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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 10 Issue 3 (July 2021)

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The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which affected the whole world and caused millions to be locked at their homes, brought many difficulties in domestic life. Especially, women are the leading group that has been affected the most negatively due to the workload during the days staying at home and experiencing the constraints of traditional roles. In this study, in which descriptive phenomenology analysis was used, the aim was to reveal how mothers working as psychological counselors in schools experienced motherhood during the days staying at home during the epidemic, and how their professional skills reflected on their role as mothers. In this study, in which the criterion sampling was used, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mothers who are school psychological counselors and could not continue their work since schools shut down during the pandemic. The data were analyzed by Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological method. Analysis results revealed six main themes that define the experiences of the participants: adaptation to the new order, parenting codes, introspection during the pandemic, distribution of parenting roles, professional reflections in motherhood, and complex motherhood experiences. It is believed that the results obtained from this study conducted with psychological counselor mothers will contribute to parenting practices and to the content of in service trainings for school psychological counselors.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1039
Pages: 1039-1050
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This study aimed to analyze the Research-Based Learning (RBL) model implementation in the natural sciences in improving students’ analytical thinking skills. This study employed a mixed-method with a sequential exploratory design. Data collection began with qualitative data and then continued with quantitative data. Qualitative data collection techniques used observation and interviews, while quantitative data collection used essay tests. Sampling was carried out before the research implementation. The samples were students of the PGMI IAIN Surakarta Study Program, Indonesia, which consisted of 34 pre-service elementary school teachers. The research was conducted in the odd semester of the 2019/2020 academic year. Quantitative data analysis techniques used a quasi-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest. Based on the results of four observations on the research treatments, the mean was 3.714, in which the values of preliminary activities were 3.625, core activities were 3.714, and closing activities were 3.75, used a rating scale (1-4) with the very good category. The RBL model implementation in the natural sciences in the concept of energy can improve the analytical thinking skills of students, as evidenced by the N-gain value was 56.57%in the medium category. This increase was obtained from the mean of the pretest score (46.84) and the post-test score (76.9), by using a rating scale (0-100). The research findings provide ideas to lecturers and researchers in improving the student's analytical thinking skills through the application of innovative learning models in the topic of the concept of energy.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1051
Pages: 1051-1062
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932
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4

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4

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The mastery of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is very important for teachers in order to achieve qualified learning. Analyzing the mastery of TPACK by teachers in Indonesia seems to be imperative to provide baseline data to Indonesian government. This study aimed to examine the mastery of TPACK, in particular among biology teachers in terms of their teacher certification status, educational level, and academic background. This research involved 68 biology teachers obtained through proportional random sampling in five districts of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. The data collection was conducted through a multiple-choice test consisting of 33 items. The results showed that although the teacher’s mastery of TPACK was categorized as fair (60.13), it does not meet the work performance standards as a good teacher in Indonesia which has a minimum score of 76.00. Using Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis Tests (p< 0.05), the evidence revealed that the mastery of TPACK among biology teachers is likely influenced by the academic background, educational level, and teacher certification status.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1063
Pages: 1063-1073
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646
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765
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2

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3

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This study examines the basic underlying structure of burnout experiences among teachers in Malaysia by discovering the challenges which lead them to experience burnout. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, the current study explores the coping strategies that these teachers used to remain in their profession. Ten teachers from two public high schools participated in the study. The data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed using the constant comparison method. The findings revealed challenges that cause teachers to experience burnout, which are student misbehaviour, insufficient parental collaboration, occupational stress in the teaching environment, and negative emotions. The themes related to the coping strategies used to remain in the teaching profession are understanding teaching and learning, positive approach, individual factors, and support system. This paper lists some recommendations for managing the issue of teacher burnout and facilitate teacher retention is proposed, which includes providing training and development activities for teachers, increasing salaries, helping teachers develop coping strategies, and creating adequate support systems.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1075
Pages: 1075-1088
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1009
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772
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2

