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Volume 13 Issue 3 (July 2024) - In Progress

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Due to irregular daytime routines, chronotype changes, side jobs and exam periods after the COVID-19 pandemic, university students are trying to find new balances in their everyday life. The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of daytime chronotype and hour preferences for the circadian rhythm on academic achievement among university students, considering their sleep habits and class frequencies in daytime and nighttime classes. Furthermore, this study aimed to analyze the differences in chronotype preferences with regard to age, sex, and academic schedule students are attending. A sample of 87 university second-year Psychology and Management students attending the academic year 2021/2022 after the governmental relief measures of the COVID-19 pandemic completed a 13-item questionnaire on sleep habits and preferences. Further variables encompassed sleep behaviors, such as age, sex, daytime and nighttime classes, as well as academic achievement. The results of the study showed that university students had a higher preference for the morningness type. Additionally, chronotype traits explained 30% (values from regression analysis) of academic achievement but did not directly impact academic results. The sleep-wake cycle diverged among age groups because the youngest participants (19–21 years old) and older participants (35–44 years old) reported higher academic scores during the first semester and the full academic year. No significant differences were identified with respect to sex. There is a lack of literature explaining the effect of sleep hours on academic achievement among students after stay-at-home rules during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is imperative to understand the difficulties students face with regard to their studying hours, working shifts, and daytime or nighttime classes to create a sustainable university system that attends to students’ needs and necessities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.895
Pages: 895-909
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Our research aim is to describe how Preservice Teachers (PSTs) can rehearse and prepare for leading productive talks in mathematics and other subjects. Based on literature and previous research on what constitutes productive talks, we focus on questions and talk moves in this case study, where we follow three groups of PSTs during their practicum, practicing conducting productive talks in mathematics. Our research questions are: What kinds of questions do PSTs ask? What kinds of talk moves do they use? How do these questions and talk moves contribute to the PSTs breaking the IRE (Initiation–Response–Evaluation) pattern and moving towards more productive mathematics talks with complex exchanges of questions and responses? And furthermore: How can we use these findings to improve teacher education in this field? We find that leading productive talks in the mathematics classroom is a challenging task, but there is variation between our three groups in what they struggle with. In accordance with previous research, we also find that the third turn in the exchange, following up after a question and a response is a crucial point in the conversation. One recommendation for teacher education is that video filming and analysing classroom talks might help PSTs to become conscious of and improve on this point. Further research is needed both on long term effect of such practice and focus, and on other ways to improve classroom talks in mathematics and other subjects.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1001
Pages: 1001-1018
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This study investigated young children’s recognition of social rules and responses to social-conventional transgressions in Japanese preschool settings. One hundred twenty-six children aged three to six years old heard four hypothetical stories that describe typical social-conventional transgressions in Japanese preschools. They were asked about their feelings when they witnessed each transgression (emotional response), whether they thought it was better to follow social rules and act like everyone else (social convention judgment), their justification for the judgment, and their willingness to play with the transgressor (interaction judgment). Most participants in all age groups valued following social rules and judged that the transgressor should act like everyone else, but five-year-olds generated more group- and other-oriented justifications for the judgment. Although there were no significant age group differences in interaction judgment, further analysis showed that three-year-olds’ willingness to play with the transgressor was positively related to their positive emotion, whereas such relationships were not found in four- and five-year-olds. The results demonstrate that Japanese children’s responses to social-conventional transgressions become more social and complex throughout young childhood in the Japanese cultural context.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1019
Pages: 1019-1029
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Service-learning (SL) emphasizes the fusion and integration of community service and academic learning, while Physical Education (PE) is oriented towards community health and well-being, aligning with Sustainable Development Goals. The study's primary objective is to discern the benefits perceived by PE students when engaged in SL courses and to test the correlation between benefits and the motivational climate they experience. Additionally, the research explores potential gender-specific variations in students' attitudes. The research was conducted with a survey on a sample of 58 students responding to a Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MPCES) and the SErvice LEarning Benefit Scale (SELEB), which assesses the motivation of students and their perceptions of SL benefits. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the core constructs - SL benefits and student motivation, and t-tests to evaluate gender differences in SL benefits. Key findings underscore that students primarily perceived the greatest advantages from SL in the domain of knowledge application, with comparatively lower scores in general life skills. Notably, female students, on the whole, exhibited higher ratings in both SL benefits and student motivation compared to their male counterparts. Nonetheless, specific exceptions emerged in certain sub-scales, including social relatedness and ego climate within the MPCES scale, as well as critical thinking within the SELEB scale. According to the results, it is suggested that cultivating a student-centered learning environment can augment engagement and motivation in the realm of physical education (PE). Furthermore, the delineated gender differences offer valuable insights for educators, highlighting the need for tailored approaches to accommodate the diverse preferences and requirements of male and female students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1031
Pages: 1031-1041
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This study aims to analyze the effects of working memory capacity and learning styles of prospective mathematics teachers on their ability to solve higher-order thinking problems. In the present study, learning style was considered students' tendency to learn visually or verbally. In addition, the types of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) problems are complex and non-complex. Multiple regression tests were used to analyze the effects of learning style and working memory capacity. An ANOVA test was also conducted to analyze the ability of each group to solve each HOTS problem. In addition, one hundred twenty-six prospective mathematics teachers voluntarily participated in this study. The study found that learning styles only affected visual problems while working memory capacity (WMC) only affected the ability to solve complex problem-solving skills. Furthermore, WMC affected the ability to solve complex HOTS problems, not non-complex ones. The ability of visual students to solve HOTS problems will greatly increase when the problems are presented in visual form. On the other hand, the obstacle for visual students in solving verbal problems was to present the problem appropriately in visual form. The obstacle for students with low WMC in solving complex HOTS problems was to find a solution that met all the requirements set in the problem.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1043
Pages: 1043-1056
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Research on STEM in Early Childhood Education from 1992 to 2022: A Bibliometric Analysis from the Web of Science Database

