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'speaking skills' Search Results



The Use of Pre-Reading Activities in Reading Skills Achievement in Preschool Education

pre-reading activities preschool education games

Aboagye Michael Osei , Qing Jing Liang , Ihnatushchenko Natalia , Mensah Abrampah Stephen


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Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals’ mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle solving, match making) and reading skills achievement remain depressingly scanty in Ghana. This study in the light of foregoing atmosphere explored how pre-reading activities facilitate pre-reading and reading skills among preschoolers with the use of randomized experimental control groups design which adopted pre and post-test of two classes, as well as observation guides to diagnose the problem of reading among the KG children in the two groups (control and treatment groups). The findings from these experimentations clearly portrayed the significant influence that pre-reading activities exert on the level of preschoolers reading skills achievements. Upon thorough analysis, and discussions predicated on the research outcome, it has been recommended that preschool educators incorporate levelappropriate pre-reading activities to enrich Preschool Education in Ghana.

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10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.35
Pages: 35-42
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2876
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1622
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5

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The purpose of the study is to reveal the effect of cooperative learning on language skills in an English course. The study was carried out for 5 weeks with 66 students studying at the 10th grade at an Anatolian high school in the district of Karadeniz Eregli in Zonguldak during the fall term of the 2015-2016 academic year. The design of the study was ‘nonequivalent control groups pre-test post-test’ which is one of quasi-experimental designs. Data were gathered using an achievement test measuring students’ vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge, reading comprehension and listening skills. Results showed that cooperative learning had a larger effect on vocabulary knowledge, grammar, listening and reading skills compared to traditional method.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.591
Pages: 591-600
cloud_download 2395
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6
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2395
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2035
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6

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12

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In this work, we have analyzed the opinions of teacher candidates of French as a foreign language on the method that should be used in the teaching of reading-comprehension, one of the main linguistic skills. At the end of the Fall Semester of the 2011-2012 academic year, a survey constituted of three open-ended questions was carried out among teacher candidates studying at the French Language Teaching Programme of the Faculty of Education of Uludag University. Among the 120 students enrolled in the Programme, 64 have participated in the survey voluntarily and expressed their opinions. Students have been priorly informed about the study and the link of the survey prepared via Google Docs has been sent to them through an e-mail where they were asked to fill in the study in Turkish. In the scope of the present work, only student opinions relating to option b of the study's second question -i.e. on the method that should be used in the teaching of the reading skill in French- have been taken into consideration. In this qualitative work based on a case study pattern, opinions have first been sorted out through the content analysis method and have been classified; then, they have been compared with and discussed in the light of opinions and suggestions that already exist in literature. Lastly, findings have been interpreted and presented as a determination.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.667
Pages: 667-677
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338
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759
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0

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0

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The aim of sports and physical effect on the course chosen and the selection (choosing different courses) students to determine the difference between the levels of social skills. Research, Sports and Physical Activities are important in determining the contribution of the social skills of course. Research elective sports and physical activities screening to determine their level of social skills among students taking the course and take the 11-14 age model is designed. The population of the 2015- 2016 academic year in the fall semester research, Malatya affiliated school in sports and physical activities constitute 11-14 age students choose the courses. Elective sports and physical activity as a data collection tool for taking the course and receive a questionnaire for students to determine their level of social skills are used. The survey consists of a personal information form and social skills inventory to determine the defining characteristics of the students in the first chapter. In the evaluation of the data obtained as a number descriptive statistical methods, percentage, mean, standard deviation is used. in comparing quantitative data between two independent groups of continuous man-Whitney U test for continuous quantitative comparison of data between more than two independent groups Kruskal wallis test. Kruskal wallis complementary test to determine differences in man-to-Whitney test after test. Research results in emotional expressivity, sensitivity, social expressivity, social sensitivity, social control, social skills and physical effect on the total level of the sport was concluded to be higher in the group selects the course.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.679
Pages: 679-688
cloud_download 355
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355
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808
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2

