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'nature of science conceptions' Search Results



Concepts of Plants Held by Young Brazilian Children: An Exploratory Study

plant conception preschool and primary school pupils mental model drawings

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Claudete Rosa Cosmo , Bernadete Rocha da Silva , Sue Dale Tunnicliffe


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Children from southern and northern Brazil have a basic knowledge of plants, which they observe during their everyday life. Children ages between 3 to 10 years old (kindergarten & primary school), but the majority of them in the age group of 4-5 (total 145) were asked to draw what they think is a plant (total sample=332). Afterwards, a equal number of boys and girls randomly chosen were interviewed individually (mix ability) to list plants they said they knew and where they had seen them. Then they were asked to give exemplars of the local plants which they had seen. These data from the exploratory study show that pupils are in touch with their environment and recognize plants that are part of it. The everyday experiences of these children in school and out of school, at home and in leisure activities with family and friends, contribute to their knowledge about plants and such knowledge is complemented in the preschool and primary school classes by appropriate teaching. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.3.105
Pages: 105-117
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11

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Facilitating effective mathematics learning and higher mathematics achievement have long been recognized as a key to the scientific and technological advancement of the African continent. While the central role that language proficiency plays in mathematics teaching and learning has received an overwhelming research attention in the literature over the past two decades, this is not the case among African policy-makers and political leaders. Drawing mainly from our professional experiences as mathematics educators and from the international research literature, our primary intent in this paper is to answer this question: How does the learning of mathematics in English at the basic school level help or hinder students’ mathematical proficiency? To answer this question, the paper is organized as follows. The first part, the introduction, gives a brief overview of the language of learning and teaching in Africa. The second part describes the method and conceptual framework undergirding the research. In the third section, we have analyzed the effects of mathematics learning and teaching through English for basic students whose mother tongue is a Ghanaian language. The conclusion offers four recommendations for developing and improving the mathematics proficiency of students in basic schools.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.3.124
Pages: 124-139
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2219
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2271
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2

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Majority of NOS studies comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with ordinary students. In order to gain further understanding on variation in NOS understandings among the students, there should be different research attempts focusing on unconventional students such as academically advanced students. The purpose of this study is to determine epistemological understanding of Finnish academically advanced science students concerning aspects of NOS. The study was a case study (N=39) conducted with qualitative perspective. Questionnaires on the students’ attitude toward science and motivation toward science learning plus a form for the teacher’s ideas and VNOS-C, were used as diagnostic tools and data collection instruments. The study revealed that the majority of the students were found to be naïve in aspects such as “empirical basis of science”, “observation and inference”, “subjectivity of scientists”, “social and cultural embeddedness”, “creativity in science”, “theories and laws” and “tentativeness”.

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10.12973/eu-jer.3.4.167
Pages: 167-176
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1131
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1375
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6

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Scientific literacy has been increasingly considered a major goal of science education. While textbooks remain the most widespread tools for pursuing this goal within classrooms, they have been slow to adapt to the most recent epistemological paradigms, often still conveying distorted views of science and technology. Accordingly, we present herein a theoretical framework specifically intended to highlight the potential of textbooks to promote students’ scientific literacy. It is additionally argued that, often, the misconceptions conveyed by textbooks represent obstacles to the acquisition of a fair image of science and, therefore, to the acquisition of scientific literacy. Finally, a textbook analysis is suggested.

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10.12973/eu-jer.2.2.51
Pages: 51-68
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1389
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1740
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5

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This study examines the subjects and concepts in biology perceived to be difficult to learn and teach by 759 pre-service biology teachers registered in the pedagogical formation program at Uludag University Faculty of Education in the academic year of 2005-2016, as well as the associations that word “biology” first calls to their mind. The study was designed as a survey model, and a questionnaire of three scaled questions was used as a data collection tool. The data were classified into 10 different categories based on different branches of biology: Anatomy-Morphology, Biotechnology, Ecology, Evolution, Physiology, Genetics, Histology, Cytology, Systematics and Reproduction and Development. Following the classification, the data were analyzed using frequency and percentages. The subjects and concepts perceived to be difficult to learn by the pre-service teachers are respectively as follows: photosynthesis and its stages, genetics, circulatory system, aerobic respiration, respiratory system, anaerobic respiration, protein synthesis, phanerogams, DNA structure and function, cryptogams, mitosis, plant systematics, endocrine system, meiosis, ETC, urinary system, plant physiology, taxonomy, evolution and digestive system. The subjects and concepts perceived to be difficult to teach by the pre-service teachers are respectively as follows: photosynthesis and its stages, protein synthesis, circulatory system, endocrine system, meiosis, plant systematics, evolution, mitosis, reproduction, genetic crossing over problems, Latinization of names, urinary system, genetics, ecology, aerobic respiration, DNA structure and function, plant tissues, glycolysis and anaerobic respiration. These findings confirm the need for developing undergraduate programs in biology and promoting the research culture at the secondary education level.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.495
Pages: 495-508
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710
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1139
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8

