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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 10 Issue 2 (April 2021)

Teaching and Learning Bucket Model: Experimented with Mechanics Baseline Test

mechanics tlb model mbt urce students

Kizito Ndihokubwayo , Pascasie Nyirahabimana , Théophile Musengimana


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Mechanics, as a large part of physics, shows the most basic concepts we encounter in our daily lives. With this regard, we implemented the mechanics baseline test (MBT) to the University of Rwanda - College of Education before and after the teaching mechanics module to track students learning. About 38 students participated in this study. We found the instructional strategies used to fit in a model we named "teaching and learning bucket" (lecturer backing and learners owning learning) during data analysis. The results showed that the performance occurred only in 12 out of 26 MBT items at a p<.001, and Cohen's D effect size of 1.26. Such analysis also allowed us to identify areas of mechanics that need teaching improvement, such as (a) constant acceleration, (b) average velocity, (c) the first law of Newton, (d) work and energy, and (e) energy conservation. There was also a positive correlation (r=0.58) between students' confidence in answering questions and correct answers provided and vice versa. Therefore, the research significantly informs lecturers to use various teaching approaches to effectively employ the teaching and learning bucket (TLB) model.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.525
Pages: 525-536
cloud_download 881
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881
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1109
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5

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4

Agreement Levels of Kindergarten Principals and Teachers to Determine Teaching Competencies and Performance

agreement level competence kindergarten teacher teaching performance

Dyah Retno Fitri Utami , Yuli Kurniawati Sugiyo Pranoto , Lita Latiana , Sunawan


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This research aimed to analyze the levels of agreement between kindergarten teachers and principals in identifying the assessment of teachers’ teaching competencies and performance. The study was designed under a quantitative approach using a survey. It implemented a non-probability sampling technique with purposive sampling. The sample of the population comprised of 173 kindergarten teachers and 101 principals in Semarang District, Indonesia, or a total of 274 respondents. The data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient to measure the levels of agreement between raters and Pearson Chi-Square test was also utilized to determine the differences in perceptions among principals and teachers. The findings showed that the levels of agreement between raters were averagely in the no agreement category, implying the existence of differences in perceptions among teachers and principals. The involvement of a multi-rater strategy in such research is a rare effort, especially for the Early Childhood Education (ECE) level in Indonesia. Researches regarding teaching competencies and performance generally only involve single rater, either teachers or principals who judge themselves on their competencies and performance, thus the results tend to be subjective. In conclusion, the assessment of teaching competencies with the relation of cognitive abilities was conducted through a test that considered subjective questions and case analysis to evaluate the teachers’ skills based on their performance and self-description. Both personal and social assessments utilized self-assessment forms or autobiographies, which were completed with specific themes. Meanwhile, the performance assessment was observed with the assessment rubric and comparison with the learning process performed by an individual educator.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.537
Pages: 537-551
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948
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779
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4

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4

Lecturers’ Aptitudes, Attitudes and Professional Development in Higher Education at University of Cuenca

higher education aptitudes attitudes professional development

Guillermo Pacheco , María-Isabel Espinoza , Sandra Cabrera-Arias , Patricio Cabrera-Tenecela


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Continuous changes in social demand and development provide an acute and continuous pressure on universities. The question is whether higher education institutions (HEI) in Ecuador deliver graduates with the competences to provide timely economic, ecological, and sustainable solutions. Additionally, HEIs should prepare graduates to find employment in a society characterized by greater uncertainty, extensive use of information technology, speed, risk, complexity and interdisciplinary work. To face this challenge, universities need lecturers to possess a mix of aptitudes, attitudes, and professional development in teaching, research, and services. Unfortunately, knowledge is sparse about the readiness of their pupils to function effectively in a rapidly changing and increasingly globalized environment. Accordingly, this study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach to explore the impact of lecturers’ aptitudes, attitudes, and professional development on teaching and student learning at the University of Cuenca. Lecturers’ perceptions about their aptitudes and their attitudes are higher than the students’ perceptions. Faculty representatives believe that untenured lecturers have a better attitude and aptitude than the tenured lecturers. A third part of lecturers have achieved one of the required criteria in research development. Students from biological sciences are more satisfied with their lecturers and the competence development that they receive than the students from social sciences or engineering. Understanding the likely implication of the variables, aptitudes, attitudes and professional development, on the quality of teaching and learning is fundamental for the design and carrying out of educational reforms.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.553
Pages: 553-565
cloud_download 638
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638
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708
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2

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1

Model of Holistic Education-Based Boarding School: A Case Study at Senior High School

holistic education boarding high schools school culture supporting and hindering factors

Ida Rianawaty , Suyata , Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum , Bagus Endri Yanto


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This study aims to analyze the implementation of holistic education and determining its supporting and hindering factors at a boarding high school in Malang, Indonesia. The method of this research is qualitative descriptive with a case study approach in the State Senior High School 10 Malang, Indonesia. The data collection technique was done through interviews and observations. The data analysis employed data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions making. The results showed that holistic education in the State Senior High School 10 Malang included the academic, leadership program, extracurricular, youth entrepreneurship, and environment caring programs. The supporting factors of the holistic education were curriculum, professional teachers, principal leadership, learning process, facilities and infrastructure, school management, three educational centers, and school culture. Meanwhile, the inhibiting factors included the low number of boarding teachers and the high operational costs. The results suggest that all schools should provide equal access to qualified education services to the whole nation through holistic education programs to produce intelligent and competitive students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.567
Pages: 567-580
cloud_download 805
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805
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885
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4