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2

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The aim of this study is to investigate the empathic tendency levels of physical education teacher candidates according to some variables. Study group consists of 117 pre service physical education and sports students (74 women and 43 men) of Kafkas University in the fall semester of 2015/2016 academic year. “Personal Information Form” and the "Empathic Tendency Scale" which developed by Dokmen was used to collect data. In the evaluation of data, firstly, normality hypothesis and Shapiro Wilk and Levene tests for homogeneity of variances have been used. In paired comparisons, independent samples t-test and in comparison of more than one group, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey multiple comparison test have been used. SPSS 21 statistical package program was used and the results were considered significant at p <0.05 level. As a result of the study, it can be said that gender, age, class, place of education, parent education level and family monthly income variables did not affect the empathic tendency levels of the physical education teacher candidates.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.689
Pages: 689-694
cloud_download 353
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353
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737
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2

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0

Self-Efficacy and the Use of Compensatory Strategies: A Study on EFL Learners

compensatory strategies self-efficacy efl learners

Aynur Kesen Mutlu , Mehdi Solhi Andarab , Cemil Gokhan Karacan


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This study aimed to explore the relationship between Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ self-efficacy level and their use of compensatory strategies (CSs). The study further searched into the most and the least frequently used CSs by Turkish EFL learners. The participants of the study were fifty university students enrolled in the department of English Language Teaching at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey.  Results indicated that the level of self-efficacy among Turkish learners of EFL was high. The top two most frequently used CSs by the learners were concluded to be the use of non-verbal signals (i.e., mime, gesture, facial expression) and circumlocution (i.e., describing an object or idea with a definition). In addition, the two least frequently used strategies were word coinage (i.e., creating a non-existent second language word based on a supposed rule) and avoidance (i.e., avoiding a topic, concept, grammatical construction, or phonological element that poses difficulty). The findings also revealed that the participants’ strategy use was not related to their degree of self-confidence.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.249
Pages: 249-255
cloud_download 1063
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9
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1063
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1305
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9

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9

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It is aimed, in this study, to compare the achievement level of the students taught with the fifth grade intensive English language curriculum (IELC) and the ones taught with the fifth grade English language curriculum (ELC) in terms of their speaking skills. With this aim, it is also intended to find out the failure behind the students’ speaking skills. Sequential explanatory strategy, which is one of the mixed-methods research designs, was used for this study as the aim was to further explain the quantitative findings. There were two groups of participants in this study. The first group included 64 fifth grade students selected from two different schools though simple random sampling, while the second group consisted of the five teachers teaching the fifth grade IELC. Two instruments developed by the researcher were utilized to collect data. The first instrument was an achievement test developed to measure students’ success in speaking skills, while the second instrument was a semi-structured interview schedule developed to collect data from the teachers implementing the fifth grade IELC. The quantitative data collected through the achievement test were analyzed with descriptive statistics including means and standard deviations and inferential statistics through independent samples t-test which was used to compare the two groups of students’ achievement levels, while the qualitative data gathered through the semi-structured interviews were analyzed with content analysis. The findings indicated that only one objective was attained by the students, the results of independent samples t-test indicated that there was not a significant difference in the achievement levels of the students taught with the fifth grade IELC and the ones taught with the fifth grade ELC. The reasons behind this failure was found to be resulting from teacher-related, student-related, and Ministry of National Education (MoNE)-related factors referring to implementation problems rather than curriculum design.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.921
Pages: 921-933
cloud_download 597
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597
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820
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2

