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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 12 Issue 4 (October 2023)

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Heritage education is an integral component of general and higher education programs. It helps students understand the national culture and arouses their love for the country. The quantitative study was conducted with the participation of 822 students in the FPT University system. Multiple linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation results help determine the relationship between heritage education’s learning outcomes, including Vovinam martial arts and traditional musical instruments, and students’ patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Accordingly, promoting learning outcomes related to Skills, Attitudes, and Behaviors positively impacts the development of students’ patriotism and nationalism. The study affirms the role of heritage education programs in the education system in Vietnam, especially at the university level. It confirms the necessity of this type of education at all stages of learners’ development, especially in the research context at FPT University.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1555
Pages: 1555-1567
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This study aimed to compare and examine the effectiveness of interactive STEM learning and paper-and-pencil STEM learning in terms of mathematical literacy skills of elementary school students. This research is of a quasi-experimental type with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Sampling was carried out on the elementary school populations in Bengkulu and South Sumatra Provinces in two stages. In the first stage, schools in rural and urban areas were selected, and in the second, classes in each school were randomly selected. The selected sample consisted of fifth-grade students of the Public Elementary School of Terawas, Musi Rawas, with an experimental class A (n = 20) and an experimental class B (n = 19), as well as fifth-grade students of the Public Elementary School of Bengkulu City, with an experimental class A (n = 25) and an experimental class B (n = 22). Data collection was conducted using mathematical literacy skills tests in reference to the PISA and Minimum Competency Assessment (level 1–3). Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics; it employed an independent t-test for the comparative testing and an N-gain test for testing the effectiveness of STEM learning. The results showed that there were differences in math literacy skills between interactive STEM and paper-and-pencil STEM for students in urban schools, but not significantly different for students in rural schools. General STEM learning was effective in increasing the literacy of elementary school students, and interactive STEM in particular demonstrated the highest level of effectiveness in the urban school.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1569
Pages: 1569-1582
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Effect of Computer Based Test on Motivation: A Meta-Analysis

computer-based test meta-analysis motivation r studio

Achmad Rante Suparman , Eli Rohaeti , Sri Wening


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This meta-analysis study investigates the effect of computer-based tests on motivation. The random effect model is the basis for calculating the summary effect, and it is found that the 30 articles obtained through the PRISMA method, which consist of four parts, namely identification, screening, eligibility, and included, can be generalized. Data analysis was performed using R studio and OpenMEE. Based on the research results, the p-value <.05 was obtained, so it was concluded that using a computer-based test significantly affected motivation. In the moderator analysis, it was found that computer-based tests were most effective for intrinsic motivation for the motivation variable, university students for the participants variable, and the country of Iran for the region variable. Evaluation of publication bias using the funnel plot and regression method shows no publication bias, proving that the 30 articles analyzed represent all existing studies on computer-based tests.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1583
Pages: 1583-1599
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Biology laboratory courses (BLC) are designed to enhance and concretize students’ understanding of biology concepts. However, due to threats posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, education institutions were compelled to devise methods for teaching outside of laboratory structures and in a distant learning format. This phenomenological research explored the teachers’ articulation in the delivery of online distance learning (ODL) in BLC. Specifically, this study identified various methods and alternatives employed by biology teachers in conducting laboratory activities. Purposive sampling was used to select participants in survey, interview, and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study revealed that teachers articulate the delivery of online biology laboratory courses by employing different instructional practices in the three areas of learning experience: planning, implementing, and assessing stages. The results provide practical implications for the improvement of biology instruction and recommendations to support the delivery of flexible learning modalities during educational disruptions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1601
Pages: 1601-1616
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In the Indonesian context, English is considered a local subject and there is no mandated curriculum for English in elementary schools. Meanwhile, English has been a compulsory subject taught at the secondary school level. The present study aims to explore barriers to teaching English experienced by non-native English teachers in Indonesian secondary schools and policy recommendations. The study employed a qualitative case study method. Concerning the data collection, the authors garnered the data through semi-structured interviews with six non-native English teachers teaching at private and public secondary schools in Indonesia. The findings of the study reveal that several barriers experienced by non-native English teachers include lack of training in English teaching and learning, academic literacy among non-native English teachers, school facilities, English-relevant materials, student motivation, and English exposure outside of school. Drawing on these results, some policy recommendations to improve English language teaching in the Indonesian context are discussed in this study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1617
Pages: 1617-1629
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Strengthening Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Designing Laboratory Activity Based on Small-Scale Chemistry Practicum Approach

laboratory activity pedagogical content knowledge small-scale chemistry

Fitria Fatichatul Hidayah , Muhamad Imaduddin , Eko Yuliyanto , Gunawan , Muhammad Cholid Djunaidi , Siti Qomariyah


