816. This study can be implemented to measure the life and career skills of undergraduate students in any university to obtain data for establishing a policy and plans for maximizing students’ potential to achieve their careers and a happy living in 21st century after their graduation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.51
Pages: 51-68
cloud_download 781
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3
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781
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1020
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3

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3

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This study was conducted to corroborate in understanding the teachers’ beliefs about assessment practices. The prior studies related to teachers’ assessment beliefs in mathematics have been done to assess teachers’ beliefs in the general context of mathematics teaching. This study developed an instrument to assess teachers’ assessment beliefs of mathematical thinking. The research aimed to develop and validate a scale of assessment beliefs of mathematical thinking by using the confirmatory factor analysis. The first draft of the scale contained 25 items. The sample of the study consisted of 537 mathematics teachers from public schools in Oman. The instrument was a questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale. The scale was validated by asking a number of experts in mathematics educational measurement and evaluation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the model of assessment beliefs of mathematical thinking scale using AMOS 25.0. All constructs had acceptable reliability. The model had a good model fit for the assessment beliefs of mathematical thinking scale which obtainable from the fit indices tests. The findings revealed that all fit criteria indices were realized. The results also showed acceptable validity and construct reliability for the scale.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.179
Pages: 179-191
cloud_download 490
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490
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789
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2

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1

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Despite the ubiquity of professional learning communities (PLCs) among researchers, studies on PLCs have widely differed in terms of dimensions used to conceptualise them. Thus, the study aimed to validate the conceptual model consisting of PLCs practices. The study employed a quantitative method using a survey. Firstly, a pilot test was conducted in which 103 school-teachers were involved in completing a questionnaire. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) had determined six dimensions and 20 elements of PLCs practices. Then, the field study was conducted using the new questionnaire. The survey involved 386 school-teachers from 25 High Performing Schools (HPS). The result revealed that: I) Based on the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), multidimensional PLCs practice model is evidence in the Malaysian context. They are operationalised in six dimensions including visions, missions and values, professional leadership, collective and collaborative culture, sharing of best practices, conducive school climate, and strategic alliances among stakeholders and, ii) The level of PLCs implementation in HPS is high for all the dimensions. The practical implications from the study and future research recommendations were also discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.393
Pages: 393-402
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515
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602
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0

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0

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Computational thinking (CT) is a method for solving complex problems, but also gives people an inventive inspiration to adapt to our smart and changing society. Globally it has been considered as vital abilities for solving genuine issues successfully and efficiently in the 21st century. Recent studies have revealed that the nurture of CT mainly centered on measuring the technical skill. There is a lack of conceptualization and instruments that cogitate on CT disposition and attitudes. This study attends to these limitations by developing an instrument to measure CT concerning dispositions and attitudes. The instruments' validity and reliability testing were performed with the participation from secondary school students in Malaysia. The internal consistency reliability, standardized residual variance, construct validity and composite reliability were examined. The result revealed that the instrument validity was confirmed after removing items. The reliability and validity of the instrument have been verified. The findings established that all constructs are useful for assessing the disposition of computer science students. The implications for psychometric assessment were evident in terms of giving empirical evidence to corroborate theory-based constructs and also validating items' quality to appropriately represent the measurement.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.639
Pages: 639-652
cloud_download 775
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9
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775
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914
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9

Scopus
4

Motivation and Grit Affects Undergraduate Students’ English Language Performance

english language performance english learning motivation grit psychology

Yun Tao Wu , Lydia Yoke Yean Foong , Noryati Alias


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This study aims to explore non-English speaking major student’s perceptions of Motivation and Grit and the relationship between these two factors and students’ English language performance at a public university in China. The research was conducted by quantitative research design to collect 624 non-English speaking Major students’ answers to multiple questionnaires at a public university in China. Data analysis is used by SPSS and AMOS. The study shows that Motivation and Grit all have a positive correlation with English language performance. One major conclusion of this study is Grit has the most significant effect on the English language performance of non-English speaking major students in multiple regression analysis and is also the best predictor of the relationship between these two factors and English language performance in the path analysis in Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The finding also revealed that male students’ perception of motivation and grit is slightly stronger than that of female students. These findings highlight the need for English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher to understand students’ affective factors in learning English, and hence help them utilize different teaching methods to enhance students’ English learning and promote sustainable development of English learning in a public Chinese university.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.781
Pages: 781-794
cloud_download 1036
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1036
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922
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10

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10

Validating Student’s Green Character Instrument Using Factor and Rasch Model

green character instrument factor and rasch analysis

Akhmad Sukri , Muhammad Arief Rizka , Elly Purwanti , Siti Ramdiah , Marheny Lukitasari


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Many researchers have separately developed instruments to measure environmental characteristics such as attitudes, values, and knowledge. However, there is no instrument used to measure all these aspects in one comprehensive instrument. This study is meant to develop and validate a green character instrument which reveals student behavior and awareness of the environment. The instrument consists of 40 statement items consisting of 5 aspects, namely private pro-environmental behavior, public pro-environmental behavior, environmental knowledge, environmental values, and environmental attitudes. It was implemented on 1,398 students from 15 universities in Indonesia. The instrument content validation was analyzed by three experts using content validity index (CVI). The construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and RASCH analysis. The content validity results obtained CVI scores ranging between 0.8 and 0.9 with a good category, while item reliability was in a fairly good category with a high level of separation index. Construct validation resulted in 34 items (4 items were eliminated after Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and 2 items were eliminated after RASCH analysis) spread over five constructs, namely environmental behavior, environmental knowledge, environmental values, environmental attitudes, and environmental habits. The resulting instrument has a good level of item difficulty, with a well understood response set which can be understood easily by respondents, and without bias. Therefore, it can be used to measure the students’ green character on both male and female.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.859
Pages: 859-872
cloud_download 538
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538
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709
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1

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