bibliometric early childhood education stem education web of science

Thi-Lam Bui , Thanh-Huong Nguyen , Manh-Tuan Nguyen , Thi-Tham Tran , Thi-Luyen Nguyen , Viet-Nhi Tran , Ut Phuong Dang , Cam-Tu Vu , Anh-Duc Hoang


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STEM education is an irreplaceable movement of educational systems across the globe in the 21st century. Both Pre-K, K-12, and higher education institutions consider STEM as an innovative approach to integrate and reform the teaching and learning processes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of studies on STEM in the Early Childhood Education context from 1992 to 2022. We investigated a dataset of 308 scholarly works from the Clarivate Web of Science database and figured a diversified collection of research focuses on topics such as children’s readiness, outcomes, teachers’ competency in designing and implementing STEM activities, and the role of computational thinking and robotics. The findings of this paper revealed the dominant contribution of researchers from the USA regarding research quantity and impact, as well as their collaborations with researchers from Western countries. In addition, we also figured out the top influencing authors, documents, and journals as a suggestion for scholars who are new to this topic. However, we would like to note that our findings depended on the quality of the imported database from the WoS system, which covers top-tier journals only.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1057
Pages: 1057-1075
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This study aimed to evaluate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) within a teaching unit on the advancement of ethical reasoning and decision-making skills among Israeli female tertiary students. Employing a quasi-experimental design, 48 female students were distributed into three groups, with two serving as control groups receiving conventional curriculum-based instruction and one as an experimental group exposed to the PBL methodology. Both before and after implementation, all groups underwent assessments using a decision-making competency test and an ethical reasoning scale. The results unequivocally demonstrated the significant enhancement of decision-making abilities and ethical thinking through the implementation of the PBL strategy. Comparative analysis revealed substantial improvements in the experimental group compared to the control groups, emphasizing the efficacy of PBL in fostering comprehensive skill development. Furthermore, a positive correlation between ethical thinking and decision-making skills further reinforces the beneficial outcomes associated with PBL. These findings advocate for the widespread integration of PBL techniques across various academic disciplines.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1077
Pages: 1077-1091
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Analysis of the Design and Curricular Practices in an Educational Re-Engagement Program

curriculum design and development professional training programs re-engagement; school dropout second chance