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The purpose of this research is to strengthen pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in designing laboratory activities based on small-scale chemistry approaches. This research is action research involving 60 trainee teachers with stages that include (a) Reflect; (b) Plan; (c) Act; (d) Observe; (e) Reflect (2nd); (f) Plan (2nd). Qualitative data were collected through (a) Questionnaires reflecting on experiences in practicing chemistry learning and responses to the importance of learning, (b) a Portfolio of chemistry practicum design, (c) documentation of the process of carrying out design, implementation, and practicum evaluation activities, (d) field notes, (e) reflection sheet, and (f) Portfolio of follow-up plans. The data is displayed through the R computation system with data pre-processing stages in the teacher's reflection text which includes basic cleaning, case folding, normalization, stemming, and deleting meaningless words. Display data in the form of word clouds, frequency expression diagrams, and tabulations. Descriptive narratives are used to analyze the documentation obtained in the action process. The teacher group demonstrated performance in implementing small-scale practicum activities. Teachers are increasingly skilled in modifying conventional laboratory equipment, minimizing the amount of chemical use, minimizing waste disposal, and increasing efficiency in the duration of practicum implementation. The follow-up plan for this activity includes quality improvement in aspects of (a) skill in using laboratory equipment, (b) understanding of chemical concepts, (c) equipment availability, materials, and work procedures, and (d) implementation of chemistry practicum.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1631
Pages: 1631-1644
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Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Toward Computers of General and Special Education Teachers in Greece During the COVID-19 Period

ict general education special education teachers

Alexandros Proedrou , Margarita Stankova , Maria Malagkoniari , Polina Mihova


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During COVID-19 in Athens, Greece, 535 general education and 170 special education teachers were tested for computer use self-efficacy, ICT competence, and computer attitudes. Demographic and occupational factors impacted computer attitudes and computer use self-efficacy. The GCAS and GCSES showed that general and special education teachers liked computers. Teachers were computer-savvy and confident. Computer attitudes boosted computer use self-efficacy. Computer self-efficacy is strongly linked with computer attitudes, subscales of confidence and affection and moderately linked with cognitions about computers. Age, position, and ICT training substantially influenced computer attitudes and computer use self-efficacy. ICT-trained teachers had improved their attitudes and computer use self-efficacy. Computer self-efficacy and attitudes about computers did not change for special education teachers, but computer confidence increased. Except for those under 25, younger teachers demonstrated higher computer self-efficacy than older ones.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1645
Pages: 1645-1656
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The study focused on generational differences in teachers’ professional competencies (interaction styles, teaching styles and didactic competencies) and motivation for the teaching profession. A total of 462 teachers (20 students with at least a bachelor’s degree; age: M = 43.36, SD = 11.05) participated in the study. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (Slovak version), the Slovak Teaching Style Questionnaire, the Didactic Competencies Questionnaire and the Scale of Motivations for Choosing Teaching as a Career were administered. Teachers were divided into generations (Baby Boomers, born up through 1964; Generation X, born 1965 – 1980; Generation Y, born 1981 – 1996; Generation Z, born 1997 and later). The main finding of the study was that there were significant generational differences in professional competencies but no differences in motivation for the teaching profession. On the other hand, there were strong preferences for the leadership, helpful, student-teacher responsibility, understanding interaction styles and the supporting teaching style. Baby Boomers were also knowledge-oriented, Generations X and Y also goal-oriented, and Generation Z also preferred a managerial style. From didactic competencies, Baby Boomers were best in self-reflection and the realization of teaching; Generations X and Y were best in self-reflection and maintaining a positive classroom climate, and Generation Z was good in the realization of teaching.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1657
Pages: 1657-1665
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Creativity and information literacy are skills necessary for students for task completion in the learning process. One of the tasks assigned to students in learning is to write drafts of scientific articles. Furthermore, teachers must pay attention to cognitive styles in the learning process. This study aimed to describe students' creativity in writing drafts of scientific papers based on information literacy concerning reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. This research was exploratory qualitative research to explain the creativity of reflective and impulsive students in writing scientific article drafts based on information literacy. The research subjects comprised two students for each reflective and impulsive cognitive style. The cognitive style was measured using the Matching Familiar Figure Test instrument. Students' creativity was measured using a test with fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration indicators. The results indicated that reflective students were highly creative in writing drafts of scientific articles. Meanwhile, impulsive students were relatively creative in the same activity. In conclusion, students possessing the reflective cognitive style are more creative than students following the impulsive cognitive style in writing drafts of scientific articles based on information literacy. We recommend that writing articles based on information literacy is required to increase HOTs (Higher Order Thinking Skills).

