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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 10 Issue 4 (October 2021)

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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak in the Indonesians nowadays, the public education department established the policy of the online education system to all education levels. Most educators employ an online flipped learning method to support the policy. Research aimed to measure the effect of online based-flipped classroom learning between using Microsoft Team and WhatsApp and student engagement on reading comprehension skills. The research approach was a quasi-experimental model with a 2 x 3 factorial pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group design. The sample of this investigation was early period undergraduates of the management economics study program. Data analysis employed a two-way ANOVA test. The result confirmed that the online flipped learning scheme using Microsoft Team was better than WhatsApp in improving student engagement and reading comprehension skills. We advise English lecturers to apply better online media services, pay attention to the completeness of the learning features and train their competence in implementing distance learning to use compatible synchronous flipped classroom teaching based on internet technologies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1613
Pages: 1613-1624
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16

Profile of Students’ Problem-Solving Skills Viewed from Polya's Four-Steps Approach and Elementary School Students

polya's step problem solving word problem

Riyadi Riyadi , Triana Jamilatus Syarifah , Puput Nikmaturrohmah


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Problem-solving is considered one of the thinking skills that must be possessed in 21st-century education because problem-solving skills are required to solve all problems that arise. The problem-solving stages that can be used are Polya's four steps, namely, understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan, and looking back. Problem-solving skills are essential for solving word problems. Word problems based on arithmetic operations are divided into three types: one-step, two-step, and multistep. This qualitative research aimed to see problem-solving skills viewed from the type of word questions and elementary school students’ third, fourth, and fifth grades. A purposive sampling technique with 22 third-grade students, 28 fourth-grade students, and 21 fifth-grade students was used. The data were collected using documentation, testing, and interview methods. The findings of the study showed that fourth-grade students’ problem-solving skills are better than those of third-grade students, and the problem-solving skills of fifth-grade students are better than those of fourth-grade students. The percentage of Polya's steps always decreases because not all students master problem-solving. Based on the types of questions, the percentage of the one-step word problem is better than that of the two-step while the percentage of the two-step word problems is higher than that of the multistep.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1625
Pages: 1625-1638
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6

Technology Anxiety and its Impact on E-Learning System Actual Use in Jordan Public Universities during the Coronavirus Disease Pandemic

anxiety covid-19 e-learning self-efficacy

Maha Ismail Alkhawaja , Mutia Sobihah Abd Halim , Asyraf Afthanorhan


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During the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, universities were obligated to transform from traditional classroom teaching environments to virtual ones. This sudden transformation highlighted the issue of low e-learning system usage amongst instructors of humanity faculties in Jordan's public universities. This study empirically investigated the moderating impact of technology anxiety on the relationship between the instructor's self-efficacy and the e-learning system's actual use to contribute to solving the problem. A survey was distributed to 468 instructors to test the theoretical framework, which yielded 285 valid and complete instruments analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results showed the positive direct effect of self-efficacy on actual use. Furthermore, the level of technology anxiety moderated the relationship. Instructors with low technology anxiety showed a higher level of e-learning system actual usage than those with a high anxiety level. To improve the use of e-learning systems, top management must understand the fundamental role of compulsory training as the Covid-19 pandemic, and the instructor's confidence must be increased by providing training and support.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1639
Pages: 1639-1647
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9

The Effectiveness of Multiplex Teaching Method in Mastering Vocabulary for Deaf Students

deaf student multiplex teaching method vocabulary mastery

Yohanes Subasno , I Nyoman Sudana Degeng , Marthen Pali , Imanuel Hitipeuw


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This study aims to measure the effectiveness of “multiplex teaching method” in mastering vocabulary for deaf students. Multiplex teaching method consists of picture language, sign language, printed-word language, written language, and spoken language. The research was designed as a single subject research (SSR) with baseline, intervention, and maintenance phase (A-B-A’ design). The research subjects consisted of two deaf students in special school of SLB Bhakti Luhur Malang, Indonesia. In addition, a special education teacher and an observer were involved in this study. The intervention instrument comprised five lesson plans (LP), each containing a vocabulary of four words. The data were analyzed using intra-condition and inter-condition graphical inspection with a focus on data stability, trends, and score changes. The effectiveness was determined by the Percentage of Non-Overlapping data (PND). The change of score from A'/A achieved by Subject-1 was 7.86 points, while Subject-2 obtained 7.68 points. Subject-1 obtained an average PND B/A of 100% and average PND A'/B of 82.5%. Subject-2 achieved an average PND B/A of 99% and PND A’/B of 90%. Thus, multiplex teaching method is very effective in helping deaf students master vocabulary.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1649
Pages: 1649-1667
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1

The Users’ Experiences in Processing Visual Media for Creative and Online Learning Using Instagram

creative learning creating instagram online learning user experience

Mohammad Salehudin , Muhammad Nasir , Syeh Hawib Hamzah , Rostanti Toba , Noor Hayati , Intan Safiah