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3

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The teaching and learning in Indonesian elementary schools focus both on students’ concept mastery and character development.  Teachers are encouraged to implement a learning model that integrates character values and yet promote learning interest.  This study was aimed at investigating the mathematics learning interest of grade three elementary school students through the integration of thematic learning with character education, referred to as the character-integrated thematic learning model. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design, this study involved 70 students and employed a questionnaire to obtain data, which were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Descriptively, the average scores of students' learning interest before and after the implementation of the character-integrated thematic learning model are respectively 117.54 and 140.69 with the gain index of 0.44 in the fair category. While score obtained for thematic learning model are 116.11 and 120.23 with the gain index of 0.07 in the low category. The results of the statistical inference analysis using the independent sample t-test were obtained t-count of 4.98 > t-table of 1,667. This indicates that there has been a significant increase in students’ learning interest scores with the implementation of character-integrated thematic learning model. Thus, this learning model can be applied to pay attention to the development of student’s character which has an impact on increasing student’s learning interest.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.581
Pages: 581-591
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686
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686
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7

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5

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Cognitive is an essential developmental aspect for children. The cognitive barrier is one of the learning barriers experienced by children with autism. From educational perspective, teacher language input can appropriately develop cognitive abilities of autistic students. This study aims to describe (1) teacher’s language input for recognizing the cognitive abilities of autistic students in classroom interactions and (2) cognitive abilities of autistic students based on teacher language input in classroom interactions. The approach of the study was conducted qualitatively with case study, while source of data was oral texts from the teacher language input toward autistic students in classroom. The results shows that the cognitive abilities of autistic students can be recognized through teacher's language input in classroom learning by engaging interrogative speech acts, such as representative, directive, expressive, and commissive. The cognitive level is used to see the variants of the teacher's language input. Meanwhile, the acquisition of students' cognitive abilities based on teacher language’s input is developed through memorizing, understanding, applying, and analyzing skills with criteria student A and B in the medium category, and G in low category.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.593
Pages: 593-606
cloud_download 908
visibility 976
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908
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976
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2

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0

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Individuals and societies continue and end their lives within the framework of values. One of the most important of these values is the concept of homeland. Homeland refers to the land, where the individuals were born and live in, a piece of which may also be owned by such individuals. The concept of homeland is always given utmost importance in the curricula. In this context, it is important to determine the perceptions of elementary and middle school students towards the concept of homeland in order for foreseeing the love they felt for, and the importance they attach to, the geography they live in. In this study, it is aimed to reveal what students understand from the concept of homeland through metaphors. Phenomenology pattern, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used in this research. The study group of the research comprises 580 students. “Convenience sampling” was used in sample selection. In this study, elementary and middle school students were given a form of incomplete sentences in the following format of “Homeland is like ............... Because .................” as a data collection tool, and then they were asked to write their opinions by filling the blanks. The results of the study revealed that the participants expressed a total of 59 metaphors in relation to the concept of homeland. Based on the metaphors developed by students for the concept of "homeland", 7 categories were created. These categories are; Administration, Vitality, Concrete Object, National Value, Security, Value, Social Environment. The results of the study indicate that particular attention should be paid to the synonyms of the word “Homeland”. It would be useful to organize certain activities in order to create a sense of belonging and national awareness among the students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.607
Pages: 607-618
cloud_download 353
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353
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515
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3

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1

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Teaching about biodiversity and its conservation could be an effective way to teach the importance of different species and human dependence on ecological support systems. This study compares the effectiveness of a digital and a paper-based dichotomous identification key for teaching pre-service teachers about plant species diversity. Twenty-four Slovenian teachers in pre-service training used a digital version of the key on tablet computers and twenty-nine used a paper-based version to identify woody species in the garden near their university faculty. Both keys contained the same species, identical photographs and the same sequence of steps to identify the species. The accuracy and time taken to identify the five species were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire about the usability of the identification key. Overall, both versions of the key were equally good for determining species names. The digital version of the key was found to be more time-effective than the paper version only when multiple identification steps were required to identify species. The results confirm that those who scored better on the identification tasks have a better general opinion about the usability of the key; especially students using digital version of the key. Implications for teachers using or creating identification keys are discussed in the conclusion.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.619
Pages: 619-627
cloud_download 379
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379
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472
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3

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4

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This study aims at exploring the professional identities of six ELT students through the lens of critical incidents. For the sake of this aim, six ELT students took part in this research at an Anatolian High School in 2018-2019 spring semester. The teaching practicum process was conducted from April to mid of May 2019, once a week over six-week practicum. The main data collection of this study was the Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ). Additionally, two questions were asked to the participants to evaluate their actual and designated professional identities. The first question was answered before the practicum and the second one was answered at the end of the practicum process. The results showed that some internal and external factors influenced their professional identity. Additionally, it was found that critical incidents could be used to spot the changes in the participants’ professional identity formation processes. Results of the study indicated that not only negative but also some positive critical incidents contributed to the participants’ professional identity formation. As a result of the encountered incidents that influenced their formation of identities, it was observed that the actual identities of four students changed from positive to negative at the end of the process. Correspondingly, the findings of this study put forward that how the participants explored their identity formation process through the critical incidents.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.629
Pages: 629-640
cloud_download 660
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660
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857
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1

Ethics of Communication as an Important Component of Teacher Self-Branding in the Settings of the Digital Environment

personal branding teacher self-branding ethics of communication digital environment personal branding marathon