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1667
Pages: 1667-1681
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The Impact of Educational Robotics on Cognitive Outcomes in Primary Students: A Meta-Analysis of Recent Studies

cognitive outcomes educational robotics elementary education meta-analysis primary students

Meruyert Mukhasheva , Kalibek Ybyraimzhanov , Khapiza Naubaeva , Assem Mamekova , Bibigul Almukhambetova


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In recent years, educational robotics has gained ground in educational policy around the world, and primary education is no exception. However, there has not yet been a thorough synthesis of methodologically appropriate empirical research on the effects of robotics upon cognitive performance among primary school students, which this paper attempted to do. Following literature screening, a total of eight studies published between 2018 and 2022 with a sample size of 567 children met inclusion criteria and were meta-analyzed. Resultantly, a medium aggregate effect size in favor of robotics experiments emerged (standardized mean difference of .641), which was significantly higher compared to non-robotics learning (p <.01). No between-study heterogeneity was detected. Subgroup analysis revealed a slightly larger overall effect for interventions on first- to third-graders rather than those in grades 4-6. Additionally, the analysis indicates that in order to enhance cognitive abilities in primary students, robotics interventions should be no longer than four weeks and involve robot construction. Based on the findings, implications, and suggestions are outlined for future research and practice.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1683
Pages: 1683-1695
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This study examined the impact of teaching biology using interactive multimedia on the students’ academic performance in biology at Community Day Secondary Schools (CDSS). This study was conducted in three secondary schools in the Dedza district, in the central region of Malawi. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental approach was used in this investigation. A total number of 189 Form Four students were selected from the three schools. The schools were categorized into three groups, namely: (a) urban, (b) rural, and (c) control. The control group received instruction using a teacher-centered approach, while the experimental groups received instruction using interactive multimedia resources. The pretest was conducted for three weeks, after which the posttest was administered. One-way ANOVA in IBM-SPSS software was used to analyse the data. Our findings showed that multimedia instruction packages had a significant impact on student performance (F (2, 188) = 126.557, p < .001). Furthermore, after the intervention, the scores of the rural group and the urban group significantly varied (p < .001). Gender had a significant influence on the performance of students in biology (F (1, 188) = 8.78, p = .003). Therefore, the study concludes that the use of multimedia instructional packages helps learners understand abstract concepts in biology, and the study further recommends that multimedia instructional packages be used to teach hard-to-grasp concepts in biology in CDSS.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1697
Pages: 1697-1708
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The current understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as an alteration of neurodevelopment requires deepening in the causes that originate it. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the presence of ASD in subjects aged 2-22 years and some related biological factors (sex/gender, age, and body mass index). A quasi-experimental study, with a cross-sectional retrospective design, was conducted on 209 subjects (n = 111 with ASD and n = 98 neurotypical) who were applied to the GARS-2 test in three areas: communication, social interaction, and stereotyped behaviours between 2016-2021. The risk factors identified are related to early age (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.30-3.96), being male (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.41-4.68) and having underweight (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09-3.80). Differences in stereotyped behaviours (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.14), functional communication (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.08-1.17) and social interaction (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.15), were found, being at risk as soon as scores related to ASD diagnosis. In sum, rigorous and multidimensional understanding analysis among specialists regarding people with ASD allows to evaluate the development of the set of alterations and key variables to provide support and assistance to their quality of life.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1709
Pages: 1709-1718
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Relationship between Mentors’ Roles and Mentees’ Leadership Development: The Mediating Role of Mentees’ Self-efficacy

mentees’ leadership development mentees’ self-efficacy mentors’ roles

Aminudin Mokhtar , Azman Ismail , Mustafa Zihni Tunca , Suja Unni Krishnan , Nurul Aini Othman