The Place and Effects of Technology in the Visual Arts Course

education material qualitative research secondary school instruction methods

Ismail Tetikci , Gonca Erim , Busra Bozlak Halaclar


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Individuals’ levels of access to contemporary education affect the development level of the societies they live in. Changes and developments in the field of education are important in this sense. Technological advancements experienced in the general field of education have also affected visual arts education, and different points of view have emerged in this field. In this study, it is aimed to determine the interaction of art education in parallel to the dynamism of the age with technology according to the opinions of visual arts course teachers. For this purpose, the study uses the qualitative research method of case study. The participants of the study consist of a total of 8 visual arts teachers including 5 female and 3 teachers actively working at secondary schools in the academic year of 2019-2020. Observation and semi-structured interview forms are used in the data collection process. By analyzing the obtained findings with the thematic analysis method, the findings are collected under the themes of reflections and usage methods. In line with the results of the study obtained from the data, positive and negative results of using technology as a material in art education are reached. As in all areas of education, the use of technology in the visual arts course is important for its positive effects such as providing ease of learning for the student. While the study has been completed before the COVID-19 pandemic period, the compulsory nature of technology use today has increased the significance of the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1089
Pages: 1089-1100
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383
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2

Eighth Grade Students’ Misconceptions and Errors in Mathematics Learning in Nepal

mathematical conceptions misconceptions in mathematics students’ errors in mathematics nepal

Mukunda Prakash Kshetree , Bed Raj Acharya , Bishnu Khanal , Ram Krishna Panthi , Shashidhar Belbase


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This paper explores misconceptions and errors (M/Es) of eighth-grade students in Nepal with a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control and experimental groups. The treatment was implemented with teaching episodes based on different remedial strategies of addressing students' M/Es. Students of control groups were taught under conventional teaching-learning method, whereas experimental groups were treated with a guided method to treat with misconceptions and errors. The effectiveness of treatment was tested at the end of the intervention. The results showed that the new guided treatment approach was found to be significant to address students' M/Es. Consequently, the students of experimental groups made significant progress in dealing with M/Es in mathematical problem-solving at conceptual, procedural, and application levels.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1101
Pages: 1101-1121
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1156
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890
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6

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5

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This study aimed to analyze the critical thinking skills of students in learning of environmental change material using e-learning madrasah. This study used explanatory sequential design by mixed-methods experiment. The data were collected by interviewing, observing, and essay testing that have indicators modified from critical thinking skills by Watson-Glaser, Facione, and Ennis. There were 67 participants in this study as 7th grade student at a junior high school in Sleman district. Quantitative data analyzed by determining average score and standard deviations and, qualitative data analyzed from interviews and observation. Quantitative analysis showed that there were 3 levels of student’s critical thinking skills which were 14 students (20.90%) in the high category, 38 students (56.72%) in the middle category, and 15 students (22.38%) in the low category. Qualitative analysis indicated learning model made students to learn actively, independently, and enthusiastically looking for several sources. This study provided information about student critical thinking skills in junior high school, especially in the environmental change matter which are still low. Thus, the alternative learning strategies to improve students critical thinking skills are very needed. Besides, information on the application of the discovery learning model with e-learning Islamic school was obtained in the COVID-19 pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1123
Pages: 1123-1135
cloud_download 661
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661
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915
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9

Scopus
10

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This study addresses the effectiveness of learning via educational software. Recent decades have seen the integration of technologies, which are changing teaching and transforming teachers into mediating, facilitating, and guiding figures by means of digital learning methods that serve as a major tool in schools, colleges, and universities. The current study focuses on instruction provided within the Israeli Air Force and examined the effectiveness of instruction provided via educational software in terms of learning products: Bloom’s revised taxonomy, Te’eni’s affective-cognitive model of organizational communication and the STEM model. We randomly divided the learners into three groups who studied the same topic: one group studied with the educational software only, the second with the educational software together with an instructor, and the third with an instructor who used a presentation. The learners took a test and four months later they took another test to examine the effectiveness of the instruction over time. The research results show that the recall levels and performance levels on the tests were almost identical in all groups, but in the categories of understanding and applying the addition of an instructor strongly contributed to achievements: Those who received instruction via educational software achieved the best results in the understanding category, while those who studied with an instructor who used a presentation achieved the best results on the test with regard to application of the studied material. The findings of this study can illuminate the effectiveness of using educational software in learning processes in all educational systems.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1139
Pages: 1137-1156
cloud_download 962
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962
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583
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3