Kateryna H. Trybulkevych , Tatyana L. Shchegoleva , Tamila L. Gruba , Larisa V. Gula , Yaroslav B. Zoriy


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The purpose of the study was to identify how the Personal Branding Marathon with the involvement of the Ethics Supervisory Committee could influence the teacher self-branding in the settings of the digital environment if the ethics of communication is given paramount importance. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods such as a semi-structured in-depth interview, a self-assessment checklist, and an expert assessment checklist. The Triangular Assessment Method was used to obtain participants’ judgments about the importance of every specified component of the self-branding viewed from their perspective in terms of implementation. The yielded data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0.0.1. Software. The novelty of the study lies in the way the teacher self-branding was organised and delivered. The Marathon created a community of individuals with similar needs and the environment facilitated and assisted by the experts to put the teachers in the ‘point of no return’ situation. The Marathon with the involvement of the Ethics Supervisory Committee was found to positively influence the teacher self-branding in the settings of the digital environment if the ethics of communication is given paramount importance. The intervention raised the teachers’ awareness of self-branding, enhanced/upgraded the tools and strategies of self-branding, and improved their communication and communication ethics, particularly. The teachers became more professionally advantaged, self-efficient, and confident as individuals. The intervention was found to help the teachers built-up a strong self-brand on the Internet and at the workplace. They also improved their communication skills in terms of ethics as the participants were assisted by the communication expert.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.641
Pages: 641-655
cloud_download 774
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774
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519
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0

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Central to the creativity development in elementary schools are competent teachers. Enhancement of teachers’ competence could be done through the provision of guidance handbooks for the teachers. As based on the problem statements, this research was aimed at developing handbooks of guidance and counseling that could improve teachers’ competence in providing quality guidance and counseling services; the handbooks were expected to help teachers in cultivating the creativity of elementary school students. In this research and development study, the designed handbooks consisted of book 1 Guidance and Counseling Implementation Plan, Book 2 Service Materials, Book 3 Teachers’ Guideline, and Book 4 Evaluation Guideline. The effectiveness of the handbooks was examined using a quasi-experimental method with one group pre-test and posttest. According to the results of experimental data analysis, the tcount and ttable arrived at 7.665 (significance level of 0.05 (14)) and 1.76, respectively, meaning that tcount > ttable. This result signified that the handbooks were practical to build teachers’ competence in providing quality guidance and counseling services, which was helpful in assisting the teachers in instilling the creativity of elementary school students. In brief, the handbooks are recommended to be used by teachers in promoting the creativity of elementary school students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.657
Pages: 657 - 670
cloud_download 470
visibility 500
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470
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500
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5

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3

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The purpose of the study was to explore how technological advances incorporated into the Philology Studies curriculum could impact the students’ research skills and the quality of their research projects and what students’ and teachers’ impressions of the reshaped research component of the curriculum were. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods with the dominance of qualitative methods. It employed the baseline study, checklist to assess students’ research papers, assessment criteria, and the Triangular Assessment Method to assess the students’ papers. The consensus meeting was held to allow the experts to express their reasoning for the scores. The semi-structured interview was administered to the students’ and teachers’ to identify their impressions of the reshaped research component of the curriculum of philology. The technological advances incorporated into Philology Studies curriculum improve the students’ research skills and the quality of their research projects. Both students and teachers appreciated the reshaped research component of the curriculum. The analytical software can be successfully incorporated in the corpus analysis-purpose student research. The students found the intervention a challenging experience that ‘pumped up’ their intellectual, research, and technical skills. They reported improvement in interpreting corpus using correlations, frequencies, distributions, and collecting information using software to organise it in a professional way. The lecturers agreed that the technology-based instructional model incorporated into Philology Studies curriculum improved both students’ research skills and the quality of their research projects.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.671
Pages: 671-680
cloud_download 395
visibility 563
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395
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563
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0

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4

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Industrial revolution 4.0 is currently present in various countries, including Indonesia. Indonesia responded quickly through technological developments, especially education. The actions of the Indonesian government to deal with industrial 4.0 are contained in the 4C principle, one of which is Critical Thinking. The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) learning approach has become an alternative in building critical thinking skills, especially in science learning. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the impact of the STEM-inquiry model based on the K-13 Indonesian Curriculum towards critical thinking skills of 15-16 years old students. This study employed quasi-experimental with non-equivalent control group design at SMAN 1 (State Senior High School) Padang Cermin, Lampung, Indonesia. The research subjects consisted of 50 students. The critical thinking skill was measured through 10 items of an essay question on the momentum and impulse material. Based on the results of the non-parametric statistical hypothesis test Mann Whitney, the significance level of 0.004 was obtained (sig <0.05). The results of the hypothetical test showed that the student's critical thinking skills before and after using the STEM-based inquiry model were different. It can be concluded that the application of the STEM-based inquiry model was effective in increasing students' critical thinking skills.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.681
Pages: 681-692
cloud_download 838
visibility 741
8
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838
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741
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8

Scopus
14

Burnout in Portuguese Teachers: A Systematic Review

burnout syndrome teachers risk factors systematic review

Ana Isabel Mota , João Lopes , Célia Oliveira


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Teachers are one of the professional classes most vulnerable to emotional instability and fatigue associated with their professional activity. The present study is a systematic review about burnout in Portuguese teachers and has two main objectives. The first is to understand the state of the art of the burnout phenomenon in Portuguese teachers from basic education to secondary education. The second is to analyze the types of variables considered in the exploration and understanding of the burnout phenomenon, from a three-dimensional structure: personal, organizational, and classroom. Results show that the set of personal and organizational variables are the most frequently analyzed in studies on burnout in teachers. Nevertheless, the results of the analyzed studies are unclear and inconsistent, highlighting the need for further studies that allow to clarify the role of different variables on burnout in Portuguese teachers. More studies are needed to determine the actual extent of burnout and, consequently, to design educational and psychological interventions to support teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.693
Pages: 693-703
cloud_download 751
visibility 721
8
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Views
751
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721
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8