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This study aims to explain the extent to which prospective physics teachers’ views and practices are consistent with the constructivist framework. A case study design was employed as the research approach. The study was conducted with 11 prospective physics teachers attending a state university in Turkey. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observation notes and lesson plans. The interview guide consisted of questions which allowed the interviewer to probe participants’ views of constructivism based on 5E learning model. Such questions as “how do you plan your teaching?” (introducing new topics, continuing the lecture, types of questions to ask, evaluating students’ understanding etc.) were included in the interview. Following the analysis of the interview data, participants’ profiles were classified into three categories: traditional, transition and constructivist under the dimensions “beginning of a lesson,” “learning process,” “learning environment” and “assessment.” Observations were carried out using an observation checklist consisting of 24 items based on 5E learning model. Another checklist developed by the researchers was used to evaluate participants’ teaching qualifications. Interview results showed that seven participants had transitional, three had constructivist and one had traditional views. However, none of the participants were observed to exhibit constructivist teaching styles. Moreover, observation and interview results were consistent only for six participants, indicating that almost half of the participants had difficulty putting their views into practice.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.359
Pages: 359-372
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395
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821
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3

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4

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This study was designed as a case study. Participants were 12 senior pre-service science teachers (PSTs), who took theoretical and practical courses about STEM education and socio-scientific issues (SSIs) during their education at a state university. For the study, in the first 4 weeks, theoretical courses on SSIs and STEM education were carried out. Afterwards, PSTs were asked to choose a SSI and configure this issue as a problem statement to perform a STEM activity. Participants were given a total of 3 weeks to determine the issue and prepare the STEM activity, and the researchers of the study gave systematic feedback during this period. Then, starting from the fifth week of the study, groups started to implement their STEM activities in the class, where their peers were assigned as their students. The activity plans they prepare, the field notes taken by the researchers during the implementation of the activities and the semi-structured interviews about the opinions of the PSTs on the use of SSI in STEM education were the data sources of the study. Findings revealed that PSTs found establishing STEM problem situations over SSIs suitable since they provide features such as conformity to real life, having multiple criteria and providing compatibility with other disciplines. Moreover, after their practices, they pointed out that the activities enabled both the teaching of the SSI and the integrated teaching to be carried out. As a conclusion, it is recommended to use socio-scientific problem situations to perform STEM education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.805
Pages: 805-812
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1365
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1465
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6

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15

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Recent science education standards emphasize the importance of the instruction of nature of science (NOS) concepts at all levels of schooling from pre-K to K-12. Delivering a proper NOS education to students is excessively dependent on their teachers with an adequate understanding of NOS concepts. The present study investigated the science conceptions of preschool and elementary teacher candidates. The data collected from a total of 506 prospective teachers were analyzed with respect to the following demographic variables: majors, genders, grade levels, high schools and GPAs of teacher candidates. “Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry (SUSSI)” developed originally by Liang et al. (2008) was the instrument used to collect data in this study. The data analyses were conducted using MANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The corresponding mean scores of the teacher candidates in specific aspects of NOS ranged from “poor” to “informed” conceptions of science. All but one of the demographic variables yielded statistically insignificant results on the NOS conceptions of teacher candidates. The majors of the teacher candidates were detected as a significant variable influencing the conceptions of the teacher candidates. The results of the study were discussed in reference with the relevant literature.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.45
Pages: 45-61
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510
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1186
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4