Eva María González Barea , María Jesús Rodríguez-Entrena , Abraham Bernárdez-Gómez


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In this article, which is part of a broader investigation based on the study of the educational and socio-occupational re-engagement processes of young people in vulnerable situations, the curricular design of the vocational training programs (VTP) is described. Further, the curricular practices developed in the classrooms of these programs are analyzed, based, above all, on how the contents are selected, as well as the methodological approaches for their development. The research methodology that was followed responds to the conduct of multiple case studies with the integration of quantitative and qualitative processes. The data collection instruments used for this purpose were questionnaires, interviews, and discussion groups. The conclusions reveal the selection of contents that are relevant, interesting, and close to the reality of the students. The development of these contents is displayed through varied methodological strategies and diverse activities that enhance the students’ involvement and the practical sense of their learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1093
Pages: 1093-1105
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Reinforced by the Russian war, an even stronger economic, social, and political orientation towards the values of the European Union and thus also Western economic paradigms is taking place in Ukraine. This article investigates financial literacy (FL) as the knowledge and understanding of personal finance among university students in Ukraine. Individual financial decision-making will be central to the reconstruction of Ukraine and the long-term economic growth of the country. We use the principles developed by the U.S. Council for Economic Education in modelling FL. In doing so, we examine the feasibility of using a version of the U.S. American Test of Financial Literacy translated and adapted into Ukrainian. The translation and adaptation process of the 50-item test instrument is presented in the article. Significant differences in the content of FL between Ukraine and the U.S. test instrument are highlighted. At the beginning of the winter semester 2022, the Ukrainian version was administered to 68 students at three East-Ukrainian universities (Donetsk, Sumy, Kharkiv). In the article, we present findings from the initial validation of the test instrument and show from a content perspective which hurdles need to be overcome in the future for some concepts of FL.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1107
Pages: 1107-1119
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Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: A Bibliometric Approach

artificial intelligence bibliometric analysis higher education scopus vosviewer

K. Kavitha , V. P. Joshith , Neethu P Rajeev , Asha S


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The world eagerly anticipates advancements in AI technologies, with substantial ongoing research on the potential AI applications in the domain of education. The study aims to analyse publications about the possibilities of artificial intelligence (AI) within higher education, emphasising their bibliometric properties. The data was collected from the Scopus database, uncovering 775 publications on the subject of study from 2000 to 2022, using various keywords. Upon analysis, it was found that the frequency of publications in the study area has risen from 3 in 2000 to 314 in 2022. China and the United States emerged as the most influential countries regarding publications in this area. The findings revealed that “Education and Information Technologies” and the “International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning” were the most frequently published journals. “S. Slade” and “P. Prinsloo” received the most citations, making them highly effective researchers. The co-authorship network primarily comprised the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and China. The emerging themes included machine learning, convolutional neural networks, curriculum, and higher education systems are co-occurred with AI. The continuous expansion of potential AI technologies in higher education calls for increased global collaboration based on shared democratic principles, reaping mutual advantages.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1121
Pages: 1121-1137
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The Practicability of Quality Assurance Mechanisms in Promoting Tanzanian Universities’ Compliance

