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' PLS-SEM' Search Results



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The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between foreign language anxiety, shyness, language learning strategies, speaking scores and academic achievement of university preparatory students learning German. In addition, it was aimed to determine how the independent variables predict the speaking scores and academic achievement. The research sample consisted of 110 students (75 female and 35 males). Three instruments used in the study were: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale; Strategy Inventory of Language Learning and Shyness Scale. The results of this study revealed that a moderate significant negative relationship (r= -.434) was present between the students' foreign language learning anxiety and academic achievement. Besides, a significant and negative relationship (r= -.290) was found between foreign language anxiety and speaking scores of students. According to the correlation analysis, no significant relationship was identified between shyness, academic achievement and speaking scores of students. According to the analysis, a significant positive relationship was found between the students' language learning strategies and their academic achievements (r= .275). Namely, these data showed that, the level of academic achievement increases as the use of strategy increases. Similarly, shyness and foreign language anxiety show a moderate positive correlation (r= .419). According to these findings, it may be stated that shyness increases as speaking anxiety rises. Besides, it was determined that students' shyness, foreign language anxiety and language learning strategies predicted 26.4 % of their academic achievement. The results indicated that independent variables were positive predictors of students’ academic achievement. Finally, suggestions were made for German teachers to reduce the effects of shyness and anxiety in the process of foreign language learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.999
Pages: 999-1011
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4554
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3250
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16

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20

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Stress is inevitable in the world of teaching and practicum training and therefore, student teachers naturally incur a certain level of stress due to the demands for them to use various knowledge and skills in real school and classroom environment. Hence, practicum stress needs to be addressed accordingly. The central focus of this study is using a partial least square-structural equation modeling to explore the inter-relationships among the student teachers’ personal resources to mitigate practicum stress. A sample of 200 student teachers selected by purposive sampling from teacher education institutions in Sabah, Malaysia was used in this study. This study collected data via survey methods using a questionnaire developed from several existing scales. Findings showed that emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and subjective well-being were able to explain resilience with good predictive accuracy and relevance but poorly for practicum stress. These findings were suggestive of the need to include additional constructs to explain perceived practicum stress better in future exploratory research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.277
Pages: 277-291
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2196
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1359
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25

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30

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The research investigated the effect of socioeconomic status, gender, perceived parental influences, teacher affective support, classroom instruction and previous achievement on students’ attitude towards mathematics. The comparison of these effects was also done between urban and rural school students.  This research employed a cross-sectional quantitative design based on a structural equation modelling approach. The sample consisted of 808 students from ten secondary schools in Sabah, three of which were urban and seven were rural schools. Findings showed positive relationships exist between perceived parental influences (r = .231), teacher affective support (r = .242), classroom instruction (r = .439), and previous achievement (r = .284) with students’ attitude towards mathematics. The multigroup analysis for urban and rural students showed similar results as the whole student group. However, for urban students, classroom instruction (r = 0.352) and previous achievement (r = -0.363) had the greatest impact on attitude towards mathematics. For rural students, the highest impact on attitude towards mathematics was from classroom instruction (r = 0.452) and teacher affective support (r = 0.246). The least impact for both groups was perceived parental influence. This study implied that factors affected students’ attitude towards mathematics in rural and urban secondary students are different

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.489
Pages: 489-498
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1505
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1428
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9

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9

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The purpose of the study was to examine the mediating role of self-orientations in the relationship between resilience and world assumptions of psychological counsellors. A total of 321 psychological counsellors, were recruited and 211 of them were women and 110 of them were men.  The ages of the participants ranged from 23 to 52. The Brief Resilience Scale, World Assumptions Scale, and Balanced Integration-Differentiation (BID) Scale were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, as well as the Bootstrap method was used to analyze the mediation effects. The findings showed that the assumptions of benevolence, randomness, self-worth, and justice and self-orientation were positively related to psychological resilience. Results of the mediation analysis revealed that self-developmental and interrelational orientations had mediation effects on relationships between world assumptions and resilience as in the proposed model. Findings for the model tested in the study were discussed with the literature and the implications were given to field experts, researchers, and psychological counsellors.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1211
Pages: 1211-1222
cloud_download 323
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323
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543
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2