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The aim of this study is to present pre-service biology teachers with reading texts about the research of Van Helmont and Joseph Priestley relate to the subject of photosynthesis, for their familiarization with the processual and contextual aspects of science and their understanding of the nature of science, and to reveal the extent to which these texts contribute to the teacher candidates. The study was carried out by “action research method”.  The sample consisted of 66 biology pre-service teachers studying at Karadeniz Technical University between the years of 2016 to 2018. In this study, two separate reading texts were prepared in order to increase pre-service teachers’ processual and contextual understanding, and after the teacher candidates had read the texts, they were asked to answer the related questions. Percentage and frequency values were determined by grouping the answers as “correct, partially correct, incorrect and unanswered”. The fact that in this study, only 47% of the pre-service teachers were able to form a correct hypothesis means that their skills in this regard are in need of development. Candidates experienced some difficulty in interpreting statements that were not given explicitly in the text. The candidates' level of critical thinking is at a good level. It has been determined that they have post-modern view as epistemological belief. There is a need for designing instructional materials covering conceptual, processual, contextual dimensions of science in different subjects at university level and presenting them to biology teachers in book format.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.633
Pages: 633-646
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485
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1376
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0

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An evidence-based, interactive teaching method peer instruction (PI) is promoted to support effectiveness over more commonly used teaching methods. Usually it is proposed for the university and upper secondary school. The research reports on the implementation of the PI approach in teaching subject Science and Technology (S&T) in the 4th grade of primary school. The aim of this research was to verify the feasibility of this approach for much younger students in primary school by evaluating the students’ progress in the subject S&T, identifying the differences in individual progress in relation to students’ general learning success, and determining students’ opinions about the approach and where no desired progress has been made. In a selected Slovenian primary school, a classroom with 26 students (age 9 – 10) was included in the study and 5 different content areas (Earth’s motion, Matter, Magnetism, Forces and motion, and Electricity) were taught using this PI approach. Results show that students made progress in all content areas and no differences were identified in the progress of individual students in terms of general learning success. Students were satisfied with the approach, although more than half of them found the multiple-choice questions as too difficult. Although the PI approach is successful, teachers must be aware that some persistent and widespread misunderstandings may still remain and require additional intervention.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.785
Pages: 785-798
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277
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544
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3

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4

Implementation of Four-Tier Multiple-Choice Instruments Based on the Partial Credit Model in Evaluating Students’ Learning Progress

learning progress four-tier change of state of matter partial-credit model

Lukman Abdul Rauf Laliyo , Syukrul Hamdi , Masrid Pikoli , Romario Abdullah , Citra Panigoro


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One of the issues that hinder the students’ learning progress is the inability to construct an epistemological explanation of a scientific phenomenon. Four-tier multiple-choice (hereinafter, 4TMC) instrument and Partial-Credit Model were employed to elaborate on the diagnosis process of the aforementioned problem. This study was to develop and implement the four-tier multiple-choice instrument with Partial-Credit Model to evaluate students’ learning progress in explaining the conceptual change of state of matter. This research applied a development research referring to the test development model by Wilson. The data were obtained through development and validation techniques on 20 4TMC items tested to 427 students. On each item, the study applied diagnostic-summative assessment and certainty response index. The students’ conceptual understanding level was categorized based on the combination of their answer choices; the measurement generated Partial-Credit Model for 1 parameter logistic (IPL) data. Analysis of differences was based on the student level class using Analysis of Variants (One-way ANOVA). This study resulted in 20 valid and reliable 4TMC instruments. The result revealed that the integration of 4TMC test and Partial-Credit Model was effective to be treated as the instrument to measure students’ learning progress. One-way ANOVA test indicated the differences among the students’ competence based on the academic level. On top of that, it was discovered that low-ability students showed slow progress due to the lack of knowledge as well as a misconception in explaining the Concept of Change of State of Matter. All in all, the research regarded that the diagnostic information was necessary for teachers in prospective development of learning strategies and evaluation of science learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.825
Pages: 825-840
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339
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701
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6

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5

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This study aimed to analyze the critical thinking skills of students in learning of environmental change material using e-learning madrasah. This study used explanatory sequential design by mixed-methods experiment. The data were collected by interviewing, observing, and essay testing that have indicators modified from critical thinking skills by Watson-Glaser, Facione, and Ennis. There were 67 participants in this study as 7th grade student at a junior high school in Sleman district. Quantitative data analyzed by determining average score and standard deviations and, qualitative data analyzed from interviews and observation. Quantitative analysis showed that there were 3 levels of student’s critical thinking skills which were 14 students (20.90%) in the high category, 38 students (56.72%) in the middle category, and 15 students (22.38%) in the low category. Qualitative analysis indicated learning model made students to learn actively, independently, and enthusiastically looking for several sources. This study provided information about student critical thinking skills in junior high school, especially in the environmental change matter which are still low. Thus, the alternative learning strategies to improve students critical thinking skills are very needed. Besides, information on the application of the discovery learning model with e-learning Islamic school was obtained in the COVID-19 pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1123
Pages: 1123-1135
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756
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1363
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9