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The aims of the recent study were; analyzing the effect of creative and online learning using Instagram on the ability to create new products in the technology and learning media course, and determining the level of users’ experience in processing visual media through the Canva application on android. Quantitative approach with this research was carried out through a quasi-experimental research model because it measured the post-test was applied to 58 students as the respondents in two experimental and control classes. This study used two instruments; the cognitive learning outcome questionnaire according to the subject to get the students’ ability to create new products, and the second instrument was taken from ueq-online.org in the Indonesian version to know the users' experience in processing visual media. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, mean and standard deviation assisted by IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0. The results demonstrated that the effect of creative and online learning using Instagram on the ability to create new products in The Technology and Learning Media course was found significant at 0.028 <0.05 which meant it could be applied well. Meanwhile, the level of users' experience in processing the visual media application Canva on Android had the highest score on the Stimulation scale at 1.59, categorized "Very Good" and the lowest score was on the Novelty scale at 0.93, categorized "Above Average". With the strong creative encouragement to create new products, the students were able to process their own visual media which were tailored to the agreed digital visual designs and were published on Instagram.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1669
Pages: 1669-1682
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The article mentions the impact of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on online learning in Vietnamese higher education in 2020. This is a qualitative case study, by using in-depth interviews to explore the changes in the perception, methods, and orientation of online learning of students and lecturers at a key pedagogical university when experiencing the three COVID-19 outbreaks in Vietnam. The findings show that the COVID-19 pandemic has a positive impact on the developmental orientation of online learning at the Vietnamese higher education level. Even though at the time of an outbreak, opposition and dissatisfaction with online learning occurred; but through the three outbreaks, together with the efforts of lecturers and students, online learning in Vietnam has recorded remarkable achievements. This is a prerequisite for the development of online education and the innovation of digital technology in education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1683
Pages: 1683-1695
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12

Analyzing Indonesian Students’ Google Classroom Acceptance During COVID-19 Outbreak: Applying an Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model

gcr utaut model trust learning platform covid-19

Zulherman Zulherman , Farah Mohamad Zain , Darmawan Napitupulu , Siti Nazuar Sailin , Liszulfah Roza


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The primary goal of this study is to explore what makes teachers accept Google Classroom (GCR). GCR platform is an emerging technology that could support online learning activities by offering outstanding benefits such as usability, flexibility, and task adaptability. Many of the students in Indonesia have al-ready used the GCR platform since the government has tried to provide it as a free online learning tool to support learning activities during the pandemic. However, there is limited understanding of users' behavior, especially Indonesian students' acceptance of the GCR platform. The model is tested by administering the online questionnaire to 261 university students in Indonesia. The extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model (UTAUT) model has been applied to observe users’ acceptance of GCR. The result Performance expectancy (PE), Effort expectancy (EE) Social Influence (SI), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Trust of Internet (TI) and Trust of Government (TG) considerably affected users’ intention to use the GCR. Moreover, Trust of Internet (TI) and Trust of Government (TG) also knowingly impacted Performance expectancy (PE).

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1697
Pages: 1697-1710
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12

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The quality of the educational process within the humanistic concept and holistic-developmental approach is interpreted as the optimal adaptation to the individual needs and abilities of children, while inclusiveness presupposes equal inclusion and participation of all children. This article explores the opinions of teachers as bearers of pedagogical-educational process. The aim of this research was to determine how much importance teachers attach to certain dimensions of the educational process, and the procedures of inclusive practice. Empirical research included teachers in 5 preschool institutions (N=146). The research instrument was constructed based on relevant literature. Teachers in this sample recognize the importance: of individualized support to all children; of respecting the diversity; of collaboration with parents, and personal professional development. At the same time, the level of formal education and in-service teacher training is positively correlated with the assessment of importance towards child-oriented practice, and respect for diversity. Teachers with a higher level of education significantly value the importance of additional vocational training in the field of developmental and social risks, the use of community resources, and involvement of parents in planning individual support for children.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1711
Pages: 1711-1725
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4

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The main aim of the present study is to investigate the emotional intelligence of faculty members based on their career stage and gender. In the study, a mixed method was employed to determine the emotional intelligence of faculty members and to reach generalizable findings. The convenience sampling method was used in the quantitative study, while the quota sampling method was used in the qualitative section. The quantitative section sample included faculty members in various stages in their careers. In the qualitative dimension, the sample included faculty members who participated in the quantitative application. The quantitative study findings demonstrated that there were significant differences between the emotional intelligence competencies of female and male faculty members in the workplace based on the empathy and self-awareness dimensions. The qualitative study findings revealed that there were differences between the emotional intelligence dimensions, especially based on the career stage and gender. Recommendations are presented based on the study findings.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1727
Pages: 1727-1740
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Academic optimism has an essential role in the adjustment of students in school. This study aimed to examine a model of academic optimism formed from democratic parenting, school climate, internal locus of control, and students’ self-concept. This a cross-sectional non-experimental design research design involved 335 Junior High School students in Kediri. The data collection tool was a scale while the data analysis technique was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The results showed that the theoretical model for developing academic optimism in Junior High School students was in line with the research data and obtained empirical support (X2 = 246.056 < 255.6018; p = 0.110 > 0.05), so this model is feasible and can be used in samples that have been studied. In general, this study adds knowledge about positive psychology studies and supports democratic parenting, school climate, self-concept, and internal locus of control as ultimate factors for creating students’ academic optimism.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1741
Pages: 1741-1753
cloud_download 575
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575
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0