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1

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The paper aims to know the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on the students' entrepreneurial intentions as well as its impact on teacherpreneurship. The design employed was quantitative with the ex post facto method using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the hypothesis. The samples were taken using a stratified random sampling technique, obtaining 70 teachers and 285 students as the respondents. The data were gathered through a questionnaire, which has been tested for validity and reliability. The validity and reliability tests of each variable show the Cronbach's Alpha value, and the Composite Reliability is higher than 0.6 (the minimum standard), while the average variance extracted (AVE) value is higher than 0.50 (the minimum standard for validity). The hypothesis tested using the path coefficient is accepted if the t-statistic is above 1.96 and p-value less than 0.05.The results of the path coefficient and indirect effect are above 1.96 and below 0.05 for the t-statistic and p-value, respectively. Therefore, the three hypotheses are accepted. First, entrepreneurial leadership has a positive and direct significant influence on teacherpreneur, with a t-statistic value of 18.057 and a p-value 0.000. Second, similarly, the teacherpreneur positively and significantly influences students' entrepreneurial intentions, with a t-statistic value of 3.558 and a p-value 0.000. Third, entrepreneurial leadership has an indirect influence on entrepreneurial intentions, mediated by teacherpreneur. In other words, teacherpreneur mediated the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on entrepreneurial intentions, with a t-statistic value of 3.282 and p-value 0.0001. The findings recommend the importance of entrepreneurial leadership and teacherpreneur in establishing the students' entrepreneurial intentions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1605
Pages: 1605-1614
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742
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841
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2

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2

Analysis of Kindergarten Teachers on Pedagogical Content Knowledge

pedagogical content knowledge kindergarten teachers

Mutiara Sari Dewi , Punaji Setyosari , Dedi Kuswandi , Saida Ulfa


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This research aims to determine the relationship between the seven components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge possessed by kindergarten teachers. The animal theme was chosen to determine the pedagogical content knowledge component profile of 30 kindergarten teachers, with data obtained through classroom observation, interviews, learning plan documentation. This study employed a mixed-method design, a type of sequential explanatory research with the structural equation modeling-partial least squares and descriptive tests used to quantitative and qualitatively analyze the data obtained. The result showed that: the relationship between the components is specified in the context of using themes to learn in the kindergarten; analysis of the relationships between the components is carried out separately, such as the relationship of all 7 (seven) components to 1 (one) pedagogical content knowledge component of kindergarten teachers; Orientation of teaching has the strongest relationship with Knowledge of Instructional Strategies for Teaching; Knowledge of assessment of early childhood education has the weakest relationship with knowledge of early childhood education subject matter; pedagogical content knowledge components for kindergarten teachers that are often found and associated with other components in a learning episode are orientation of teaching, knowledge of early childhood education curriculum, and knowledge of instructional strategies; there are pedagogical content knowledge component for kindergarten teacher that often found and connection with other component in a learning episode.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1701
Pages: 1701-1721
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1710
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975
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5

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4

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As a part of learning process, project-based assessment (PBA) is determined to be a potential approach in higher education evaluation that focuses on developing the important objectives related to critical thinking, team working and problems solving skills. The aim of the paper is to find out students’ reflection and teachers’ beliefs towards using this project-based assessment method in teaching Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC). To collect the data, a project-based assessment design was applied for 124 English major students at B University in the 9 weeks ICC course. This project was implemented from the beginning of the course, and at the end of the course, learners’ products were performed with specific activities regarding culture knowledge competition, online cultural community activities, talent performance, situational judgment ability, and eloquence skills. In addition, a set of questionnaires were delivered to the participants, plus the interviews with 36 teachers who have taught culture-related subjects from the universities in Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia. The findings revealed that although there were certain challenges, using project-based assessment in teaching culture had satisfactory effects on students’ intercultural competence, problem- solving skills, critical thinking, and learning motivation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.933
Pages: 933-944
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778
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760
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2

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2

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The purpose of the study was to examine correlations between perceived teacher innovation (PTI) and self-regulated learning (SRL), where learning motivation, self-efficacy, and learning transfer help illustrate the interplay between and among influencing variables in the teacher-student relationship. This study gathered 213 valid questionnaires out of 355 participants in the Design Thinking for Data Scientists, which is one of the courses taught from a university in Taiwan. This study has analyzed the possible linkage in the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through the path coefficient. The ensuing data analysis study has shown that learning motivation, self-efficacy, and learning transfer not only served as the mediator effects in the PTI and SRL but also played small moderating effects. It appears that when learning motivation, self-efficacy, and learning transfer decrease, the interplay between PTI and SRL becomes stronger. It is necessary to increase the level of intrinsic motivation by the perception of greater innovation in teaching materials. By so doing, students would be more receptive and affective of course contents in the classroom and regulate themselves to achieve educational goals. The implications of teachers' perceptions of pedagogical innovation for learning motivation and learning experience are likewise discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1317
Pages: 1317-1327
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276
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447
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0