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7

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This research is motivated by a linear equations system, which is the basis for studying necessary linear algebra materials, such as rank, range, linear independent/dependent, linear transformations, characteristic values and vectors. There are still prospective mathematics teachers who have difficulty solving linear equations system and understanding the form of row echelon and reduced row echelon forms. In this study, subjects were three prospective mathematics teachers from Swadaya Gunung Jati University Cirebon who were taking matrix algebra courses. This study aims to reveal the conceptual understanding of prospective mathematics teachers in determining the solution to systems of linear equations. The results show that there are still prospective mathematics teachers who only use memory about the properties and procedures in determining whether a matrix is said to be a row echelon form or a reduced row echelon form. Then, there is still weakness in building the algorithms' relationship due to the immature knowledge of the concepts. Researchers found that many prospective mathematics teachers were more comfortable solving problems that were performed procedurally. Further research is needed to determine how the mental construction process and mathematical conceptual knowledge of prospective mathematics teachers are through meaningful learning so that conceptual understanding is maximized.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1157
Pages: 1157-1170
cloud_download 457
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457
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528
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3

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2

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The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence of the influence of perceived usefulness, convenience, experience, gender, and age on the intention to use e-learning after the government's school closure policy due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Our sample is junior high school teachers in Indonesia and the data are analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). We show that perceived usefulness has a positive influence on e-learning intentions. The perceived convenience is not the reason for the teachers to use e-learning because they have no other alternative in carrying out their duties apart from e-learning. Besides, we have also found that gender and experience influence e-learning intentions. The teachers with different genders and experiences continue to implement e-learning as their way of teaching during the pandemic. The younger teachers have a higher intention of using e-learning. They have adequate digital abilities and are more confident in using e-learning, so they have a great intention in implementing e-learning for the delivery of the materials. Experienced teachers will find it easier to find the use and convenience of e-learning. Apart from experience, male teachers also report that it is easier to grasp the ease of e-learning. However, older teachers show more concern about their perception of system usability as a reason for using e-learning than system convenience.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1171
Pages: 1171-1180
cloud_download 779
visibility 722
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779
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722
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5

Scopus
6

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A large number of articles in the field of science education reflect on scientific literacy as the main goal of science education (SE), although often with varying viewpoints. Nevertheless, researchers have begun to highlight subject-specific teaching practices that are expected to specifically enhance science subject teaching, including biology. The main aim of this theoretical article is to come on consensus and to conceptualise the term biological literacy (BL) more clearly and to present a theoretical concept of BL, composed on the basis of systematically analysed articles. This theoretical concept includes two dimensions of BL: (1) cognitive (cognitive skills, conceptual understanding, biological inquiry) and (2) affective dimension, based on systematic literature review (SLR). This theoretical concept also includes in addition four dimensions of BL: (3) sustainability; (4) interdisciplinarity, (5) career awareness and (6) nature of biology (NOB), based on literature review (LR) of recent decades, that was conducted to write theoretical overview of this research.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1181
Pages: 1181-1197
cloud_download 1523
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1523
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1007
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4

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3

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Many problems in real life are full of uncertainty. Probabilistic thinking is one way to solve this uncertainty problem. The personality abilities that are interesting to examine include how independent the students are in facing probabilistic solutions. For this reason, it is necessary to study the probabilistic thinking profile of prospective mathematics teachers in solving probabilistic problems in terms of learning the self-regulation. The research method used in this research is qualitative research. In this study, the researcher conducted an analysis of students' probabilistic thinking with the scope of the probability material related to the sample space, the probability of events, and the probability of the random variable space. The profile of the level of probabilistic thinking is influenced by cognitive factors in the form of probabilistic knowledge obtained by students and personality in the form of self-regulated learning. Student learning self-regulated influences the mental activity in decision making. By studying the profile of probabilistic thinking, students are better prepare to face uncertainty with various aspects that influence it.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1199
Pages: 1199-1213
cloud_download 373
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373
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482
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2

Scopus
3

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Absenteeism is of great concern for K–12 school students in the United States. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of parental participation types in absenteeism of Elementary and Secondary Education (K-12) students in the United States. We analyze the data of the U.S. Department of Education (Hanson et al., 2019), in relation to students, schools and parents’ characteristics, along with various parental involvement activities, for exploring how these factors influence K-12 students’ absenteeism in the United States. We employ Chi-square tests for the significance of relationships between parental involvement types and absenteeism of K-12 students. We also undertake multiple logistic regression analyses to evaluate the significance and odds of K-12 students’ absenteeism due to parental involvement activities and other underlying factors. The results of bivariate analyses suggest that parental involvement types are significantly associated with K-12 absenteeism (chi-squared p-value<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis reveals that only a subset of underlying parental activities is significantly related to higher odds of absenteeism as measured by estimates of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval estimates. It also suggests that parental education, ethnicity and poverty adjusted for other factors also significantly affect absenteeism.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1215
Pages: 1215-1225
cloud_download 985
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985
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630
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0