Applying the Lesson Study Model in Developing Teaching Capability for Young Teachers in Vietnam

chemistry teaching lesson planning teaching capability young teachers

Le Thi Thu Huong , Nguyen Thi Thuy Quynh , Nguyen Thi Ngoc , Nguyen Mau Duc


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The initial period of young teachers' careers is always significant in developing their professional capability. This is when teachers start coming into contact with practical teaching, which is more diversified than the theoretical training at the University. In this research, the authors propose a process of combining the Lesson Study model with the micro-lesson teaching method. This process helps young teachers, especially those working in the Northern of Vietnam, improve their planning and implementation of a lesson plan following the Lesson Study model. It has four steps: (1). Plan a Lesson Study; (2). Organize demo teaching and attend lessons; (3): Self-evaluate and discuss lessons; (4): Apply for practical teaching. The methodology research is carried out on 62 young teachers in Vietnam to measure the pre-impact and post-impact results. The results reveal that the researched group has made significant progress on their teaching performances (the average points for their capability of planning lessons have increased from 2.54 to 3.28 and the average points for their capability of implementing lesson plans have increased from 2.48 to 3.18). This development can be considered as an excellent experience to bring the Lesson Study model into Vietnamese schools to improve teaching sustainably.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1755
Pages: 1755-1768
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372
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2

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Assessment is a topic that continues to be developed in science education research. Assessment evaluates not only students' cognitive abilities but also their thinking skills. Therefore, in this study, an assessment that could measure students' chemical literacy was developed. Chemical literacy is a thinking skill that students must develop as part of their chemistry learning. The goal of this study was to assess item' quality, as well as student’ chemical literacy on the concept of chemical rate. The Rasch model was employed to analyze the data in this study. The results of this study depict that the developed assessment had sufficient reliability and validity to be used to assess students' chemical literacy. Furthermore, the analysis of the students’ responses to the items revealed that many students did not understand or were unaware of the context presented. These findings suggest that students' chemical literacy in the material for the reaction rate is still lacking and needs to be improved. As a result, the teacher's role in assisting students in improving their chemical literacy through chemistry learning is critical.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1769
Pages: 1769-1779
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The research aims to develop an instructional tool based on Discovery Learning (DL) combined with a Metacognitive Knowledge Strategy (MKS) to enhance students’ Critical Thinking Skills (CTSs). In doing so, the study employed a Research and Development (R&D) method to develop such a tool. The developed instructional tool was tested for its validity by experts and practitioners’ evaluation. Further, the empirical data were collected from the results of implementation in learning and the student's responses, while the data of tools effectiveness were acquired from the critical thinking tests given to students (analyzed by related t-test). The developed instructional tools were implemented in a limited-scale trial of 32 students and a large-scale trial of 59 students. The results show that: firstly, the DL and MKS-integrated instructional tools are stated as valid in terms of the lesson plan, student worksheet, and critical thinking test. Secondly, the practicality criteria have been successfully met; the learning implementation, students’ activity, and students' responses were regarded as in accordance with the feasibility standard. Thirdly, the instructional tool was deemed effective in enhancing students’ CTSs (p = 0.05).

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1781
Pages: 1781-1791
cloud_download 887
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8

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The main topic of the presented article is the pedagogical concept of self-reflection of students of Social Education. The authors understand the pedagogical concept as primarily educational determinants that influence and shape students’ self-reflection. To identify this aim, the authors formulate the main research question: How do social education students reflect on themselves as students, and what are the determinants of study self-reflection for social pedagogy students? The authors used the qualitative research strategy, specifically The Grounded Theory, through which sixty self-reflecting essays were analysed. These written self-reflections were further complemented with six in-depth interviews in which we acquired clarifying information on self-reflection and self-assessment of social education students. It was ascertained that students’ self-reflection is shaped through an awareness of internal and external study factors, which subsequently influence the overall concept of their study, motivation to perform, study style, and self-assessment.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1793
Pages: 1793-1806
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1

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Spatial thinking has roles to facilitate learners to remember, understand, reason, and communicate objects and the connections among objects that are represented in space. This research aims to analyze the spatial thinking process of students in constructing new knowledge seen from the field-independent cognitive style learners based on Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) theory. APOS theory is used to explore spatial thinking processes which consist of mental structures of action, process, object, and schema. This research is qualitative research with an exploratory method. It provided the students' opportunity to solve problems alternately until the method found the most appropriate subjects for the research objectives. The subjects were 2 students of Mathematics Education in the fourth semester of Universitas Muria Kudus Indonesia. The data collection techniques were started by distributing the validated and reliable spatial thinking questions, the cognitive style question, and the interview. The applied data analysis consisted of data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The findings showed (1) spatial thinking process of holistic-external representation typed learners were indicated by the representative thinking element, abstract-illustrative figure expression to communicate and complete the tasks correctly, (2) spatial thinking process of the holistic-internal representation typed learners were indicated by the representative means, having ideas, connecting with the previous knowledge in the forms of symbols and numbers, and finding the final results correctly although incomplete.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1807
Pages: 1807-1823
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5