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3

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The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between foreign language anxiety, shyness, language learning strategies, speaking scores and academic achievement of university preparatory students learning German. In addition, it was aimed to determine how the independent variables predict the speaking scores and academic achievement. The research sample consisted of 110 students (75 female and 35 males). Three instruments used in the study were: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale; Strategy Inventory of Language Learning and Shyness Scale. The results of this study revealed that a moderate significant negative relationship (r= -.434) was present between the students' foreign language learning anxiety and academic achievement. Besides, a significant and negative relationship (r= -.290) was found between foreign language anxiety and speaking scores of students. According to the correlation analysis, no significant relationship was identified between shyness, academic achievement and speaking scores of students. According to the analysis, a significant positive relationship was found between the students' language learning strategies and their academic achievements (r= .275). Namely, these data showed that, the level of academic achievement increases as the use of strategy increases. Similarly, shyness and foreign language anxiety show a moderate positive correlation (r= .419). According to these findings, it may be stated that shyness increases as speaking anxiety rises. Besides, it was determined that students' shyness, foreign language anxiety and language learning strategies predicted 26.4 % of their academic achievement. The results indicated that independent variables were positive predictors of students’ academic achievement. Finally, suggestions were made for German teachers to reduce the effects of shyness and anxiety in the process of foreign language learning.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.999
Pages: 999-1011
cloud_download 4647
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4647
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3761
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16

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20

Chinese Learning Anxiety on Foreign Students

chinese learning anxiety foreign students

Abd. Basith , Nur Musyafak , M. Aris Ichwanto , Andi Syahputra


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The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of anxiety in learning Chinese, discover the dominant factors of anxiety in learning Chinese language and analyze differences in Chinese language anxiety based on gender, year of study and HSK in foreign students in Wuhan, China. The research method used was quantitative using a survey approach. There are 250 foreign students as the samples, consisting of 108 male and 142 female students. The data collection technique used is questionnaire called CLAS (Chinese Learning Anxiety Survey) adapted from FLCAS (Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Survey). The data were analyzed using SPSS with descriptive statistical techniques and Multivariate Analysis. The results showed that Chinese language anxiety among foreign students is on a moderate level, with communication anxiety as the most dominant aspect. The male and female students have the same anxiety level in learning Chinese. The foreign students who had longer duration of learning Chinese and had higher HSK tend to have lower level of anxiety in learning Chinese. This showed that years of study and HSK were two factors that determine the high or low level of anxiety in learning Chinese for foreign students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1193
Pages: 1193-1200
cloud_download 704
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704
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806
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5

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5

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This study aimed to describe seven indicators of students’ verbal linguistic intelligence in reading subject. It used a qualitative research method. The subjects of this study were 30 students consisted of 9 male and 21 female students. They took the reading subject in the second semester of the first year. They were given a test of verbal-linguistic intelligence. Seven students were selected to be interviewed because they have verbal-linguistic intelligence and good communication. To find out the validity of the data, the researchers used triangulation of the test results and the results of interviews and triangulation of the second researcher and research assistants. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using the content analysis method which consisted of three steps, they were data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing/verification. The results of the study show that there were seven indicators of verbal-linguistic intelligence of students in reading subject, first, having excellent initial knowledge in mentioning words, second, enjoying wordplay with Scrabble, third, entertaining themselves and other students by playing tongue twisters, fourth, explaining the meaning of the words written and discussed, fifth, having difficulties in mathematics lesson, sixth, their conversation refers to something they have read and heard, and the last, having the ability to write poetry based on personal experience.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.117
Pages: 117-128
cloud_download 28766
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4571
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5

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8

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The empowerment of metacognitive skills has an important role in increasing the capacity of critical thinking and active control of students' cognitive processes in learning. Metacognitive skills can be enhanced through the implementation of learning strategies involving higher-order thinking. The RQA, ADI, RQA integrated with ADI are constructivistic learning strategies that can accommodate these skills. The researches specifically examining the correlation between metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills at the implementation of RQA, ADI, and RQA integrated with ADI learning strategies are still rarely found. This research is a correlational research, aiming at revealing the correlation between metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills. The data of metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills are collected by using a valid and reliable essay test. The samples of this research are the fourth semester (IV) biology education students programming Animal Physiology course in the 2016/2017 academic year consisting of 109 students. The results of this research show that (1) there was a significant correlation between metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills at the implementation of the four learning strategies, (2) the regression equations analyzed using Anova obtain regression lines (not coincide), and non parallel regression lines (intersected); meaning that there is a difference in the increase rate and magnitude of the critical thinking skills influenced by the four learning strategies. It is expected that the teachers and the lecturers always strive to improve the quality of the learning process through the implementation of active and constructive learning strategies.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.143
Pages: 143-163
cloud_download 1911
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28
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1911
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2067
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28