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7

The Lesson Activities Map: A Domain-Specific Lesson Transcription Methodology

lesson activities map transcription lesson visualisation song teaching arts education

Annamaria Savona , Stefanie Stadler Elmer , Anna Elisa Hürlimann , François Joliat , Gabriella Cavasino


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In educational research, audio-video recordings allow observing a lesson repeatedly. The collected data needs to be transcribed for analysis. Although methodologies for transcribing video-recorded lessons are established, there is lack of transcription methodologies for certain types of lessons, such as in arts education or the teaching to create new products. In our research project, we examine the teaching–learning of songs in class. Because of the absence of suitable transcription methodologies, we developed a new systematic approach. This paper presents the Lesson Activities Map (LAMap), which consists of symbols and icons representing graphically the constitutive elements of a domain-specific lesson. As a result, the LAMap provides a visualisation of the lesson content – in this context the song – and of how a teacher works on parts and the whole. The graphic representation supports the lesson analysis from different perspectives. The LAMap methodology and applications are valuable for transcribing other subject-specific lessons.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.705
Pages: 705-717
cloud_download 678
visibility 645
2
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Views
678
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645
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2

Scopus
2

Reflection of Down Syndrome Children on Cartoons: Cases of ‘My Brother Ozi’ and ‘Punky’

down syndrome children’s reality perception social representation cartoon

Özlem Dağlı Gökbulut , Burak Gökbulut , Mustafa Yeniasır


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In several shows prepared for children and adults in the media, the representation of “individuals with special needs” can ensure that other members of the society empathize with disability and the characteristics of disabled people, and make it easier that prejudices are replaced by social acceptance through gaining information. Finding a place frequently used in children’s literature, children’s reality satisfies the curiosity and experience-gaining demands of children about the cases they encounter for the first time using various examples, and helps them internalize the information and experience they gain. Children’s shows and cartoons have an effective power in influencing the viewpoint of children as target group for disabled people within the framework of “children’s reality” by means of the representation of children with special needs who are socially disadvantaged. In this context, the purpose of this study is to evaluate and examine in terms of various factors the social representation style of main characters with Down Syndrome represented in “My Brother Ozi” and “Punky” cartoons broadcasted on local children television channels and internet sites where cartoons for children can be found. 51 episodes of both cartoons (26 and 25) were viewed in the framework of the study and findings were analyzed using “document analysis” method which is a qualitative research method.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.719
Pages: 719-728
cloud_download 404
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404
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526
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0

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0

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This study aims to develop a standard instrument for measuring mental health among urban adolescents in Indonesia. The objective is to produce valid and reliable school adolescent mental health instruments to be used by agencies or schools to identify students' mental health. The survey was conducted in Jakarta and South Tangerang with a total of 1007 respondents divided into two experiments where the first trial was conducted on 597 students and the second trial was conducted on 410 students. Measurements were made using a Likert scale questionnaire. Instrument testing begins with a theoretical validity test by 4 experts and 20 panelists who test the instrument material in terms of construction, content and language. Experts analyze and correct the instrument qualitatively. The instrument was then reviewed and analyzed quantitatively by panelists using the Aiken index. At this stage, 44 items, 9 indicators and 3 variable dimensions were obtained. The next test is done by testing the validity empirically, by analyzing the measurement model using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with the LISREL 8.80 Full Version program. By using the criteria for the SLF value ≥0.30 and t-value ≥1.96, and calculating the reliability with the construct reliability (CR) at the level> 0.70, the results of the second trial showed that 35 items were valid. The observations of the model fitness through Goodness-of-Fit test showed that there is a fitness between the theoretical model and the empirical model for the mental health instruments in this study.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.729
Pages: 729-742
cloud_download 447
visibility 714
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447
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714
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2

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1

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Considering the low achievement of Indonesian students in international studies (PISA), which measures Higher-Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) in solving the problem, improving the quality of mathematics learning in Indonesia is very important. The purpose of this research was conducted to explore the variations in students’ learning strategies and students’ Self–Regulated Learning (SRL) in solving mathematical HOT problems. The study employed a mixed-method, namely quantitative and qualitative methods were applied through five tests and seven interviews for over eight weeks. Two types of instruments were employed in this study, and they include tests and interviews. At the initial stage, we randomly selected 30 students from all those in grade 10 (Senior High School ), after which 12 were chosen purposively after the pre-test for an interview, having satisfied all complete group, middle group, and lower group. All of them were treated using metacognitive questions. Data analysis techniques used were percentage, data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The quantitative results showed the students could generally use orientation, organization, and elaboration learning strategies as observed with 68.3%, 60%, and 56.7% for complete, middle, and lower groups. Moreover, the students were also observed to have conducted three cognitive processes in selecting the rules for solving the mathematical HOT problem, namely using models and drawing, written texts, and combining both. Furthermore, their final solution failures were affected by their misconceptions and errors in creating the mathematical model. The interview results on designing the learning procedures, monitoring the progress, and evaluating the outcomes, show that the students’ SRL level is good for complete (89.3%), middle (75%), and lower groups (60.7%).