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The discussion about the loss of nationalism values in the Indonesian migrant workers’ (IMW’s) children in border areas, has become an important issue in the world of Indonesian education. The purpose of this study is to describe the role of Community Learning Center (CLC) in fostering nationalism values in IMW’s children, as well as to reveal the teaching experience and meaning of nationalism from the perspective of teachers at CLC Sarawak, Malaysia. The research uses qualitative method with case study approach that focuses on factors that can foster nationalism of IMW’s children. Data collection obtained through observation techniques, in-depth interviews, and documentation. The results showed meaningful findings according to the conditions in the education system in CLC, as well as socio-cultural conditions that affect every activity in the border area. The first finding indicates that CLC has an important (central) role in fostering the nationalism of IMW’s children in border areas. The second finding shows the fact that teachers are still experiencing some problems in the field, such as; limited access to information and communication, teacher education background, school conditions, limited educational units, learning facilities, and family and social environments. The third finding emphasizes the importance of nationalism for teachers who devote themselves to teaching in border areas, because teachers have a crucial role in transferring knowledge, providing meaningful learning experiences, and fostering the nationalism of IMW’s children.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1825
Pages: 1825-1837
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337
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1

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Teacher professional development (TPD) is an important component of enhancing student learning and school education quality. Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training is reforming education, including curricula, teaching methods, and textbooks. Many requirements have to been done to effectively implement the reform, and TPD is considered a significant contribution. Using data from an in-depth interview with the principal, teacher questionnaires, and school policy-related documents, this qualitative case-study research in a selected high school for gifted students in Central Vietnam aimed to find out how TPD had been implemented in response to education reforms in Vietnamese high schools. TPD was widely perceived and respected by the principal and teachers in this case study, and these positive perspectives were transferred into practice with numerous effectively employed TPD strategies at this high school for students’ enhanced learning and achievements.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1839
Pages: 1839-1851
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534
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14

The Interrelationships between Metacognition and Modeling Competency: The Moderating Role of the Academic Year

academic year levels confirmatory factor analysis mathematical modeling metacognition structural equation modelling

Riyan Hidayat , Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed Zamri , Hutkemri Zulnaidi , Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee Abdullah , Mazlini Adnan


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Several concerted movements toward mathematical modeling have been seen in the last decade, reflecting the growing global relationship between the role of mathematics in the context of modern science, technology and real life. The literature has mainly covered the theoretical basis of research questions in mathematical modeling and the use of effective research methods in the studies. Driven by the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) theory and empirical evidence on metacognition and modeling competency, this research aimed at exploring the interrelationships between metacognition and mathematical modeling and academic year level as a moderator via the SEM approach. This study involved 538 students as participants. From this sample, 133 students (24.7%) were from the first academic year, 223 (41.4%) were from the second and 182 (33.8%) were from the third. A correlational research design was employed to answer the research question. Cluster random sampling was used to gather the sample. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized moderation employing IBM SPSS Amos version 18. Our findings confirmed the direct correlation between metacognition and mathematical modeling was statistically significant. Academic year level as a partial moderator significantly moderates the interrelationships between the metacognitive strategies and mathematical modeling competency. The effect of metacognition on mathematical modeling competency was more pronounced in the year two group compared to the year one and three groups.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1853
Pages: 1853-1866
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6

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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic changed education conditions worldwide forcing all the parties involved to adapt to a new system. This study aimed to collect information related to the effects of teaching English online on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students’ achievement. Data were collected from EFL teachers and students enrolled in three different Ecuadorian Universities (Technical University of Ambato, Higher Polytechnic School of Chimborazo, and University of Cuenca) from five different levels: A1, A2, B1, B1+, and B2. This preliminary paper reports the results of 480 students regarding four major sections: pedagogical practice and assessment, learning outcomes, affective factors and perceptions of students about the advantages and disadvantages of online learning during the pandemic COVID-19; considering the Hierarchy of online learning needs of Justin Shewell. An online survey questionnaire with 17 questions and a 5-point Likert scale was applied. The Cronbach's Alpha test presented 0.84 and 0.73 level of reliability. The Kolmogorov Smirnov’s statistic and, the Kendall's Tau_b tests, and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances were performed with the SPSS statistical program. The results made evident that online learning affects academic achievement in EFL students during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was confirmed after analyzing four main areas: pedagogical practices and assessment, learning outcomes, affective factors and students’ perceptions about the advantages and disadvantages of online learning. The importance of online learning was highlighted since it has been understood as a tool to face the emergency produced by the COVID-19 pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1867
Pages: 1867-1879
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9

Cyberslacking Behavior and Its Relationship with Academic Performance: A Study of Students in Indonesia

academic performance cyberslacking media multi-tasking efficacy self-regulation

Meily Margaretha , Sherlywati , Yani Monalisa , Ana Mariana , Imelda Junita , Martalena , Dini Iskandar , Nur


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Students are aware of the use of technology in the learning process, and they are generally referred to as digital natives. However, there are challenges associated with the availability of internet access as a learning process to both university students and teachers inside and outside the classroom. One of such challenges is students’ ability to access unrelated activities which is known as cyberslacking. In the education sector, this process refers to the use of technology for unrelated academic activities. Studies associated with this activity are significantly conducted in western countries, but it is still limited to the Indonesia education environment. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the cyberslacking behavior of students in Indonesia and its relationship to their academic performances. It also determines the relationship between media multi-tasking efficacy and self-regulated learning. The results showed that there is a significant influence between media multi-tasking efficacy and self-regulated learning with cyberslacking. Furthermore, there is a negative influence between cyberslacking and the academic performance of students in Indonesia. This research adds references to studies on cyberslacking in the scope of education and provides input for universities to develop the management of information and communication technology used in the learning process.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1881
Pages: 1881-1892
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5