Scopus
10

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Assessment is a topic that continues to be developed in science education research. Assessment evaluates not only students' cognitive abilities but also their thinking skills. Therefore, in this study, an assessment that could measure students' chemical literacy was developed. Chemical literacy is a thinking skill that students must develop as part of their chemistry learning. The goal of this study was to assess item' quality, as well as student’ chemical literacy on the concept of chemical rate. The Rasch model was employed to analyze the data in this study. The results of this study depict that the developed assessment had sufficient reliability and validity to be used to assess students' chemical literacy. Furthermore, the analysis of the students’ responses to the items revealed that many students did not understand or were unaware of the context presented. These findings suggest that students' chemical literacy in the material for the reaction rate is still lacking and needs to be improved. As a result, the teacher's role in assisting students in improving their chemical literacy through chemistry learning is critical.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1769
Pages: 1769-1779
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413
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937
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0

Development of a Survey to Assess Conceptual Understanding of Quantum Mechanics among Moroccan Undergraduates

conceptual understanding learning difficulties quantum mechanics teaching/learning

Khalid Ait bentaleb , Saddik Dachraoui , Taoufik Hassouni , El mehdi Alibrahmi , Elmahjoub Chakir , Aimad Belboukhari


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We developed a Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Understanding Survey (QMCUS) in this study. The survey was conducted using a quantitative methodology. A multiple-choice survey of 35 questions was administered to 338 undergraduate students. Three experienced quantum mechanics instructors examined the validity of the survey. The reliability of our survey was measured using Cronbach's alpha, the Fergusson delta index, the discrimination index, and the point biserial correlation coefficient. These indices showed that the developed survey is reliable. The statistical analysis of the students' results using SPSS shows that the scores obtained by the students have a normal distribution, around the score of 7.14. The results of the t-test show that the students' scores are below the required threshold, which means that it is still difficult for the students to understand the concepts of quantum mechanics. The obtained results allow us to draw some conclusions. The students' difficulties in understanding the quantum concepts are due to the nature of these concepts; they are abstract and counterintuitive. In addition, the learners did not have frequent contact with the subatomic world, which led them to adopt misconceptions. Moreover, students find it difficult to imagine and conceptualize quantum concepts. Therefore, subatomic phenomena are still explained with classical paradigms. Another difficulty is the lack of prerequisites and the difficulties in using the mathematical formalism and its translation into Dirac notation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2219
Pages: 2219-2243
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305
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550
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2

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1

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Guided by the analytical framework in the current literature, whereby ten nature of science (NOS) aspects were targeted, this study aims at assessing the extent to which the three physics textbooks for Cycle 4 of Fundamental Schools in Burundi represent the NOS aspects. The quantitative embedded research design which combines the qualitative and quantitative to both the representations of text and images were applied to collect and analyses data. Three physics textbooks used in this study as textbooks I, II and III (grade 7 textbook, grade 8 textbook and grade 9 textbook) were purposively selected. 65 physics lessons were analyzed in three steps including exploring representations of NOS aspects, representations of NOS teaching approaches and accuracy and completeness of NOS aspects. Data were collected using a guide document analysis and a rubric of NOS scoring and were analysed descriptively. The findings found a considerable deficit of NOS aspects in the physics textbooks. The findings also revealed the critical situation where the few lessons poorly represent the NOS aspects and the majority of them do not include the aspects of NOS. Furthermore, this study suggests the in-charge of quality assurance to evaluate and deliberate on the accuracy and completeness of physics textbooks for Cycle 4 of Fundamental Education in Burundi.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2487
Pages: 2487-2496
cloud_download 376
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376
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582
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4

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4

The Development of a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test Based on Modern Test Theory in Physics Education

developing test four-tiers diagnostic test modern test theory

Edi Istiyono , Wipsar Sunu Brams Dwandaru , Kharisma Fenditasari , Made Rai Suci Shanti Nurani Ayub , Duden Saepuzaman