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.743
Pages: 743-756
cloud_download 852
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852
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812
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3

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5

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The research investigated whether there is a correlation between participation in a course entitled "Diversity and multiculturalism in the global era" as perceived by Jewish and Arab students in Israel and a change in the students' attitudes and behaviors and their performance of activities in a multicultural context in the education field. The course was part of a master's degree program in Policy and Administration in Education in an academic college in central Israel. Pre-course and post-course questionnaires were administered to the course participants. Participants were 528 students; 177 responded to the pre-course questionnaire and 351 responded to the post-course questionnaire. The research findings indicated a direct association between participation in the course and activities conducted in the education field. In addition, students’ acquisition of knowledge on multiculturalism mediated the association between participation in the course and performance of multicultural activities in the education field. Differences were found between Jewish and Arab students' reports: Jews reported a multicultural academic atmosphere significantly more than Arabs. Contrastingly, Arab students gave significantly higher grades than Jewish students to reciprocal relations between the groups in the college and reported a more positive change in their attitudes towards the other group and towards multiculturalism and were more convinced that the course contributed to their multicultural thinking. These findings have theoretical and practical implications that can inform policymakers planning education for multiculturalism as a permanent component in academic programs, while responding to different sectors' cultural uniqueness to promote equality between them.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.757
Pages: 757-772
cloud_download 284
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284
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535
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4

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5

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This study aims to test proving the scale of measuring the character of students' curiosity using confirmatory factor analysis. This study uses a quantitative approach. The sample used was 325 randomly selected participants. The variable examined in this study is the character of curiosity. The curiosity variable is focused on elementary school students. In this study, this variable was measured by four indicators and 16 measuring items. The four indicators include: paying attention, taking notes, asking questions, and comparing. Data collection was carried out by distributing curiosity questionnaires to participants. The data analysis technique used was confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability analysis used was the composite score reliability analysis. The results of the study concluded that the constituent indicators of the latent variables of students' curiosity show that all loading factor values have a significant effect on the latent variables in the first order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Meanwhile, in the second order CFA, the variable of curiosity, the biggest contribution was the indicators compare. This student curiosity assessment model has fulfilled the goodness of fit aspect of the model and has been reliable based on construct reliability. This study recommends a scale measuring elementary school students' curiosity.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.773
Pages: 773-783
cloud_download 1849
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1249
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11

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23

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An evidence-based, interactive teaching method peer instruction (PI) is promoted to support effectiveness over more commonly used teaching methods. Usually it is proposed for the university and upper secondary school. The research reports on the implementation of the PI approach in teaching subject Science and Technology (S&T) in the 4th grade of primary school. The aim of this research was to verify the feasibility of this approach for much younger students in primary school by evaluating the students’ progress in the subject S&T, identifying the differences in individual progress in relation to students’ general learning success, and determining students’ opinions about the approach and where no desired progress has been made. In a selected Slovenian primary school, a classroom with 26 students (age 9 – 10) was included in the study and 5 different content areas (Earth’s motion, Matter, Magnetism, Forces and motion, and Electricity) were taught using this PI approach. Results show that students made progress in all content areas and no differences were identified in the progress of individual students in terms of general learning success. Students were satisfied with the approach, although more than half of them found the multiple-choice questions as too difficult. Although the PI approach is successful, teachers must be aware that some persistent and widespread misunderstandings may still remain and require additional intervention.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.785
Pages: 785-798
cloud_download 214
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214
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368
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3

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Professional teaching competence is significantly influenced by beliefs about teaching and learning. Prospective teachers start their teacher training with quite persistent beliefs about learning processes. These beliefs are mainly influenced by the way they experienced their own lessons as a student at school. Previous biology lessons at school might be linked to the imagined biology lessons of prospective teachers. We interpret these future lessons as a representation of their beliefs about teaching and learning. The present study investigated how prospective teachers remembered their previous biology lessons as well as how they imagine the lessons they will conduct in the future. The drawings of 181 prospective biology teachers in Germany (Mage = 22.1; SD = 3.6; 64.1 % female) were analyzed using the Draw-a-Science-Teacher-Test Checklist (DASTT-C). Results of the study indicate that the lessons they experienced were mainly teacher-centered, whereas the lessons they imagined were mainly student-centered. Results of a chi-square-test indicate that there is no connection between these two drawings of biology lessons. This suggests that experiences from one’s own schooling may have no connection with the way prospective teachers would like to teach in the future. The results of this study might be used as a basis for further studies examining the development of prospective biology teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.799
Pages: 799-811
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483
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2

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The aim of this study is to find out the influence of online project collaborative learning and achievement motivation on problem-solving ability in the area of citizenship. This study uses a quasi-experimental design. The total of study subjects is 71 students of higher education; consist of 36 students as the experimental group and 35 students as the control group. Data of problem-solving ability is obtained by using an essay test, while data of achievement motivation is obtained by using a questionnaire. Data analysis is done with ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The study results show that online based-project collaborative learning strategy has a positive influence on civic problem-solving ability. There is a difference in civic problem-solving ability between students with high achievement motivation and students with low achievement motivation. Online project collaborative learning strategy and achievement motivation interact in influencing the civic problem-solving ability of students. It is recommended that further study corroborate this finding by testing again the effectiveness of using online-based project collaborative strategy in the aspect of problem-solving in a similar field of study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.813
Pages: 813-823
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494
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531
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8