Scopus
35

Emotional Intelligence of Elementary Scholar: Instructional Strategy and Personality Tendency

students' emotional intelligence elementary school students' learning strategies students' personality types

Nilawati Tadjuddin , Robingatin Robingatin , Meriyati Meriyati , Eti Hadiati , Rifda El Fiah , Ahmad Walid , Widayanti Widayanti


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Each child has a different personality type of tendency. Personality type is closely related to emotional intelligence. Through this study, we report the analysis results of the effects of personality type tendencies and the application of learning strategies in controlling the emotional intelligence of elementary school students. This study uses the quasi-experimental method with a 2x2 factorial design in data collection. Data analysis used was a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Research findings show that students with extrovert tendencies personality are better than students with introvert personality types. The application of inquiry strategies in learning is better at controlling emotional intelligence than the application of expository strategies.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.203
Pages: 203-213
cloud_download 839
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839
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1092
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4

Scopus
1

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The syntactic complexities of English sentence structures induced the Indonesian students’ sentence-level accuracies blurred. Reciprocally, the meanings conveyed are left hanging. The readers are increasingly at sixes and sevens. The Sentence Crimes were, therefore, the major essences of diagnosing the students’ sentence-level inaccuracies in this study. This study aimed at diagnosing the 2nd-year PNP ED students’ SCs as the writers of English Paragraph Writing at the Writing II course. Qualitatively, both observation and documentation were the instruments of collecting the data while the 1984 Miles & Huberman’s Model and the 1973 Corder’s Clinical Elicitation were employed to analyse the data as regards the SCs produced by the students. The findings designated that the major sources of the students’ SCs were the subordinating/dependent clauses (noun, adverb, and relative clauses), that-clauses, participle phrases, infinitive phrases, lonely verb phrases, an afterthought, appositive fragments, fused sentences, and comma splices. As a result, the SCs/fragments flopped to communicate complete thoughts because they were grammatically incorrect; lacked a subject, a verb; the independent clauses ran together without properly using punctuation marks, conjunctions or transitions; and two or more independent clauses were purely joined by commas but failed to consider using conjunctions. In conclusion, the success of the Indonesian and or other EFL students constructs sentences rests upon the knowledge, sensitivity and the mastery of complex syntactic structures through transformational/structural grammar.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.395
Pages: 395-411
cloud_download 446
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446
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879
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0

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0

The Effect of SSCS Learning Model on Reflective Thinking Skills and Problem Solving Ability

sscs learning model mathematical reflective thinking ability mathematical problem solving ability

Muhamad Yasin , Jamal Fakhri , Siswadi , Rahma Faelasofi , Ahmad Safi’i , Nanang Supriadi , Muhamad Syazali , Ismail Suardi Wekke


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This study aims to determine the effect of the application of the Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) learning model to the mathematical reflective thinking skills and the students' mathematical problem-solving abilities. This research is a type of Quasi-Experimental Design research with a 2x2 factorial research design. Data collection techniques in this study in the form of documentation and tests at Private school in Bandar Lampung with 28 students of experiment classes and 28 students of control classes. Data analysis techniques used are the normality test and homogeneity test. Testing the hypothesis in this study using the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) test. Based on the results of the study, The calculation of the MANOVA test, it was concluded that there was an influence on the application of the SSCS learning model to students' mathematical reflective thinking skills. The application of the SSCS learning model to the mathematical reflective thinking ability has an influence percentage of 91.9%. The application of the SSCS learning model to mathematical reflective thinking skills and mathematical problem solving abilities has a relatively high level of effectiveness.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.743
Pages: 743-752
cloud_download 1151
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9
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1151
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1175
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9