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Limited latest studies circulated in the 21st century of world university ranking reveal that well-designed mentoring programs will not increase mentees’ leadership development if mentors have not implemented effective roles in the mentoring programs. Although many studies have been done, the mediating effect of mentors’ roles is little known in the tertiary education mentoring research literature. This study is done to examine the correlation between mentors’ roles, mentees’ self-efficacy, and mentees’ leadership development. This study employed a cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling plan was employed to collect 761 survey questionnaires from undergraduate students at non-research-based public universities in Sarawak. The survey data were analyzed by the SmartPLS package to determine the validity and reliability of the study instrument, and thus test hypotheses for the direct effects model and mediating model. The outcomes of the SmartPLS path model analysis showed that the majority of participants felt that the levels of information exchange, help, self-efficacy, and leadership development are high. This situation explains that the ability of mentors to appropriately implement information exchange and help in mentoring programs has strongly evoked mentees’ self-efficacy. Consequently, this self-efficacy can lead to higher leadership development. This finding can help practitioners to understand the diverse paradigms of mentees’ self-efficacy concept and plan the integration of academic and social-based approaches in formulating mentoring programs to prepare successful graduates in a time of rapid global change.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1719
Pages: 1719-1730
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Advertising Management of Early Childhood Education Institution: Challenges, Opportunities, and Development

advertising management early childhood education education promotion management technology

Upik Elok Endang Rasmani , Alfan Sarifudin , Siti Wahyuningsih , Novita Eka Nurjanah , Jumiatmoko , Nurul Shofiatin Zuhro , Anjar Fitrianingtyas , Bambang Winarji , Yuanita Kristiani Wahyu Widiastuti


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Advertising or promotion management analyses, plans, and monitors programs to create target market exchanges and achieve institutional goals. Early childhood education (ECE) is an educational institution needing advertising management. This study examines the implementation of ECE advertising management in terms of challenges, opportunities, and developments. This study showed two major areas: 1) practitioners were more innovative and creative in using technology to develop advertising management, and 2) the educational institution got better recognition from society, especially parents. This study uses the literature study method, assisted by the publish perish application, to find reference sources related to educational advertising management for ECE. The study showed that the ability of schools and teachers to provide services based on consumers’ demands influenced the implementation of organisational advertising management challenges. Meanwhile, advertising management developments were sometimes affected by the actions of the advertising media. Social media informed consumers about the institution without spending more money and effort.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1731
Pages: 1731-1742
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Demystifying the Relationship Between Confidence and Critical Thinking in Mathematics among Preservice Teachers in West Philippines

educational research innate characteristics mathematics education prospective teachers thinking skills

Jupeth T. Pentang , Mary Glory M. Caubang , Aira May L. Tidalgo , Sairey B. Morizo , Ronalyn M. Bautista , Mark Donnel D. Viernes , Manuel L. Bucad Jr. , Janina C. Sercenia


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Mathematical confidence and critical thinking are essential in preparing preservice teachers. Thus, this study explored the perceived confidence and critical thinking levels in mathematics of elementary and secondary preservice teachers. A descriptive-correlational-comparative research design was employed, with a sample of 107 randomly selected preservice teachers enrolled in the Bachelor in Elementary and Secondary Education programs of a state university in West Philippines. The study used arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Spearman’s rank-order correlation, and independent samples t-test to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. The findings revealed that the preservice teachers have high confidence and critical thinking skills. Their program significantly correlates with their perceived critical thinking and confidence level. Besides, the preservice teachers’ confidence levels and perceived critical thinking skills significantly correlate. Further analysis found significant confidence and critical thinking differences favoring the secondary over the elementary preservice teachers. These findings provide insights that would benefit mathematics educators in providing priority programs to enhance the preparation of future math teachers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1743
Pages: 1743-1754
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Teachers´ Reflective Experience Through Classroom Video Observation

practical knowledge professional development reflective practice teacher video observation

Alejandra Sáez-Lantaño , Alejandra Nocetti-de-la-Barra


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During the pandemic, online classes were held around the world, which facilitated access to observe teaching practices. This is a relevant experience, since there are few reflective instances in schools, even though public education policy emphasizes reflective practice in the professional development of teachers. In this regard, the observation of videos shows high reflective potential, helping to problematize and analyze teaching. This research sought to describe the functions and experience of classroom video observation with a reflective approach of teachers from four educational schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. The approach was interpretative, an instrumental case study design, with nine participants, selected by a maximum variation sampling and safeguarding ethical criteria. In-depth interviews were conducted and subjected to content analysis. The results showed three functions of the video observation, one instrumental and two others of reflective approach. In addition, the video observation was recognized as a reflective experience that facilitates the reconsidering of teaching performance, renewing practices, and developing reflective habits; also, facilitating and hindering elements were found in the video observation. It is concluded that the functions and experience of video observation could improve and professionalize teaching, based on the awareness and understanding of practice.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1755
Pages: 1755-1766
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Introducing Contextual Teaching and Learning as a Transition from Textbook-Based Curriculum to the National Curriculum

contextual teaching and learning efl elt speaking skills recount text

Burhanuddin Yasin , Faisal Mustafa , Diva Safina , Yusri Yusuf , Khairuddin , Barep Sarinauli