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14

Implementation of Four-Tier Multiple-Choice Instruments Based on the Partial Credit Model in Evaluating Students’ Learning Progress

learning progress four-tier change of state of matter partial-credit model

Lukman Abdul Rauf Laliyo , Syukrul Hamdi , Masrid Pikoli , Romario Abdullah , Citra Panigoro


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One of the issues that hinder the students’ learning progress is the inability to construct an epistemological explanation of a scientific phenomenon. Four-tier multiple-choice (hereinafter, 4TMC) instrument and Partial-Credit Model were employed to elaborate on the diagnosis process of the aforementioned problem. This study was to develop and implement the four-tier multiple-choice instrument with Partial-Credit Model to evaluate students’ learning progress in explaining the conceptual change of state of matter. This research applied a development research referring to the test development model by Wilson. The data were obtained through development and validation techniques on 20 4TMC items tested to 427 students. On each item, the study applied diagnostic-summative assessment and certainty response index. The students’ conceptual understanding level was categorized based on the combination of their answer choices; the measurement generated Partial-Credit Model for 1 parameter logistic (IPL) data. Analysis of differences was based on the student level class using Analysis of Variants (One-way ANOVA). This study resulted in 20 valid and reliable 4TMC instruments. The result revealed that the integration of 4TMC test and Partial-Credit Model was effective to be treated as the instrument to measure students’ learning progress. One-way ANOVA test indicated the differences among the students’ competence based on the academic level. On top of that, it was discovered that low-ability students showed slow progress due to the lack of knowledge as well as a misconception in explaining the Concept of Change of State of Matter. All in all, the research regarded that the diagnostic information was necessary for teachers in prospective development of learning strategies and evaluation of science learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.825
Pages: 825-840
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259
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504
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6

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5

Smart Automated Language Teaching Through the Smart Sender Platform

higher education foreign language teaching smart technology automated delivery smart sender platform

Mariia Lychuk , Nataliya Bilous , Svitlana Isaienko , Lesya Gritsyak , Oleg Nozhovnik


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The purpose of the research was to identify whether the English language e-classes that are automated and delivered through the Smart Sender platform influence the students’ attendance and procrastination rates, their motivation, time management skills, cognitive processing speed, and satisfaction. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods to monitor students’ attendance and procrastination rates, motivation and engagement, time management skills, thinking speed, and satisfaction. The questionnaire on learning motivation, engagement, and competence, the time management skills test, the mental speed test, and the course satisfaction questionnaire were used to collect data. The focus group discussion questionnaire was used to obtain verbal feedback for the participants. The Smart Sender platform proved effective as an instructional tool for teaching the English Language to students majoring in Philology, International Business, and Law. The automated delivery of the English language e-classes was effective in addressing the issues of dropouts and procrastination in distance learning through automation of the lesson delivery based on the ‘push’ factor. It increased students’ motivation, improves time management skills, and satisfaction. The quantitative findings showed that the students experienced a positive change in attendance, motivation and learning engagement, time management skills, and thinking speed due to the intervention. The students perceived the automated delivery-based approach to language teaching positively. They reported that the delivery approach content met the participants’ expectations and needs. Focus group discussion revealed that the intervention changed their learning behaviour and strategies which were considered the improvements of the quality learning outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.841
Pages: 841-854
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404
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633
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7

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5

Do Coronavirus Confinement Measures Cause Anxiety, Stress and Depression in University Students?

anxiety confinement coronavirus depression stress

Milka Elena Escalera-Chávez , Josefina C. Santana , Arturo García-Santillán


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Though Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is not a disease that directly affects people's minds, the confinement measures intended to prevent its spread have been taking a toll on mental health. The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of anxiety, stress and depression in university students of the Middle Zone Multidisciplinary Academic Unit of the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí during the confinement caused by the presence of COVID 19 and to evaluate if these levels are different in men and women. The sample consisted of 180 university students enrolled in the semester between January and May 2020. The short version of the 21-item DASS questionnaire was used. The results give evidence that the level of depression, anxiety and stress in these university students is not high and there is not enough evidence to say that there is a difference between the level of depression, anxiety and stress in women and men.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.855
Pages: 855-864
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666
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575
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2

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1

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The current study aimed to identify the level of self-regulation and social intelligence among students of the College of Education at Prince Sattam University in Wadi Al-Dawasir, and to reveal the relationship between self-regulation and social intelligence, as well as the possibility of predicting social intelligence through self-regulation. A sample consisting of (204) female students at the College of Education, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University in Wadi Ad-Dawasir participated in this study. The measurement instruments included two researcher-made scales of self-regulation and social intelligence, and the SPSS program was used for statistical treatments. Results revealed that female students of the College of Education in Wadi Ad-Dawasir, Prince Sattam University, have a high level of self-regulation as well as social intelligence, and that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the scores of self-regulation and social intelligence among the study sample. In addition, it was found that social intelligence can be predicted through self-regulation. It is possible to benefit from the results of this study in directing university planning officials to the importance of transforming the self-regulation and social intelligence of students into a culture and systematic practice through courses, symposiums and workshops, or integrating them into academic courses.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.865
Pages: 865-878
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504
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449
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2

Enhancing Analytical Thinking in Tertiary Students Using Debates

higher education analytical thinking debates reshaping the curriculum

Anastasiya M. Spaska , Viktoriia M. Savishchenko , Olha A. Komar , Tetiana Ya. Нritchenko , Olena V. Maidanyk