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0

Vietnamese Students’ Satisfaction toward Higher Education Service: The Relationship between Education Service Quality and Educational Outcomes

educational outcomes education service quality hue university vietnamese student satisfaction

Hong-Van Thi Dinh , Quynh Anh Thi Nguyen , Mai-Huong Thi Phan , Kien The Pham , Tham Nguyen , Hung Thanh Nguyen


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Student satisfaction with education service has been considered one of the most critical strategic factors to attract students of higher education institutions around the world. Various models of satisfaction with education service quality have been developed to motivate actions towards improving the education quality. This study aimed to confirm a Vietnamese theoretical five-dimension model of student satisfaction with higher education service and investigate the relationship between student satisfaction with education service quality and student satisfaction with educational outcomes in this model. A cross-sectional survey on 2933 students from four-member universities of Hue University in Central Vietnam was conducted. The research results showed that the model of student satisfaction with education service in Hue University was consistent with the proposed theoretical model, which comprises five dimensions including access to education service, facilities and teaching equipment, educational environment, educational activities, and educational outcomes. In addition, the satisfaction of all dimensions of education service quality from dimension 1 to 4 affects the satisfaction of educational outcomes, of which educational activities have the most significant impact. This research result can provide a number of implications and recommendations for Hue University to implement appropriate measures to improve student satisfaction with education services received, thereby enhancing educational outcomes, attracting and retaining students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1397
Pages: 1397-1410
cloud_download 1464
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1464
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983
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6

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10

Assessments on Vocational Knowledge and Skills: A Content Validity Analysis

assessments content validity analysis i-cvi modified kappa vocational knowledge

Mazlili Suhaini , Adnan Ahmad , Normila Mohd Bohari


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While previous studies on assessments focused on measurement of principles and constructs, existing attention is given to content validation involving vocational education and skills. The emphasis on content validation has prompted a holistic perspective of teaching and learning to demand alternative research approaches. Using evidence of content validity based on expert judgment and assessment items, this paper argues that vocational knowledge and skills could be determined via constructs and construct functions. Content validity analysis was studied in two major phases, namely, through an assessment of an electrical technology course at a Malaysian higher education institution and expert panels’ examination of items. It was found that to increase confidence in providing reliable instruments for future empirical studies, a careful process in item development and content validity analysis was considered important. Therefore, applying these findings on item analysis and expert panels to reflect content validity can enhance the validity of assessment items.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1529
Pages: 1529-1540
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284
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497
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5

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5

Analyzing Indonesian Students’ Google Classroom Acceptance During COVID-19 Outbreak: Applying an Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model

gcr utaut model trust learning platform covid-19

Zulherman Zulherman , Farah Mohamad Zain , Darmawan Napitupulu , Siti Nazuar Sailin , Liszulfah Roza


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The primary goal of this study is to explore what makes teachers accept Google Classroom (GCR). GCR platform is an emerging technology that could support online learning activities by offering outstanding benefits such as usability, flexibility, and task adaptability. Many of the students in Indonesia have al-ready used the GCR platform since the government has tried to provide it as a free online learning tool to support learning activities during the pandemic. However, there is limited understanding of users' behavior, especially Indonesian students' acceptance of the GCR platform. The model is tested by administering the online questionnaire to 261 university students in Indonesia. The extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model (UTAUT) model has been applied to observe users’ acceptance of GCR. The result Performance expectancy (PE), Effort expectancy (EE) Social Influence (SI), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Trust of Internet (TI) and Trust of Government (TG) considerably affected users’ intention to use the GCR. Moreover, Trust of Internet (TI) and Trust of Government (TG) also knowingly impacted Performance expectancy (PE).

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1697
Pages: 1697-1710
cloud_download 445
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445
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705
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6

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12

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Academic optimism has an essential role in the adjustment of students in school. This study aimed to examine a model of academic optimism formed from democratic parenting, school climate, internal locus of control, and students’ self-concept. This a cross-sectional non-experimental design research design involved 335 Junior High School students in Kediri. The data collection tool was a scale while the data analysis technique was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The results showed that the theoretical model for developing academic optimism in Junior High School students was in line with the research data and obtained empirical support (X2 = 246.056 < 255.6018; p = 0.110 > 0.05), so this model is feasible and can be used in samples that have been studied. In general, this study adds knowledge about positive psychology studies and supports democratic parenting, school climate, self-concept, and internal locus of control as ultimate factors for creating students’ academic optimism.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1741
Pages: 1741-1753
cloud_download 604
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604
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598
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2