practicability quality assurance mechanisms university compliance

Daudi Mrema , Irénée Ndayambaje , Philothère Ntawiha , Eugene Ndabaga


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Compliance with any policies, laws and regulations, including university compliance with quality assurance mechanisms globally, depends on the practicability of those mechanisms. Like other countries, Tanzania has quality assurance mechanisms that require universities to comply. However, the existing audit reports have shown non-compliance cases to such mechanisms. This study sought to explore the practicability of the existing quality assurance mechanisms in promoting universities’ compliance in Tanzania. The documentary reviews, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to collect data from the 4 universities and 46 students, academics, and quality assurance directors and officers as a sample size selected purposively. The data were analysed through content analysis. The findings revealed that the existing quality assurance mechanisms are generally practicable; however, there are quality assurance requirements with practicability challenges due to contextual factors. Such requirements include senior academics in administrative duties, academics’ promotion, academics’ recruitment, inclusive and participatory teaching approaches, requirements with extra financial costs, examination scripts’ marking, and invigilation restrictions. This study concludes that the practicability challenges of some quality assurance mechanisms are one reason for non-compliance cases at some Tanzanian universities. It recommends that key stakeholders be involved in establishing mechanisms, and all contextual factors must be addressed to enhance practicability.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1139
Pages: 1139-1154
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A Causal Model of Learning Loss in the Midst of COVID-19 Pandemic Among Thai Lower Secondary School Students

covid-19 learning loss pandemic student structural equation modeling

Ittipaat Suwathanpornkul , Orn-uma Charoensuk , Panida Sakuntanak , Manaathar Tulmethakaan , Chawapon Sarnkhaowkhom


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It is known that the COVID-19 pandemic led to learning losses among students both domestically and internationally. Therefore, situational and casual factors were examined to discover and understand them so that learning loss could be reduced or recovered from. This research aimed to: (a) study learning loss situation; and (b) develop and examine the causal model of learning loss among lower secondary school students affected by the pandemic. The sample included 650 Grade 7-9 students selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data was collected using a self-developing questionnaire as a research instrument. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and structural equation modeling (SEM) through the LISREL program. The findings were: (a) Lower secondary school students had an average academic achievement learning loss at the moderate level with the highest mean of learning loss in mathematics (M=3.012, SD=1.074), and an average learning characteristics learning loss at the medium level (M=2.824, SD=0.842). Several situational factors had a different effect depending on the school size with a statistical significance of .05.; and (b) the causal model showed the learning loss of grade 7-9 students was consistent with the empirical data (χ2=46.885, df=34, p= .069, GFI=0.991, AGFI=0.964, CFI=0.999, RMSEA=0.024, SRMR=0.014).

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1155
Pages: 1155-1170
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The Influence of a Robotics Program on Students’ Attitudes Toward Effective Communication