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The purpose of the study was to identify how debates effected the analytical thinking abilities of tertiary students and how the debates as an instructional approach were perceived by the students. The study used quantitative data collection methods such as tests and observation checklists and qualitative data collection methods such as a focus group discussion. The data was yielded from the measurements of students’ analytical thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and decision-making skills. The pretest and posttest measurements were administered using the test of analytical skills, the quiz entitled “Get Ready to Test Your Analytical Skills!”, and the problem-solving test. The study found that the debates improve the students’ analytical thinking abilities and are perceived positively by them. The pretest and posttest measurements results, observation reports, and a focus group discussion showed that the debate-driven instructional model brought positive change to students’ analytical thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and decision-making skills which are supported by the statistically significant Mean differences in all the variables. The findings from observations implied that the lessons were organised in a way that could sufficiently challenge the students, engage them in the search of information, and presenting their findings based on the facts and statistics. The results obtained from the students’ responses in the outline focus group discussion found that the students appreciated participation in the debates as they associated the experience with job benefits, the practical value of the debates, learning engagement, and research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.879
Pages: 879-889
cloud_download 683
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683
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714
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8

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8

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The aim of the study is to adapt Preschool Children’s Science Motivation Scale (PCSMS) developed by Oppermann et al. into Turkish and conduct the validity and reliability analyses. This scale is considered important in terms of evaluating the science motivation of preschool children through the science concepts they are familiar with, based on their daily life experiences. The research data were obtained from 303 children attending preschool education in central districts of Adana. The findings of exploratory factor analysis, a two-factor structure named self-confidence and enjoyment consist of 28 items was determined in accordance with the original structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that this two-factor structure showed good fit. Subsequently, the study proceeded to reliability analyses and Cronbach’s α and Composite Reliability values were calculated. In consequence of the study, it was seen that the original form of the scale and the goodness of fit and internal consistency values obtained within the scope of the adaptation form coincided. The findings of the study indicate that the Turkish version of the PCSMS is valid and reliable for Turkish preschoolers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.891
Pages: 891-906
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442
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562
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2

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1

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The study is intended to expose mind mapping used as strategy for learning which is able to assist students to write their writing assignments. Thirty students who registered in the Teacher Qualification Improvement Program of Universitas Terbuka (UT) was involved as the participants in this present study. The participants had to follow the face-to-face tutorial session of the Instructional System Design course (ISD) course. One of the given assignments of the course was writing the modular based learning materials for the primary school students. The participants had to study the required knowledge and skills of writing the printed modular based learning materials through the systematic and systematic ways. The mind mapping strategy was used to help the students to complete their writing assignments – the printed modular based leaning resources. At the beginning the participants felt uncertain about the writing assignment. The study was found that the use of mind mapping as learning strategy increased the students learning motivation and improve the ability to write the printed modular based learning materials.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.907
Pages: 907-917
cloud_download 1081
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1081
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851
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3

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7

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People have needed mental health services more and more during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to the contagious nature of the COVID-19 virus, online counseling has been preferred more during the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who need such mental health services might take actions to seek help by demanding psychological assistance from psychological counselors or mental health institutions. However, these people might avoid seeking and receiving such help when they think that they have a weak personality or they somehow will be criticized by the society or experience social stigma because they seek psychological help. This study aims to examine the mediating role of self-disclosure between attitudes towards online counselling and perception of social stigma due to receiving psychological help. Participants of the study consist of 519 adults who live in Turkey and are older than 18 years old.  The data for the study were collected through “Distress Disclosure Index”, “Online Counseling Attitudes Scale (OCAS)”, “Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH)” and “Personal Information Form”. The hypothetical model developed in order to determine whether self-disclosure mediates in the relationship between perception of social stigma due to receiving psychological help and online psychological counselling attitudes was tested through SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The results of the study revealed that self-disclosure play partial mediating role between perception of social stigma and value of online counselling and discomfort with online counselling.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.919
Pages: 919-932
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538
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589
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3

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2

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As a part of learning process, project-based assessment (PBA) is determined to be a potential approach in higher education evaluation that focuses on developing the important objectives related to critical thinking, team working and problems solving skills. The aim of the paper is to find out students’ reflection and teachers’ beliefs towards using this project-based assessment method in teaching Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC). To collect the data, a project-based assessment design was applied for 124 English major students at B University in the 9 weeks ICC course. This project was implemented from the beginning of the course, and at the end of the course, learners’ products were performed with specific activities regarding culture knowledge competition, online cultural community activities, talent performance, situational judgment ability, and eloquence skills. In addition, a set of questionnaires were delivered to the participants, plus the interviews with 36 teachers who have taught culture-related subjects from the universities in Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia. The findings revealed that although there were certain challenges, using project-based assessment in teaching culture had satisfactory effects on students’ intercultural competence, problem- solving skills, critical thinking, and learning motivation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.933
Pages: 933-944
cloud_download 749
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749
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685
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2

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2

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More and more student trajectories involve an academic stay abroad. To achieve the intercultural, personal or linguistic objectives associated with such placements, social inclusion with peers and faculty in the place of study is needed. This paper applies Bourdieu’s theory of capital as a conceptual framework to examine the experiences of students who have competed a placement abroad, in particular students from educationally disadvantaged families, students with disabilities, and migrant students. Longitudinal data were taken from the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) with N=8.469 students. The findings show the interrelatedness of social inclusion and a placement abroad: students who experience high social inclusion with peers and faculty at the beginning of their studies are more likely to study abroad. Social capital with faculty increases after such a placement, in particular for at-risk student groups, while no difference in the increase in social inclusion is observed between student groups. The findings imply a need for early interventions as some of the effects already take place in the first semester.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.945
Pages: 945-955
cloud_download 360
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360
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470
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2