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Diagnostic tests are generally two or three-tier and based on classical test theory. In this research, the Four-Tier Diagnostic Test (FTDT) was developed based on modern test theory to determine understanding of physics levels: scientific conception (SC), lack of knowledge (LK), misconception (MSC), false negatives (FN), and false positives (FP). The goals of the FTDT are to (a) find FTDT constructs, (b) test the quality of the FTDT, and (c) describe students' conceptual understanding of physics. The development process was conducted in the planning, testing, and measurement phases. The FTDT consists of four-layer multiple-choice with 100 items tested on 700 high school students in Yogyakarta. According to the partial credit models (PCM), the student's responses are in the form of eight categories of polytomous data. The results of the study show that (a) FTDT is built on the aspects of translation, interpretation, extrapolation, and explanation, with each aspect consisting of 25 items with five anchor items; (b) FTDT is valid with an Aiken's V value in the range of 0.85-0.94, and the items fit PCM with Infit Mean Square (INFIT MNSQ) of 0.77-1.30, item difficulty index of 0.12-0.38, and the reliability coefficient of Cronbach's alpha FTDT is 0.9; (c) the percentage of conceptual understanding of physics from large to small is LK type 2 (LK2), FP, LK type 1 (LK1), FN, LK type 3 (LK3), SC, LK type 4 (LK4), and MSC. The percentage sequence of MSC based on the successive material is momentum, Newton's law, particle dynamics, harmonic motion, work, and energy. In addition, failure to understand the concept sequentially is due to Newton's law, particle dynamics, work and energy, momentum, and harmonic motion.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.371
Pages: 371-385
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470
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630
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0

Scientific Experiments in Moroccan High Schools Life Science Courses: Constraints and Solutions

scientific experiment life science constraints solutions

Sophia Bouzit , Anouar Alami , Sabah Selmaoui , Youness Rakibi


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The teaching of experimental sciences in high school contributes to the development of a set of cognitive, methodological, and psychomotor skills among learners. Combining, both theoretical and practical aspects, it involves an important use of scientific experiments in the process of knowledge construction. With the help of appropriate tools that include interviews and observation of teaching practices, data related to the constraints encountered in the implementation of scientific experiments in the high school life sciences classroom was collected as well as proposals of solutions to overcome these constraints. The results show the existence of a set of constraints that oppose the realization of experiments in class. These constraints are not only limited to insufficient or deficient external factors but also to the teachers' relationship to knowledge which influences their choice of teaching activities within a predefined curriculum.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.957
Pages: 957-966
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Morocco has undergone significant reforms in the education and training field, including the implementation of preschool education as a compulsory stage in the education system. Several studies have shown that attitudes toward science tend to decline between the ages of 11 and 14. Therefore, it is crucial to promote the acquisition of different modes of reasoning and forms of thought from early childhood. The primary objective of preschool education in Morocco should be to promote positive attitudes toward science. This study aims to analyze the preschool program prescribed in the Moroccan curriculum framework with regard to scientific awareness as well as its methodological and practical implications. The analysis was conducted using a designed grid and including the following criteria: construction of school science; axiological and psychological foundations of science learning; objectives and competencies; contents; approaches; activities; teaching strategies; didactic resources; pedagogical design and evaluation. The study's findings revealed that the Moroccan Curriculum Framework for Preschool Education featured a number of dimensions related directly to scientific awareness. However, no explicit statements about scientific awareness or science literacy were made. Moreover, some elements suggested in the program document were out of phase with the current trends of scientific awareness. Therefore, the study offered some suggestions for improving the proposal provided by this pedagogical document. In conclusion, Morocco's focus on preschool education is a positive step towards building a more scientifically literate society. However, to fully benefit from it, the guidance document must be revised to reflect current scientific awareness trends.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.3.1233
Pages: 1233-1246
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299
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584
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2

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1

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Understanding graphs in the dynamics of market (DM) is a challenge to learners; its teaching demands a specific kind of teacher’s knowledge. This study aims to examine the topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (TSPCK) of experienced economics teachers in teaching graphs in DM to enhance learners’ understanding of the topic. It reports using a qualitative approach underpinned by the TSPCK framework for teaching specific topics developed by Mavhunga. Data were collected through classroom observations and analyzed thematically using a case study of two economics teachers. The study revealed that adopting a step-by-step approach and the use of worked graphical examples promote an understanding of graphs in DM. It also established that active learning is preferable to the predominant chalk-and-talk (lecture) method of teaching graphs in DM. The study proposed a Dynamics of Market Graphical Framework (DMG-Framework) to enable teachers, particularly pre-service teachers in lesson delivery, to enhance learners’ understanding of graphs in DM. The result of this study will broaden the international view in the teaching of graphs in DM.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1247
Pages: 1247-1262
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104
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288
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