attitude effective communication robotics students

Sabariah Sharif , Thiwagar Muniandy , Muralindran Mariappan


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This research aimed to explore the influence of a robotic program using the robot kit "RoboBuilder RQ+110" on students' attitudes toward effective communication. The study used a quantitative research design and involved 475 grade 4 (10 years old) students from Malaysia's Selangor and Malacca states. A quasi-experimental research (pre-test & post-test) approach with control and experimental groups was adopted, and the data were analyzed with inferential statistical test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 25 software at 0.05 significance level. Questionnaires were administered to collect data from the experimental and control groups. The results showed statistically significant changes (α ≤ .05) in attitudes toward effective communication for the experimental group that received a robotics program compared with the control group. The study results suggest that innovative technological tools or programs such as robotics programs are recommended as innovative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program rooted in constructivism to improve students' attitudes toward effective communication.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1171
Pages: 1171-1184
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Given the insufficient involvement of business investments in adult education, this study focused on the factors that motivate managers and entrepreneurs to invest in continuing education. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic literature review of studies referenced in Scopus and Web of Science since 2015. The factors for training were classified into four levels: personal, organizational, industry-related, and national. The results indicated that the inside firm-related determinants are the most studied and essential. A consensus emerged in the relevant literature on the positive impact of a supportive workplace culture, a learning orientation, formalized human resource development practices, and employee voice. The long-term orientation of managers and the perception of employees’ flexibility and adaptability to change also play a role. The study highlights the increasing pressure from regulations and market competition, as well as the (in)capability of universities to provide training tailored to the specific needs of companies. Although institutional factors appeared to predominate, economic considerations also influence training decisions; the latter means that the two underlying theories – institutional theory and human capital theory – complement each other when explaining employers' incentives to invest in training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1185
Pages: 1185-1197
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The present study aimed to improve the speaking skills of university students at the B1 level who presented limitations in their oral competence. An educational methodology based on designing and implementing an application adapted to the Common European Framework of Reference was developed and applied to boost language performance. A case study was used to conduct the two stages of this research; the former had to do with a control group where intervention was carried out using non-probabilistic sampling with students of the Computing Faculty; a pretest was applied to test the knowledge acquired in their classroom sessions during the first quarter in 2020. The second process was tracking an experimental group, which was assessed after implementing the developed methodology using the app "4skillsweb". A posttest was used to evidence learners' progress during the COVID-19 lockdown, and the results showed improved oral competence in aspects such as grammar and vocabulary, discourse management, pronunciation, and interactive communication, with about 95% confidence in its validation. A qualitative-quantitative methodology was used to determine the influence of the English app. A t-students test was implemented to corroborate the data analysis taken by both groups through SOFTWARE JMP v 11.0.0G.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1199
Pages: 1199-1213
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During the implementation of the inclusive education policy in several countries in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the psychological health of special education teachers should be considered as a key success factor. This study explored special education teachers’ perceived work stress (PWS), bio-psychological burn-out symptoms (BPS), and transformational teaching (TFT) in inclusive education in Indonesia and Thailand. There were 177 Indonesian and 199 Thai teachers completing a series of questionnaires that included BPS, PWS, and TFT. The results showed that BPS and PWS were high, whereas BPS and TFT were significantly different across nations. No gender differences were found among both Indonesian and Thai teachers. Moreover, TFT could be significantly predicted by positive age and negative work stress, which explained 8% of the variance among Indonesian teachers (R2 = .08, F(4, 172) = 4.18, p < .01) and by positive age and negative burnout symptoms, which explained 6% of the variance among Thai teachers (R2 = .06, F(4, 186) = 3.18, p < .05). Furthermore, inclusive education policymakers and stakeholders should be aware of psychological health improvement including burnout symptoms and work stress, which negatively invade the role of TFT among special education teachers in both countries.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1215
Pages: 1215-1226
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In this article, we present the results of empirical research using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodology, in which we examined the achievements and difficulties of sixth-grade Slovenian primary school students in decimal numbers at the conceptual and procedural knowledge level. The achievements of the students (N = 100) showed that they statistically significantly (z = -7,53, p < .001) better mastered procedural knowledge (M = 0.60, SD = 0.22) than conceptual knowledge (M = 0.37, SD = 0.17) of decimal numbers. Difficulties are related to both procedural and conceptual knowledge, but significantly more students have difficulties at the level of conceptual knowledge. At the level of procedural knowledge, or in the execution of arithmetic operations with decimal numbers, we observed difficulties in transforming text notation into numerical expressions, difficulties in placing the decimal point in multiplication and division, and insufficient automation of mathematical operations with decimal numbers. At the level of conceptual knowledge of decimal numbers, the results indicate difficulties for students in understanding the place values of decimal numbers, in estimating the sum, product and quotient of decimals with reflection and in mathematical justification. In relation to difficulties in justification, we observed an insufficient understanding of the size relationship between decimal numbers and difficulties in expressing them in mathematical language. The results indicate that to overcome such difficulties in the learning and teaching of mathematics, more balance between procedural and conceptual knowledge is needed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1227
Pages: 1227-1245
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Understanding graphs in the dynamics of market (DM) is a challenge to learners; its teaching demands a specific kind of teacher’s knowledge. This study aims to examine the topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (TSPCK) of experienced economics teachers in teaching graphs in DM to enhance learners’ understanding of the topic. It reports using a qualitative approach underpinned by the TSPCK framework for teaching specific topics developed by Mavhunga. Data were collected through classroom observations and analyzed thematically using a case study of two economics teachers. The study revealed that adopting a step-by-step approach and the use of worked graphical examples promote an understanding of graphs in DM. It also established that active learning is preferable to the predominant chalk-and-talk (lecture) method of teaching graphs in DM. The study proposed a Dynamics of Market Graphical Framework (DMG-Framework) to enable teachers, particularly pre-service teachers in lesson delivery, to enhance learners’ understanding of graphs in DM. The result of this study will broaden the international view in the teaching of graphs in DM.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1247
Pages: 1247-1262
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Listening is a language skill that is acquired in childhood but can be improved throughout the educational process. It is of great importance in both educational and everyday life. The objective of this study is to identify the importance given to listening training by students, assess their listening skills, and determine what can be done to improve their listening skills to top levels. The study group consists of 50 Turkish language teachers from various primary and secondary schools in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. A 9-question interview form was used to collect data. The data obtained were analyzed using content analysis, frequencies, and percentages. Based on the results, most Turkish language teachers revealed that their students do not listen sufficiently to their teachers, and the reasons for this could be related to the school, teachers, curriculum, or the students themselves. Additionally, the teachers stated that it is essential to emphasize the importance of listening to students in the first place, and it could be beneficial to increase the number of listening activities in the course books and assess and evaluate listening skills more frequently.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1263
Pages: 1263-1274
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This integrative literature review aims to provide a broader and updated perspective of teachers’ intergenerational learning (IL). The search was done in Web of Science and EBSCO ultimate  databases between 2011 and 2022. Thirty-two empirical studies were selected and submitted to a thematic analysis and five themes were identified: (a) defining and conceptualising generation, (b) IL from understandings to practices, (c) contexts, factors and roles from different generations and institutions to promote IL, (d) factors that facilitate the success of IL, and (e) factors that make IL difficult. Data shows an increase in the last decades of research in IL within the educational context, but an absence of the prospective dimension still prevails. Intergenerational knowledge has been researched mainly from an individual professional perspective at the micro and meso levels of scholarship. Effectiveness requires intentional cultivation and a genuine desire for intergenerational knowledge exchange, involving active engagement and awareness among diverse generations and alignment with organizational aims. The promotion of IL takes place in very different ways and forms, and reflection on what is different seems to be a dominant trait. Furthermore, the review could conclude that intergenerational opportunities to work together will improve teacher education and continuous professional development. 