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9

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The present study aims at investigating some English speaking problems found by the students of English language education department at State Islamic Institute of Kudus and exploring some implications for speaking curriculum development of English language education department. This study used a descriptive qualitative approach and the data were taken from semi-structured interviews, observation and focus group discussion (FGD). The results of the analysis reveal that the problems encountered by the students in English language education department in speaking English cover the lack of appropriate vocabulary, the lack of grammar mastery, the lack of correct pronunciation, the lack of input of English outside the class, the lack of confidence and the lack of English speaking curriculum development. There have been some implications for developing English speaking curriculum. First, the curriculum of speaking should be well designed. Second, lecturers should design English speaking curriculum integrated by technology and social media that makes students to enrich some culture, knowledge and experience around the world. Third, lecturers should facilitate the English speaking curriculum with the English speaking community so that the students will have more chance to speak English inside and outside the class.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.967
Pages: 967-977
cloud_download 2283
visibility 2037
16
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2283
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2037
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16

Scopus
14

Development of Interactive Multimedia Learning Courseware to Strengthen Students’ Character

interactive multimedia observational learning national historical event character

An-nisa Nur Sholihah Indah Septiani , Triana Rejekiningsih , Triyanto , Rusnaini


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The development of information technology rapidly has an impact on the changing paradigm of education. On the other hand, education holds an important responsibility to create students who have a good and strong character. This research aims to: 1) describe the concept and framework of interactive multimedia courseware; 2) test the feasibility of interactive multimedia courseware by experts and practitioners; 3) test student responses to the use of interactive multimedia courseware. This research and development involved experts, teachers, and students. The data were collected using expert validation sheets, teacher questionnaires, and student questionnaires. They were then analyzed using the descriptive statistics analysis based on mean and percentage. This research yielded interactive multimedia courseware called IMONEC (Interactive Multimedia courseware integrated with Bandura’s Observational learning model and National historical Event to strengthen students' Character) that integrates three important components: the principles of interactive multimedia learning; Bandura's observational learning model; and the noble values and messages of national historical events to strengthen students' characters. The framework of the interactive multimedia courseware consists of the title, user instruction, home, core competency and basic competency, concept map of material, learning material, and quizzes. The results of the expert validation, teacher questionnaire, and student questionnaire showed that the interactive multimedia courseware is feasible for use in learning and effective in strengthening students’ characters.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1267
Pages: 1267-1279
cloud_download 1726
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40
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1726
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1730
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40

Scopus
26

Flipped Classroom Educational Model (2010-2019): A Bibliometric Study

flipped classroom educational model bibliometric study publication trend flipped classroom mapping

J. Julia , Nurul Afrianti , Kamal Ahmed Soomro , Tedi Supriyadi , Dewi Dolifah , I. Isrokatun , E. Erhamwilda , Dedah Ningrum


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Nowadays, teaching and learning activity employing the flipped classroom model has an important position in the process of providing education. This research aimed at identifying and analyzing articles examining the flipped classroom model that has been published in several reputable international journals issued in the 2010-2019 timeframe, which was conducted using bibliometric studies. The research was conducted using a 4-stages systematic mapping method: (1) searching for articles using the Publish or Perish application in the Scopus database, (2) classifying the articles for the bibliometric analysis, (3) checking and completing the metadata of those articles, and (4) conducting bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer application. The bibliometric analysis produced seven findings, as follows: (1) the trend of flipped classroom publications continued to increase from 2013-2019; (2) the ten most contributive journals has published 88 articles by 2019; (3) the ten most cited articles has produced 1,155 citations; (4) the three highest order of author keywords most widely used in flipped classroom articles were flipped classroom, active learning, and blended learning; (5) author collaboration with strong links only occurred in 21 authors through one document; (6) institutional collaboration with strong links formed through 28 collaborating institutions; and (7) state statistics were formed into three clusters and spread across various countries through contributions from authors who were in charge of 456 institutions. The flipped classroom model can be concluded as an educational model that is currently popular among researchers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1377
Pages: 1377-1392
cloud_download 2099
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21
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2099
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2785
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21