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0

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The purpose of the study was to identify how the instructional model that converges professional training and foreign language learning can influence the students’ professional mobility and students’ readiness to build their careers. The study used the methods of a quantitative kind for the evaluation study and descriptive research. The variables for the study were as follows: levels of student professional mobility skills proficiency that included students’ competence in their professional field, foreign language proficiency, students’ networking skills, personality qualities, and sampled students’ satisfaction with the reshaped course. The field phase of the study found that the Erasmus and Work-and-Travel programmes contributed to the former students’ adaptability and flexibility, the experience of work abroad, and practical specialism-related experience gained during study. The students developed their abilities to project a positive social image, ability to build and maintain relationships, foreign language proficiency, proficiency in presenting and negotiating, and theoretical knowledge. The English Language-delivered Professional Mobility course brought shifts in the levels of students’ professional mobility skills. The experimental group students reported that they improved their competence in their professional field, foreign language proficiency, networking skills, and personality qualities. The experimental group students’ judgements concerning the quality of the course were complimentary.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1919
Pages: 1919-1936
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237
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407
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2

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1

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Social participation represent one of the major outcomes of inclusive education. Students with additional support needs often encountered negative attitudes of social acceptance exhibited by their typically developing peers hindering their social participation in the educational context. This study explored the multicomponent structure of Portuguese children’s attitudes toward their peers with disabilities using a modified short form of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes toward Children with Handicaps scale (CATCH). In particular, this study aimed to (a) determine the factor structure of the CATCH and (b) evaluate the measurement invariance across age and gender. To identify the CATCH factor structure, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 1,038 children aged 8–18 years. Analyses revealed that a modified short form of the CATCH consisting of a 20-item measure with a three-factor structure displayed acceptable fit and internal consistency indices. This model proved to be invariant across groups. The Portuguese-modified short form of the CATCH, in which cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions are represented, has acceptable psychometric properties and the potential to evaluate the effectiveness of educational programs designed to improve children’s attitudes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1963
Pages: 1963-1972
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238
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438
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2

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1

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Entrepreneurs play an important role in improving a country’s economy, shown by the increase in young people involved in startup businesses, including students. The young generation needs motivation through a good education to support their intention. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the role of entrepreneurship education in increasing entrepreneurial intention among business students. The data were obtained from 240 business students in Indonesia using a questionnaire. The study was conducted using descriptive methods and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Hypothesis testing showed that perceived desirability is the strongest variable on the entrepreneurial intention of business students. Furthermore, the R-Square test results showed that entrepreneurial intentions are positively and significantly influenced by perceived desirability and feasibility, the propensity to act, and entrepreneurship education by 61.12%. The remaining 38.88% is influenced by other variables outside this study. The key impact of this research is revealed perceived desirability and feasibility, the propensity to act and entrepreneurship education give positive entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students. Higher education has responsibility to nurture young generation to learn more about entrepreneurship. The increasing number of entrepreneurs can support government to improve the nation’s economy and society.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.995
Pages: 995-1008
cloud_download 948
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948
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926
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13

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15

Game-based Learning Sustainability During Social Distance: The Role of Gamification Quality

behaviour intention gamification quality instructor characteristic student satisfaction technology anxiety

Ayatulloh Michael Musyaffi , Wiwit Apit Sulistyowati , Christian Wiradendi Wolor , Aji Ahmadi Sasmi


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Online learning is an obligation in teaching and learning activities during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Game-based learning is a solution in improving student learning outcomes. This research aims to determine the level of acceptance of gamification in terms of Gamification quality (GQ), instructor characteristic (IC), and technology anxiety (TA). The target respondents were students taking information systems courses based on enterprises resources planning (ERP) Gamification. The sample used is a census. That is, the entire population is taken as a sample. A total of 93 students filled out the online questionnaire. Then, data analysis using Structural Equation Model - Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS). Student satisfaction (SS) and perceived ease of use (PEOUG) are the most influences. PEOUG is also the construct that has the most significant relationship impact, especially with the perceived usefulness (PUG). Meanwhile, two constructs do not significantly impact TA on PUG and PUG on Intention to use gamification (INTG). The obligation of students requires students to ignore the impact and function of gamification. The results of this research also show that technology acceptance model (TAM), the constructs IC, TA, and GQ have a positive effect on PEOUG. Then PUG and PEOUG can positively affect SS.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1289
Pages: 1289-1302
cloud_download 488
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488
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706
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4

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7

Does Teacher’s Willingness to Change Enhance Professional Competence?