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1275
Pages: 1275-1290
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Implementing the Quality of Life and Potential of Social Farming

intellectual disabilities personal outcome scale quality of life social farming

Catia Giaconi , Noemi Del Bianco , Ilaria D’Angelo , Alessandra Marfoglia


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The present study explores the Quality of Life (QoL) of young people with intellectual disabilities engaged in a social farming initiative, known as ‘‘Tuttincampo: Social Farming and Inclusivity’’. The project stands as an innovative approach to improving social inclusion and providing vocational education and training. The initiative seeks to offer a viable alternative to traditional rehabilitation day centers by establishing a network of both public and private institutions. To explore the QoL of the young people we analyze data from the Personal Outcome Scale (POS), a tool that investigates the perception of QoL through self-assessment and hetero-assessment. Data were collected at the beginning and at the end of the social agriculture project. The results obtained confirm the importance of planning pedagogical actions to support social inclusion and vocational training for people with intellectual disabilities, highlighting, as well, the potential of social farming as a new “space” to achieve a higher level of QoL.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1291
Pages: 1291-1301
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Developing Creative Thinking in Preschool Children: A Comprehensive Review of Innovative

comprehensive review creative thinking early childhood

Novita Eka Nurjanah , Elindra Yetti , Mohamad Syarif Sumantri


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The ability to think creatively has a vital role in the development of preschool children. This research provides a comprehensive review of innovative approaches and strategies for developing creative thinking in preschool children based on current trends and methodologies used in educational settings. This research shows three significant areas: (a) creative thinking skills in preschool children, (b) factors influencing creative thinking skills in depth, and (c) innovative strategies and approaches to stimulate creative thinking abilities in preschool children. This research uses a literature study method assisted by the publish perish application to find reference sources related to creative thinking abilities in preschool children. Studies show that creative thinking abilities in preschool children enable them to find innovative solutions, help them adapt to challenges, foster self-confidence and courage, and enrich their experience and knowledge of the world around them. Meanwhile, preschool children's creative thinking abilities are influenced by collaboration from the external environment (parents, teachers, and society); providing support and examples for children to develop and stimulate their creative thinking skills is very important.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.3.1303
Pages: 1303-1319
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