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The purpose of doctoral education is not only to produce a thesis but also to develop graduates who are highly competent in research, publications and the norms and values of being a researcher. Only a handful of studies have examined early-career academics’ perceptions of doing research at the doctoral level. This exploratory qualitative study sought to fill the gap and contribute to understanding of factors contributing to early career academics’ research capability development. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore in-depth the issues concerning research, publication, supervision, and networking among early career academics. The data were collected from 19 early-career academics in the first year of their career, who are attached with different universities and in different disciplines in Malaysia. The findings from the thematic analysis identified that supervision, individual’s participation in scholarly research activities, and institutional formal learning supported the development of the participants’ research capabilities. Although the PhD programme lay emphasis on independent learning, it should be seen as a process that occurs in phases; hence, the research courses offered and support from the supervisor are important to assist the transition to becoming an independent scholar. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that universities be more sensitive to the demands and expectations of academic career so that the PhD programmes offered do not merely focus on research but also develop the skills required of future academics at university.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1893
Pages: 1893-1905
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2

Integration of Learning Management System as an Aid in Teaching: An Assessment

educational technology higher education learning management system teacher education

Rizaldy E. Garcia , Anjo M. Abaratigue , Nida V. Alcantara


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The research delved into the assessment of integrating Learning Management System as an aid in teaching. Data were collected from 26 students at Rizal Technological University-College of Education, Philippines, through pretest-posttest quasi-experimental and normative survey design of research. Data were statistically tested using the frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test. Results of the research indicate that the respondents have optimistic attitudes towards the integration of learning management system in teaching. The respondents performed poorly in the pretest examination but performed very satisfactorily in the posttest examination. Furthermore, the research found out that there is no significant difference between the performances of the experimental group and control group in pretest and posttest, moreover, there is a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group and the pretest and posttest scores of the control group.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1907
Pages: 1907-1918
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The purpose of the study was to identify how the instructional model that converges professional training and foreign language learning can influence the students’ professional mobility and students’ readiness to build their careers. The study used the methods of a quantitative kind for the evaluation study and descriptive research. The variables for the study were as follows: levels of student professional mobility skills proficiency that included students’ competence in their professional field, foreign language proficiency, students’ networking skills, personality qualities, and sampled students’ satisfaction with the reshaped course. The field phase of the study found that the Erasmus and Work-and-Travel programmes contributed to the former students’ adaptability and flexibility, the experience of work abroad, and practical specialism-related experience gained during study. The students developed their abilities to project a positive social image, ability to build and maintain relationships, foreign language proficiency, proficiency in presenting and negotiating, and theoretical knowledge. The English Language-delivered Professional Mobility course brought shifts in the levels of students’ professional mobility skills. The experimental group students reported that they improved their competence in their professional field, foreign language proficiency, networking skills, and personality qualities. The experimental group students’ judgements concerning the quality of the course were complimentary.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1919
Pages: 1919-1936
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1

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Understanding phylogenetic trees representing evolutionary relationships of living organisms is essential in school biology. Traditional instructions based on lectures and textbooks with pictorial presentations have been proven ineffective to promote students’ understanding of the concept. This study, therefore, developed a game-based learning activity called the VERT card game to enhance students’ learning of the phylogenetic taxonomy of chordates. The VERT card game was designed to lay the foundation for different characteristics of chordate classes, as well as to allow students to construct and interpret their evolutionary relationships based on the phylogenetic tree. The effectiveness of the VERT card game was verified by a pre-test and post-test design with 109 middle school students in Thailand. The statistical result revealed that students’ mean scores increased significantly in the post-test, compared to the pre-test, indicating their improved understanding. In addition, after participating in the learning activity, the student participants were found to increase their self-efficacy to learn evolutionary biology statistically. Also, it showed positive views towards the usefulness of the developed card game as a large number of them expressed that they would like to use it for their lesson reviews and wished to have this form of learning activity in other topics in biology.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1937
Pages: 1937-1951
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2

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The study focused on education students' learning experiences and the differences in their activities before and during the pandemic. This research was carried out at the NEUST Gabaldon Campus during the academic year 2020-2021 vacation. A study design that combines descriptive-comparative and descriptive-correlational elements. The descriptive-comparative design was used to compare the number of hours students spent sleeping, studying, using social media, and academic performance before and during the pandemic. The descriptive-correlation design, on the other hand, was used to determine the relationship between a student's academic performance (GPA) and the number of hours spent sleeping, studying, and using social media during the pandemic. The 171 education students who participated in the study were chosen through stratified random sampling. The findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the number of hours spent sleeping, studying, and using social media before and during the pandemic. However, there is no significant difference in students' academic performance before and during the pandemic. The study also discovered a highly significant link between the number of hours spent studying and academic performance and between the number of hours spent in social media and the number of hours spent studying. Nonetheless, there is no statistically significant relationship between students' academic performance and the number of hours they sleep and the use of social media during the pandemic. In addition, there is no link between the number of hours they sleep and the amount of time they spend studying and using social media. The students agree that there are benefits and drawbacks to flexible learning. The study's theoretical and practical implications were also discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1953
Pages: 1953-1962
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4