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This study aimed to investigate the mediation role of coping with stress between psychological capital and teacher well-being based on positive psychology, conservation resource, and broaden-and-build theories. Participants in this study were 836 teachers from three clustered, ethnically diverse public universities. Our findings showed that, in line with previous studies, the psychological capital (PsyCap), coping with stress (CWS), and teacher well-being (TWB) dimensions showed the best fit in our data. PsyCap was related positively to TWB (total and dimensions), CWS, coping through withdrawal, and negative coping with acceptance and change. The indirect effect of PsyCap on TWB through coping with stress was fully mediated. PsyCap also positively and directly affected TWB and CWS. Coping through acceptance and change were fully mediated by PsyCap and TWB dimensions, while coping through withdrawal was not. PsyCap directly and positively affected coping with stress (acceptance and change) and negatively affected coping through withdrawal. Future theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1227
Pages: 1227-1245
cloud_download 1187
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1187
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1475
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5

Scopus
6

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Creative thinking is the highest level of the kind of high order thinking. In observations at the schools in Indonesia, teachers overly equate all levels of achievement of students' creative thinking to obtain higher order thinking skill improvements in mathematics learning. This condition results in an imbalance in learning practices. Therefore, this research fills the gap of this imbalance by describing the student’s creative thinking profile as a high order thinking skill in the improvement of mathematics learning. These results can contribute knowledge to educators to manage teaching strategies that can improve mathematics learning which refers to high order thinking skill for all levels of their creative thinking. This research is qualitative descriptive research. The subject were junior high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Data collection methods are tests, observations, and interviews. Data analysis is conducted by reducing data, present data, and conclusions. These research results are descriptions of student’s creative thinking profiles as a high order thinking in mathematics learning improvement, namely students have problems planning problem solving; students take a break to make plans; identify the essence of the problem, provide original ideas, provide alternative problem-solving plans, combine previous ideas with problem questions; operate and implement their plans by creating various original solutions.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1247
Pages: 1247-1258
cloud_download 855
visibility 712
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855
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712
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2

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2

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Multicultural education improves educators’ understanding of the complexities of different cultures and the inherent intersectionality of race, gender, class, and exceptionality to liberate students from oppressive structures within society. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the perceptions of educational leadership graduate students regarding multicultural education and transformative leadership through the lens of critical pedagogy. During this qualitative case study, the researchers used course materials, including discussion and responses, book reviews, and presentations, to answer these research questions: What factors drove the graduate students to want to seek out further experiences for them or their students with multicultural education? What did the participants perceive as potential barriers to influencing educational reform? In what ways did the perceptions of the graduate students regarding multicultural education change over the course of a semester? Three themes emerged from the analysis, the illusion of inclusivity, cultural awareness, and the disconnection between theory and practice. This research could impact current and potential future educational leaders and provides information that would benefit school districts, teachers, and students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1259
Pages: 1259-1273
cloud_download 821
visibility 786
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821
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786
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14

Scopus
14

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The primary purpose of this research was to determine the effect of principal instructional leadership behavior on several determinants: organizational commitment, efficacy, and teacher satisfaction through school health. Five instruments that had been used are the principal instructional management rating scale (PIMRS); organizational health inventory for elementary schools (OHI-E); online course questionnaire (OCQ); teacher satisfaction scale (TSS); teacher efficacy scale (TES). All of these instruments had high validity and reliability; with Cronbach’s alpha values of each was PIMRS (.83), OHI-E (.81), OCQ (.80), TSS (.86), and TES (.79). A total of 350 public primary school teachers in Surakarta had been selected as respondents in this study with satisfied random sampling. AMOS software version 6.0 is used to analyze CFA and SEM. The results of SEM analysis to the structural model built by the researcher was good, with Probability = .001; RMSEA = .043; GFI = .941; AGFI = .907; CMIN/DF = 1.522), so the relationship between the variables in the constructs was interpreted; (1) The Principal instructional leadership behavior had a significant direct influence on the school health, (2) The school health parameter had a significant direct influence on organizational commitment, efficacy, and teacher satisfaction, (3) The principal instructional leadership behavior did not have a significant direct effect on organizational commitment, efficacy, and teacher satisfaction through the variables and school health.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1275
Pages: 1275-1286
cloud_download 406
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406
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448
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1