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26

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This research aimed at analyzing the influence of ‘Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning’ model assisted by realia media, in which it was to improve the scientific literacy and critical thinking skill of primary school students, especially for the material of energy. This quasi-experiment research used single factor independent groups design. The research sample of this research were fourth grade students of SD Inpres Oeba 2 Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, of which students were in the academic year of 2019/2020. The technique of sample collection was carried out purposive sampling for 2 classes. The IVA class was used as the experimental class (POGIL model assisted by the realia media), in which it consisted of 30 students and the IVB class was used as the control class (expository learning) that consisted of 28 students. The learning was carried out in four meetings. The data of scientific literacy and the results test of critical thinking were collected by means of objective test on the energy material. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data using significance level of 0.05. The results indicate that (1) There is a significant difference between the students’ scientific literacy who gain the POGIL learning assisted by the realia media and the students’ scientific literacy who get the expository learning; and (2) There is a significant difference between the critical thinking of students who get POGIL learning assisted by realia media and the students who get the expository learning. It can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the scientific literacy and the students’ critical thinking taught by the POGIL learning that assisted by realia media to the students who use expository learning. Since there is a significant difference, it means that the POGIL learning assisted by realia media has an influence on the students' scientific literacy and critical thinking.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1635
Pages: 1635-1647
cloud_download 1354
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18
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1354
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1435
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18

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10

The Effects of MANSA Historical Board Game toward the Students’ Creativity and Learning Outcomes on Historical Subjects

board game creativity history learning outcomes project-based learning

Ameliasari Tauresia Kesuma , Harun , Himawan Putranta , Jefri Mailool , Hanif Cahyo Adi Kistoro


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The constraints of history learning in the Indonesia curriculum are the weekly time is only one hour of lessons and the material is quite dense, if delivered with an explanation and discussion the time is not enough. Therefore, it was sought how to get all material delivered and students not bored. Learning this model is done to condition students as a center of learning, increase creativity and learning outcomes, the project undertaken is called the MANSA Historical board game (MANSA is taken from the abbreviation of our school name). In this case, students are asked to create, design their own board game on a different topic for each group. This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes and creativity between the control class and the experimental class of students at senior high schools in Salatiga, Indonesia. The research model used is quasi-experimental. The respondents of the research were 35 students in the experimental class and 35 students in the control class, who had the same homogeneity in creativity and learning outcomes. The results showed that the MANSA Historical board game had a significant effect on creativity and student learning outcomes. It is proven that creativity and student-learning outcomes can be increased. As shown by the mean different test results, there was a difference in the creativity of 0.593 and a learning outcome of 4.224 between the control class and the experimental class before and after treatment. The results showed a difference in learning outcomes between the control class and the experimental class. The average learning outcomes of the experimental class are higher than the average learning outcomes of the control class, as well as student creativity.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1689
Pages: 1689-1700
cloud_download 892
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7
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892
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965
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7

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4

Motivation and Learning Strategies: Student Motivation Affects Student Learning Strategies

learning strategies metacognition motivation self-regulated learning student

Hasan Hariri , Dedy Hermanto Karwan , Een Yayah Haenilah , Riswanti Rini , Ujang Suparman


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Despite being a popular research subject internationally, self-regulated learning is relatively under-investigated in the Indonesian context. This article examined student learning motivation and its use as an indicator to predict student learning strategies in an Indonesian school context. This article applied quantitative research design, with Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) used to collect the data. This questionnaire was completed by 408 public high secondary students randomly selected from the population in Lampung Province schools, and multiple regression was used to analyze the obtained data. Results show that student motivation and learning strategies were positively and significantly correlated; three predictor variables of student motivation could significantly predict learning strategies; and value components of student motivation best predicted learning strategies. In conclusion, these findings indicate that, when teachers apply learning strategies, such variables as motivation including value, expectancy, and affective components should be strongly considered to be in place. It is hoped finally that the students will be self-regulated learners for their success.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.39
Pages: 39-49
cloud_download 9418
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16
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9418
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6235
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16

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13

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