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Social participation represent one of the major outcomes of inclusive education. Students with additional support needs often encountered negative attitudes of social acceptance exhibited by their typically developing peers hindering their social participation in the educational context. This study explored the multicomponent structure of Portuguese children’s attitudes toward their peers with disabilities using a modified short form of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes toward Children with Handicaps scale (CATCH). In particular, this study aimed to (a) determine the factor structure of the CATCH and (b) evaluate the measurement invariance across age and gender. To identify the CATCH factor structure, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 1,038 children aged 8–18 years. Analyses revealed that a modified short form of the CATCH consisting of a 20-item measure with a three-factor structure displayed acceptable fit and internal consistency indices. This model proved to be invariant across groups. The Portuguese-modified short form of the CATCH, in which cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions are represented, has acceptable psychometric properties and the potential to evaluate the effectiveness of educational programs designed to improve children’s attitudes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1963
Pages: 1963-1972
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205
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1

Development of Gazi Functional Vision Assessment Instrument

distance vision functional vision assessment low vision near vision visual field

Pinar Safak , Salih Cakmak , Tamer Karakoc , Pinar Aydin O'Dwyer


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This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument that measures the functional vision of students with low vision. Thus, an assessment tool and performance activities were developed for three vision skill groups (near vision skills, distance vision skills, and visual field) that include functional vision skills. The universe was 1485 students studying in various primary and middle schools (from 2nd to 7th grades) affiliated to the Ministry of National Education, and simple random sampling was used to select 310 students. The data were collected using the Gazi Functional Vision Assessment Instrument developed by the researchers. Many-facet Rasch model and generalizability theory were used for the rater reliability of the measurements obtained from the instrument, while discriminant analysis was used for the validity of the measurements. The analysis showed that the measurements were reliable, and the inferences based on these measurements were valid. Thus, this instrument can be used to identify and assess the functional vision status of students with low vision.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1973
Pages: 1973-1987
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283
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This article contributes to the evidence base on the significance of context in enacting social justice leadership. It draws on data from the International School Leadership Development Network of 20+ countries who adopted a common qualitative approach involving interviews with principals identified as being social justice leaders. The article focuses on four case studies of Irish principals in varying primary elementary school contexts. Findings reveal local contextual features significantly impacted principals' perceptions, actions, and self-efficacy as social justice leaders. While the actions and motivation of the principals is similar, two of the principals, working in school contexts where the values and norms are not consonant with broader society, appear to lack confidence in their practice of social justice leadership. This article extends the existing evidence base by arguing for enhanced critical consciousness of all stakeholders related to the personal, institutional and community contexts in schools. It recommends a more flexible and iterative process of policy development to facilitate a more nuanced understanding of the cultural and ideological struggles in schools. Finally, it calls for governments and policy makers to take responsibility for and support disadvantaged communities as education alone cannot solve the issue of inequity.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1989
Pages: 1989-2002
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403
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333
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2

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Critical thinking skills are one of the thinking skills needed to live in the 21st century and the era of the Industrial Revolution 4.0. This study aims to develop a Virtual Classroom Critical Thinking (VC2T) Model, which is valid, practical, and effective to improve students' critical thinking skills. VC2T model has six steps: problem orientation, formulation, group discussion, analysis, result discussion, and reflection. This study is a Research & Development (R & D) involving 33 high school students in Surabaya, Indonesia. Before being tested, the VC2T Model was designed based on the theory of Plomp and Nieveen and then validated by 3 (three) experts in physics education. Data were analyzed using validity by experts, implementation of teaching with the VC2T Model, paired t-test, calculation of n-gain, effect size and percentage of student responses. The results showed that the VC2T Model is: (1) valid with an average validity score of 4.14 in the high validity category; (2) practical with an average score of implementations teaching of VC2T Model 4.26 in the outstanding category; and (3) effective as indicated by increasing of students' critical thinking skills scores which are statistically significant at alpha .05, the average n-gain is .38 in the medium category, the effect size of 6.93 is in a strong category and the average students' response is 87.59 % with outstanding category.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2003
Pages: 2003-2015
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708
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615
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5

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Students are more likely to obtain correct solutions in solving derivative problems. Even though students can complete it correctly, they may not necessarily be able to explain the solution well. Cognition and communication by the students will greatly affect the subsequent learning process. The aim of this study is to describe students’ commognition of routine aspects in understanding derivative tasks for heterogeneous groups of cognitive styles-field dependent and independent. This qualitative study involved six third-semester mathematics education students in the city of Palu, Indonesia. We divided the subjects into two groups with field-independent (FI) and field-dependent (FD) cognitive styles. The first group consisted of two FI students and one FD student, and the second group consisted of two FD students and one FI student. Moreover, the subjects also have relatively the same mathematical ability and feminine gender. Data was collected through task-based observations, focused group discussions, and interviews. We conducted data analysis in 3 stages, namely data condensation, data display, and conclusion drawing-verification. The results showed that the subjects were more likely to use routine ritual discourse, namely flexibility on the exemplifying category, by whom the routine is performed on classifying and summarizing categories, applicability on inferring category, and closing conditional on explaining category. The result of ritual routine is a process-oriented routine through individualizing. This result implies that solving the questions is not only oriented towards the correct answers or only being able to answer, but also students need to explain it well.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2017
Pages: 2017-2032
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In contemporary school systems, the concept of a teacher is defined as a socially and emotionally intelligent, pedagogically, and psychologically competent school leader. This would mean that not only the teacher's subject knowledge is sufficient, but also good knowledge of general pedagogical-psychological skills, knowledge, and management of the didactic approach, etc. Social and emotional skills/intelligence (SEI) restore the value of teachers as creators of learning and connect education to the larger social world in which SEI plays the most important role. This paper highlights the importance of social and Emotional Intelligence (SEI) in teacher education, examining the current state of research and the most important role of SEI in students' personal, social, and academic achievement, as well as teacher effectiveness and personal growth. By presenting the scientific evidence of SEI in teaching and teacher education, this study assesses the SEI level of student teachers at the University of Primorska, Faculty of Education, Slovenia. SEI is examined, through its main components: Self-awareness, Self-management, Social Awareness and Social Skills. In conclusion, this paper aims to show the need to develop SEI in future teacher education in Slovenia.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2033
Pages: 2033-2044
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398
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432
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4