high school instructional leadership professional competence self-efficacy teacher’s willingness to change

Reni Herawati , Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono , Ika Nurul Qamari , Sri Handari Wahyuningsih


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This study investigates the contribution of teachers’ willingness to their professional competence in adapting to digital learning transformation during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its relationship to instructional leadership and self-efficacy. Data were collected by distributing online questionnaires consisting of 4 constructs, namely instructional leadership, self-efficacy, teacher’s willingness to change, and professional competence, and distributed to 221 Indonesian High School teachers. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for analysis using Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 23.0 to examine the hypotheses. The results showed that instructional leadership significantly influences teachers’ willingness to change with a positive impact on their professional competence. Furthermore, there is a significant effect on teachers’ willingness to change their professional competence, insignificant on self-efficacy with substantial impacts on their willingness to change. The analysis results through the Sobel test showed that the teachers’ willingness to change is an excellent mediating variable for self-efficacy in influencing professional competence. Conversely, it is not an excellent mediating variable for instructional leadership towards professional competence. The importance of teachers’ willingness to improve their professional competence is a new finding that significantly contributes to their professional development.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1463
Pages: 1463-1474
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405
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512
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2

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2

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Vietnam has a reputation for being a successful nation in preventing the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in 2020, with a lower number of illnesses than other ASEAN countries. However, to ensure that students are safe and informed about the coronavirus outbreak, Vietnamese higher education has developed online learning (OL). During the COVID-19 epidemic, this paper explores the relationship between elements such as learning readiness, learning strategies, and learning performance in the Vietnamese OL setting. Four hundred undergraduate students were randomly selected from Hong Duc universities, and Saigon University participated in this study in different zones. Analyzed data has applied structural equation modeling (SEM) using partial least squares (SmartPLS-SEM). The findings found that Vietnamese students were much more likely to believe in interaction in OL, to feel comfortable using a computer with their computer efficacy, and to have confidence in communicating in the digital environment, all of which were important variables in assuring the success of using OL. The factors of “motivation” and “test preparation” show a poor relationship with learning performance. Therefore, the OL process in Vietnamese, on the other hand, needs to be more inventive, with a greater focus on lecturers' awareness and practice of online teaching pedagogies such as motivation, techniques, and test arrangement. During OL, students' readiness in terms of learning control, self-directed learning, and engagement must be considered and supported.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1509
Pages: 1509-1522
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261
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501
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2

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1

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Competent instructors need to have the skills, abilities, and competencies to perform tasks effectively, which will affect student learning achievement. This study is guided by the theory of Boyatzis developed by Spencer and Spencer. The Iceberg Competency Model was used as a guideline to identify the competency elements of educators from the agricultural stream in vocational colleges (KV). This research study aims to explore and identify the existing competency elements of agricultural educators in KV. This study used a study population comprising 243 respondents of agricultural educators in KV. To answer the research question, the data analysis was done by Partial Least Squares - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). This study is a study built to observe the relationship between the latent constructs studied. These constructs consisted of exogenous and endogenous constructs. In this study, exogenous constructs comprised value constructs, social roles, self-image, motives, traits and constraints. At the same time, endogenous constructs involved constructs of skills and knowledge. To ensure that the construct of this study gives meaning to the reflective measurement model, it was evaluated based on internal consistency reliability and validity. Regarding the framework, some indicators that did not qualify were dropped based on factor loading and average variance extracted (AVE). From the analysis conducted, 16 indicators were dropped since they did not meet PLS-SEM requirements. The total number of items retained was 71 indicators. At the final stage of this study, the evaluation model was implemented to form a framework involving the evaluation of the constructs linked to each other.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1523
Pages: 1523-1534
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254
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497
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1

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This study aimed at exploring teachers’ perceptions of reflective teaching strategies in their teaching practice and the barriers that hinder the implementation of reflective teaching strategies. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The study took place in the context of high schools in most of the provinces in the Mekong Delta. The respondents involved in this research were fifty English as a foreign language (EFL) high-school teachers. The results revealed that most teachers have positive perceptions of the significance of reflective teaching strategies in their teaching. At the same time, the participants found barriers preventing them from implementing reflective teaching strategies in their language teaching such as lack of awareness of reflective teaching strategies, time or workload limitations as well as some obstacles related to the application of peer observation as a strategy of the reflective process. Finally, accordingly, the findings gained from two types of research tools, some pedagogical implications, and research suggestions on the effectiveness of EFL teachers’ application of self-reflection strategies in the teaching-learning process were proposed in the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1825
Pages: 1825-1837
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472
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504
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2

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1

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