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Teaching mathematics in general and instructing mathematics at junior schools in particular not only create favorable conditions for students to develop essential and core competencies but also help students enhance mathematical competencies as a foundation for a good study of the subject and promote essential skills for society, in which mathematical communication skill is an important one. This study aimed to train students in mathematics communication by presenting them with topics in line with the structure's congruent triangles. An experimental sample of 40 students in grade 8 at a junior school in Vietnam, in which they were engaged in learning with activities oriented to increase mathematical communication. A research design employing a pre-test, an intervention, and a post-test was implemented to evaluate such a teaching methodology's effectiveness. For assessing how well the students had progressed in mathematical language activities, the gathered data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Empirical results showed that most students experienced a significant improvement in their mathematical communication skills associated with congruent triangles. Additionally, there were some significant implications and recommendations that were drawn from the research results.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1287
Pages: 1287-1302
cloud_download 726
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726
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627
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3

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The purpose of the study is to identify how the instructional model influences students’ reflective disposition and how the students perceived the intervention. The study addressed the research questions through the ‘Artistic Reflection Scale’ for student pre-school educators that consisted of four domains such as students’ observation skills, critical analysis skills, evaluation skills, and the occupation application of artistic reflection, and the course satisfaction questionnaire. The study found that the technology of artistic reflection and image creation was effective in fostering students’ artistic reflective thinking comprising observation skills, critical analysis, their art output evaluation skills with a focus on sharing their reflective experience with the preschoolers. The artistic reflection scale was proved to be a reliable instrument in measuring students’ reflective thinking skills. The study found a change in the artistic reflective skills of the experimental group students was substantially greater than in the students of the control group. After the intervention, there was a shift from the basic level of artistic reflection to the higher levels in the experimental group students, and the proportion of the students being at this stage reduced, while the other proportions increased.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1303
Pages: 1303-1315
cloud_download 244
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244
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280
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3

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The purpose of the study was to examine correlations between perceived teacher innovation (PTI) and self-regulated learning (SRL), where learning motivation, self-efficacy, and learning transfer help illustrate the interplay between and among influencing variables in the teacher-student relationship. This study gathered 213 valid questionnaires out of 355 participants in the Design Thinking for Data Scientists, which is one of the courses taught from a university in Taiwan. This study has analyzed the possible linkage in the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through the path coefficient. The ensuing data analysis study has shown that learning motivation, self-efficacy, and learning transfer not only served as the mediator effects in the PTI and SRL but also played small moderating effects. It appears that when learning motivation, self-efficacy, and learning transfer decrease, the interplay between PTI and SRL becomes stronger. It is necessary to increase the level of intrinsic motivation by the perception of greater innovation in teaching materials. By so doing, students would be more receptive and affective of course contents in the classroom and regulate themselves to achieve educational goals. The implications of teachers' perceptions of pedagogical innovation for learning motivation and learning experience are likewise discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1317
Pages: 1317-1327
cloud_download 249
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377
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Creative thinking skills are 21st century learning needs that can be applied through the Scientific Reading Based Project (SRBP) model. The purpose of this study is to empower creative thinking skills through SRBP models in science learning in elementary school teachers’ education students. This research is mixed research with qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitative research is used to explore students' creative thinking abilities. Quantitative research uses a quasi-experimental approach carried out for six months on the candidates of elementary school teachers’ education. Participants in this study were the candidate of elementary school teachers’ education of 75 people who took the Basic Concept of Science subject. Data collection in this study was through observation, documentation, pre-test, and post-test with essay questions to measure creative thinking skills. The final result of the project is the final product to measure creativity. The data analysis used was an ANOVA test to measure every aspect of creative thinking skill. Qualitative analysis was used to describe the learning process and the final project of creativity. The results showed that there was an increase in creative thinking skills from aspects of flexibility, elaboration, fluency and originality. The SRBP model has a positive effect on improving the ability to think creatively.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1329
Pages: 1329-1340
cloud_download 543
visibility 658
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543
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658
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4

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7

Digital Andragogical Competences of Ecuadorian Higher Education Teachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic

higher education technology teaching competences virtual education andragogy

Derling Jose Mendoza Velazco , Mercedes Navarro Cejas , Magda Francisca Cejas Martinez , Paola Gabriela Vinueza Naranjo , Vladimir Vega Falcón