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In recent years, integrating technology into education continues to attract more attention along with the rapid growth of information and communication technology. In the literature, teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) plays an essential role in successfully integrating technology into teaching and learning contexts. This study aims to provide a comprehensive view of prior literature and some possible directions for researchers and educators for further TPACK studies. A total of 106 papers were chosen from the Springer database and synthesized. Frequency of annual publications, number of documents with and without TPACK in the title, research methods, number of authors, major contributed countries, most cited papers, and most productive journals in TPACK research were reviewed. The results showed that TPACK has continued to receive attention from researchers in the past decade. Among the reviewed publications, each of the 53 documents included the term TPACK in the title and abstract. To date, qualitative methods were more frequently adopted in TPACK research than quantitative, mixed, and non-empirical methods. Most papers published in TPACK research have two authors. When ranked by country, the US has the highest contribution compared to other countries in this field, followed by Turkey, Australia, Singapore, and Taiwan. The authors with the most cited papers were Min-Hsien Lee and Chin-Chung Tsai with 210 citations. Based on the number of articles published in TPACK, The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher and TechTrends seemed to be the most contributing journal in this field.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2045
Pages: 2045-2054
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1136
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851
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15

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16

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Speaking skills have always been regarded as the most difficult skill out of the four skills that learners should master in language learning. The importance of learning speaking skills has also been highlighted by many researchers in recent years. With the use of technology in this modern era, learners can learn speaking skills through various resources. Therefore, there is a need to identify the learning strategies used by learners for speaking skills in the new learning environment. In this review, the most frequently used strategies in language learning for speaking skills has been examined. The articles reviewed were from 2017 until 2021 across two databases, ERIC and Google Scholar. The PRISMA 2020 methodology is used in the review. From the review, it was found that meta-cognitive and cognitive strategies were most frequently used for learning speaking skills, followed by compensation and social strategies. The least used strategies by learners were memory and affective strategies. The findings help teachers to look for the most suitable teaching method in the current learning environment. For future research, an extensive review of the use of learning strategies for other learning skills could be carried out.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2055
Pages: 2055-2065
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692
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530
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7

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Within the context of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), a process of directing oneself to facilitate individual learning more effectively, the SRL instrument development is deemed necessary to measure students’ self-reliance in learning mathematics in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) framework. The research aims to develop and test the validity and reliability of an SRL instrument, namely a 14-item SRL questionnaire accommodating four aspects, namely planning, self-monitoring, self-controlling, and evaluation. The study involved 420 junior high school students in East Java, Central Java, and Yogyakarta Special Region. The results show that the questionnaire was developed as planned and that planning, monitoring, controlling, and evaluating aspects can reflect the SRL variable in a valid, reliable, and significant way supported by each aspect's behavior indicator. The SRL variable theoretical model corresponds (good fit) with the empirical data, and all of the items are likely valid and reliable to assess student's mathematics SRL in the STEM framework. The SRL questionnaire was also found suitable for use by teachers to measure junior high school students’ self-reliance in SRL.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2067
Pages: 2067-2077
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573
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449
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4

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The cooperative learning (CL) is an advanced instructional approach that uses different motivational procedures to make instruction significant and learners more responsible. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on students' achievement in chemistry among the advanced level in 12-year basic education schools; it engaged a quasi-experimental design with one treatment group and a comparison group (control); the first applied cooperative learning in teaching organic chemistry while in the control group, organic chemistry was taught by the conventional teaching methods (CTM). A sample of 257 students participated in the study. The data collected used an organic Chemistry Achievement Test, and its data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 and MS Excel 2016. The ANCOVA results showed that learners taught using cooperative learning achieved better than their counterparts in the control group (F=78.07, df=1, 256, p<.001) with the learning gains of 16.0% in traditional methods and 53.6% of cooperative learning approach, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant difference in gender of students. It is recommended that chemistry teachers be trained on cooperative learning and encouraged to apply it in their teaching methods to enhance students' academic achievement.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2079
Pages: 2079-2088
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487
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465
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3

Application of the Delphi Technique to Determine the Technological Competencies of a Faculty Member

delphi technique faculty members higher education pedagogy of higher school technological competencies

Yurii O. Sosnytskyi , Petro I. Sikorskyi , Svitlana M. Bezborodykh , Mariia M. Morozova , Volodymyr P. Moroz