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2

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The current study investigated Student-Teacher Relationship Measure (STRM) psychometric properties using Rasch analysis in a sample of middle school female students (N = 995). Rasch Principal Components Analysis revealed psychometric support of two subscales (i.e., Academic and Social Relations). Summary statistics showed good psychometric properties. The category structure and individual statistics (i.e., items and person infit and outfit) were not ideal. Category structure showed that the distances between adjacent thresholds were lower than optimal criteria. Even though findings indicated that items mean square statistics (MNSQ) were optimal, standardized fit statistics (i.e., ZSTD) reflected many misfit persons and items in each subscale. After eliminating the misfit persons and items, the two subscales met the Rasch optimal criteria. The updated short 22-item scale had good psychometric properties, high item and person separation, and good item and person reliability for the two subscales and can be used as a reliable and valid scale.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.957
Pages: 957-973
cloud_download 412
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412
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444
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2

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2

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Transcript Based Lesson Analysis (TBLA) is a transcript-based learning analysis method developed at Nagoya University, Japan. This new method is believed to justify the success of instructional design planned by the teacher. So far, the success of learning design has been reflected in student learning outcomes, even though the learning outcome data are not sufficient to provide an overview of the actual classroom conditions. This study aims to analyse the communication patterns in learning Chemistry using the TBLA method. This research is a descriptive qualitative study that analysed the lesson of Chemical Bonds and Carbon Atoms Characteristics, which were conducted in two Senior High Schools in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were collected using observation and documentation study. The lessons recorded using cameras and camcorders devices were transcribed and analysed using the Excel program based on the number of words spoken by teachers and students and the frequency of keywords in learning chemistry. The data were transformed into graphs. The results showed that analysis using TBLA provided integrated information about communication patterns and classroom quality. In these two classes, communication pattern occurs in Chemistry learning was teacher-student interaction only. The multi-ways transactions pattern has not occurred. The low quality of teacher questions and the incomplete deep learning phase in learning chemistry caused the expected multi-directional transaction communication has not been conducted. The result implies that TBLA is an effective tool to reflect on teacher practices and improve their teaching process for better instructional practices.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.975
Pages: 975-987
cloud_download 834
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834
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576
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4

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4

Enhancing Scientific Discovery Learning by Just-in-Time Prompts in a Simulation-Assisted Inquiry Environment

guidance inquiry learning prompts simulation

Shiva Hajian , Misha Jain , Arita L. Liu , Teeba Obaid , Mari Fukuda , Philip H. Winne , John C. Nesbit


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We investigated the effects of just-in-time guidance at various stages of inquiry learning by novice learners. Thirteen participants, randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 8) or control (n = 5) group, were observed as they learned about DC electric circuits using a web-based simulation. Just-in-time instructional prompts to observe, predict, explain, systematically test, collect evidence, and generate rules were strongly associated with diagnosing and correcting misconceptions, and constructing correct scientific concepts. Students’ repeated use of predictions, systematic testing, and evidence-coordinated reasoning often led to formulating new principles, generalizing from observed patterns, verifying comprehension, and experiencing “Aha!” moments. Just-in-time prompts helped learners manage embedded cognitive challenges in inquiry tasks, achieve a comprehensive understanding of the model represented in the simulation, and show significantly higher knowledge gain. Just-in-time prompts also promoted rejection of incorrect models of inquiry and construction of robust scientific mental models. The results suggest ways of customizing guidance to promote scientific learning within simulation environments.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.989
Pages: 989-1007
cloud_download 468
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468
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520
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5

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4

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The progressive integration of mobile technology in the classroom is generating new scenarios to innovate teaching methods. The aim of this study was to analyse the perceptions of university students toward the use of Socrative and its implications in gamified learning situations. This is a descriptive-survey investigation, complemented with content analysis techniques. The data were collected using a questionnaire designed ad hoc by Quiroga-Estévez et al. and structured interviews. The sample consisted of undergraduate students (n=472) of the degree of Primary Education from the Faculty of Education Sciences of a Spanish university. The results show significant changes in the learning process of the students, in social relations and in the teaching methodology.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.1009
Pages: 1009-1022
cloud_download 508
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5
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508
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600
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5

Scopus
10

Social Invisibility and Socio Cultural Construction of Gender in Historical Narratives of Chilean High School Students

historical narratives secondary education history education gender

Delfín Ortega-Sánchez , Jesús Marolla-Gajardo , Davinia Heras-Sevilla


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This research seeks to evaluate the degree of inclusion of the gender perspective and the promotion of education in and for equality in the historical narratives of students in Chilean Secondary Education (n = 105). The study focuses on the analysis of the discursive-narrative mechanisms employed by the students and, in particular, of their representations of gender relations. To this end, the place given to men and women in past and present societies is analysed in the narratives generated by the students (n = 780). A mixed methodology is applied, combining quantitative (descriptive and inferential) and qualitative analyses of the manifest content. The results obtained report the persistence of stereotypical, exclusionary and androcentric perspectives, evidenced in hegemonic gender attributions and in the maintenance of the sex/gender system. These data confirm the need to implement specific teacher training programmes aimed at the acquisition of critical competences and the effective inclusion of the gender perspective in history education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.1023
Pages: 1023-1037
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380
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455
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2

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3

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