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The teaching of speaking in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes in the Province of Aceh did not rely on the suggested techniques and methods. This teacher-designed technique, which was mainly textbook-based, has left an unpleasant learning experience among students. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative research study to experiment with how students responded to contextual teaching and learning (CTL) to see the effect of transitioning from a teacher-established method to a systematically planned learning approach and compare how students progressed over time. The experiment was carried out by teachers who had received assistance in preparing the lesson and practicing the lesson plan. The six-meeting experiment was conducted in 11 small classes, with a total sample of 132 students. The student improvement after the first four meetings (cycle 1) was compared using inferential statistical analyses with that after eight meetings (cycle 2). The results show that the student’s achievement significantly improved in the first cycle and continued to improve, although at a lower rate, in the second cycle. This result suggests that CTL can be used to transition from a traditional teaching method to a more established method in EFL teaching. Therefore, teachers need help planning their teaching and practicing how to implement the teaching plan accurately.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1767
Pages: 1767-1779
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Development of Waves Critical Thinking Test: Physics Essay Test for High School Student

assessment in physics essay test physics essay test waves critical thinking test

Ani Rusilowati , Ridho Adi Negoro , Mahardika Prasetya Aji , Bambang Subali


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This study aims to produce a product to evaluate students' critical thinking skills that departs from physics content where students often have misconceptions. This research is a development research with research stages covering a) research and review literature; (b) planning chapter objectives; (c) developing a preliminary form; (d) field-testing the preliminary form; (e) Revise the preliminary form; (f) conducting a main field-test. The Waves Critical Thinking (WCT) test developed consists of 7 questions with 15 specific domains. Total percentage of content validity test was obtained 87.98% with appropriate criteria and based on the construct validity WCT test, the Goodness of Fit criteria were obtained which were classified as fit. The test instrument being tested consists of 15 objective items. The reliability of WCT test results 0.597 as a Cronbach's alpha score with the medium category and all the components have a good level of composite reliability. The outcome of the study was the WCT test with a valid state for measuring students' CT in a specific domain of physics wave material.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1781
Pages: 1781-1794
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The Implementation of Flipped Learning Model and STEM Approach in Elementary Education: A Systematic Literature Review

elementary education e-learning flipped learning stem technology

Rusnilawati Rusnilawati , Siti Rahaimah Binti Ali , Mazarul Hasan Mohamad Hanapi , Sutama Sutama , Farizky Rahman


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This study aimed to explore the implementation and impact of the Flipped Learning Model (FLM) and STEM Approach in elementary education. The advancement of technology and the Covid-19 pandemic has increased the importance of e-learning, including in elementary schools. The literature review analyzed 193 academic works published in the past six years using NVivo, Mendeley, and VOSviewer software. The validity of the data was verified through the analysis of five online databases. The results showed that STEM research has been well-developed with innovative approaches that improve learning outcomes, while FLM research in elementary schools is limited. The study suggested that combining FLM with STEM Approach (FLM-SA) can optimize learning in the technological era. By integrating FLM-SA, students can engage in active learning experiences in class and acquire fundamental knowledge outside of class, offering a solution to e-learning challenges. The study emphasized the strong connection between FLM and STEM Approach and how they can support each other to enhance student learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1795
Pages: 1795-1814
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21st-century learning requires teachers and students to integrate literacy skills, scientific literacy, mathematics, reading, writing, and technology in the learning process. Students must have initiative, discipline, responsibility, confidence, motivation for independent learning, and the ability to think critically about the problems presented. This study aims to determine students' autonomous knowledge and critical thinking abilities (CTA) using mobile learning technology (MLT). This research is a quantitative study involving 83 students from four junior high schools in the city of Mataram. The data collection for independent learning and students' CTA was carried out by giving tests and non-tests to students. The test conducted was a written test in the form of a description of 10 questions covering indicators of CTA. The non-test was conducted by giving a student learning independence questionnaire with as many as 15 statements, including five indicators of learning independence. This quantitative research data analysis uses the Rash modeling application with the help of Ministep software. The analysis results show that the learning independence of male and female students in the four junior high schools obtained a percentage of 77.38% in the “good” category. Each indicator of learning independence accepts a percentage above 70%, which is in the excellent category. Meanwhile, the CTA of male and female students from the four junior high schools obtained 75.28% in the “good” category. Each indicator of CTA also gets a percentage of more than 70%, meaning that each indicator is in a good category.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.4.1815
Pages: 1815-1830
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