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The formed primary level and dynamic and sustainable development of technological competence provides quality management of teaching activities, increases the efficiency of the educational process, accelerates the achievement of pedagogical goals. Delphi expert assessment technique is increasingly used in the paradigm of pedagogy. Due to the set of advantages and objectivity of assessments, it has become the dominant method of this study. The objective of the study is to determine the current level of manifestation of technological competencies, as well as generalized prospects for development and improvement of the identified level within the selected group of freelance teachers using the technology of independent expert assessments –the Delphi method. In general, the following methods were used in the current study: methods of data collection and coordination, anonymous brainstorming, Delphi expert assessment technique, statistical and mathematical processing of results through Delphi formulas, comparative method, generalisations. The diversified approach to the interpretation of the technological competence of faculty members allowed determining: a) the level of faculty members’ knowledge of modern educational technologies at 89.1%; b) activity-practical aspect of training at 83.0%; c) dissonance between the theoretical and empirical level of teacher training and the algorithm for fulfilling the potential in practice at 21.5%; d) mastery of individual creative technologies for the organisation of an effective educational process at 55.9%; e) forecasted development of technological competencies of faculty members in the 5-year perspective under the condition of application of special control and skill trainings at 50.7%. Conclusion of the study is that according to the arithmetic mean of experts’ assessments of differentiated levels of technological competence, the overall level was 75.1%. The average result of the initial student survey on the estimating of the teachers’ technological competence was 69.7%. The difference of 5.4% between the data allows stating that both methods were relevant in this particular case.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2089
Pages: 2089-2103
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426
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331
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2

Treatment and Evaluation of Game as a Didactic Resource in the Communication of Teachers Through Social Networks

educational game educational resources social networks teacher training twitter

Lina Higueras-Rodríguez , Marta Medina-García , Estefanía Martínez-Valdivia


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This research presents an analysis of the value given to the game as an educational resource on social networks. The purpose of this study is to analyze the discourse on Twitter of the different educational agents (teachers and other educational professionals) to know the value given to the use of this tool and how the social network is an educational form of communication and interaction. From a qualitative methodology, a descriptive-interpretative study of the information on didactic/play strategies present in social networks is approached. The analysis is performed by the Nvivo12 software through matrices and content analysis. The results show that the game is mentioned within the speech on Twitter where it is alluded to its importance, value, application, etc. From an educational perspective, working in the classroom with the use of social networks provides some significant advantages; these networks offer interactive and effective teaching and learning tools. In addition, the integration of tools and applications. It is concluded that Twitter is an educational and formative way and where the value attributed to the game as a didactic resource is significant.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2105
Pages: 2105-2119
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168
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401
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2

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The academic buoyancy scale (ABS) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring academic buoyancy. To obtain meaningful and valid comparisons across groups using ABS, however, measurement invariance should be ascertained a priori. To that end, we examined its measurement invariance, validity evidence based on relations to other variables, and score reliability using categorical omega across culture and gender among Egyptian and Omani undergraduates. Participants were 345 college students: Egyptian sample (N=191) and Omani sample (N=154). To assess measurement invariance across culture and gender, multiple–group confirmatory factor analysis was performed with four successive invariance models: (a) configural, (b) metric, (c) scalar, and (d) residual. Results revealed that the unidimensional baseline model had adequate fit to the data in the full sample. Moreover, measurement invariance was found to hold across culture but not across gender and consequently the ABS could be used to yield valid cross-cultural comparisons between the Egyptian and Omani students. Conversely, it cannot be used to yield valid inferences related to comparing gender groups within each culture. Validity evidence based on relations to other variables was supported by the significantly moderate correlation between ABS and academic achievement (GPA; r =.435 and r = .457, P < .01) for the Egyptian and Omani samples, respectively. With regard to score reliability, categorical omega coefficients were moderate across both samples. Educational and psychological implications, limitations and suggestions for improving the scale are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2121
Pages: 2121-2131
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970
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779
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5

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7

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Metacognition inventory supports increased awareness and self-control to improve student’s academic success, including physics. However, there are limitations to revealing the Physics Metacognition Inventory (PMI), especially in Indonesia. This study aims to explore and evaluate the psychometric properties of PMI. This survey research has involved 479 students from three high schools in Indonesia. The psychometric properties of the I-PMI were evaluated using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Model approach. The results show that the Indonesian Physics Metacognition Inventory (I-PMI) is collected in 6 constructs from 26 items. The validity, reliability, and compatibility tests have also been analyzed with good results. The five rating scales used have adequate functionality. This research has also presented more comprehensive information about the Physics Metacognition Inventory in the context of Indonesian culture. This study has implications for using I-PMI to assess students’ metacognition at the high school level in Indonesia and recommendations for future research.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2133
Pages: 2133-2144
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481
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432
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1

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With Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) impacting the way we learn; information and communication technologies (ICTs) play an ever-increasing role in young children’s learning making it crucial to understand the importance and challenges of using ICTs in kindergartens from teachers’ perspectives. The present study, therefore explored the perspectives of teachers in remote areas of Jordan regarding the degree of ICT use, its importance in kindergartens, and potential challenges. To achieve the objective of the study, a quantitative questionnaire was developed and distributed to 263 female kindergarten teachers in remote areas of Jordan. Results indicated that the degree of use and importance of ICTs from teachers’ perspectives was “average”. Further, the study identified several challenges that appeared to hinder teachers’ use of ICTs in kindergartens. Teachers who held a bachelor degree were significantly more likely to employ ICTs in their teaching than those who did not. Yet, there were no significant differences according to the number of training courses in ICTs and experience teachers had. Recommendations and implications for facilitating the use of ICTs in kindergarten education concluded this paper.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.2145
Pages: 2145-2157
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406
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384
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2

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