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The changes brought about in higher education by the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic require effective action. Teachers must be trained to work on university platforms. The study allows us to analyse the current educational problems, which are found in many countries, not only in Ecuador. The research aimed to determine the virtual andragogical competencies of Ecuadorian university education during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed research approach was used. A quantitative analysis was applied first, followed by a qualitative analysis. The sample selection was participatory and non-probabilistic. The sample consisted of 1003 active higher education teachers in Ecuador. A questionnaire of 106 questions divided into four variables was applied. A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed. The analyses demonstrated the need to apply four integral competencies. First the teacher must "Know how to be", through continuous ICT training. After the teacher has been trained, he/she must "Know". This process involves mastering educational technology. After updating knowledge, they must "Know how to live together". Develop critical and constructive communication. Then "Know how to do" by applying an effective guiding methodology. Teacher training under the competency-based approach is seen as a viable alternative.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1341
Pages: 1341-1358
cloud_download 561
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561
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606
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6

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12

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Online English comic is one of reading material that can be used by students. Students should be triggered by interesting and understandable reading material to increase their reading motivation and English proficiency. The objective of this study is to discuss the benefits of online English comics as reading materials and to discover the applications and websites that are usually used by students to read online English comics. This study applied the descriptive qualitative study supported by interviews as a data-gathering technique. The results of this study showed the benefits of online English comics as reading materials. Those are adding language knowledge such as vocabulary and grammar, enhancing reading comprehension, building critical thinking, increasing creativity, and developing reading motivation. The second finding is about the applications and websites to read English comics that students prefer to read. There are some applications and websites that are usually used by students to read English comics. The applications are Webtoon and Ciayo Comic, and also the websites include Mangakakalot.com, Mangareaderapp.com, Mangazuki.info, and Mangapanda.com.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1359
Pages: 1359-1369
cloud_download 1470
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1470
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814
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3

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0

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This study aims to present the potential of Participatory Action Research (PAR) to bring together the experiences of teachers and researchers with the intention of improving teaching practices and students’ learning outcomes. Participants in the study were 7 teachers, their 160 fifths grade students, and researchers (authors). Teachers and researchers participated as partners in all collaborative activities during the period of 12 weeks.  All teachers assisted by the researcher (first author) who serves as a teacher at the same school, were involved in implementing the reciprocal teaching method (RTM) in math classes. They examined each step of the implementation of this method in order to investigate whether it has an impact on student achievement in solving mathematical word problems. Teachers observed the work of students in their classes, whereas in the joint meetings they discussed occasional ambiguities as well as issues that were most challenging for them and their students. The results showed that there was a significant improvement of the students’ results in the post-test of the mathematical word problems. The analysis of teachers' reflections highlights the benefits of collaboration within the PAR project, both for students and teachers. The study suggests that the PAR model can be used effectively within school settings as a research model, and as a pedagogical practice.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1371
Pages: 1371-1382
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Learning in high schools has used a lot of smartphone assistance to make it easier for students to understand the material explained by the teacher. However, with the many uses of smartphones in learning, of course, it must provide positive benefits to the ability of students, especially the science literacy ability. In this study, the objectives to be achieved are to examine how much the smartphone's usability in physics learning, examine students' science literacy and examine the effect of the smartphone’s usability on students' science literacy in physics learning. The method used in this study is a quantitative method with a research design used is a one-shot case study. The data on smartphone usability is obtained using a questionnaire, and science literacy of students is obtained through on physics science literacy test. The results of this study indicate that the smartphones usability and students' science literacy in physics learning are respectively in the high and medium categories with a respective percentage of 57.20% and 36.36%. The students' science literacy is influenced by the smartphone's usability in physics learning by 34.30%. These results indicate that smartphone usability by most students is very high, but has not been able to contribute optimally to students' science literacy. Therefore, special treatment is needed in utilizing the use of smartphones in physics learning so that students' science literacy can be optimized.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1383
Pages: 1383-1396
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717
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497
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2

Vietnamese Students’ Satisfaction toward Higher Education Service: The Relationship between Education Service Quality and Educational Outcomes

educational outcomes education service quality hue university vietnamese student satisfaction

Hong-Van Thi Dinh , Quynh Anh Thi Nguyen , Mai-Huong Thi Phan , Kien The Pham , Tham Nguyen , Hung Thanh Nguyen


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Student satisfaction with education service has been considered one of the most critical strategic factors to attract students of higher education institutions around the world. Various models of satisfaction with education service quality have been developed to motivate actions towards improving the education quality. This study aimed to confirm a Vietnamese theoretical five-dimension model of student satisfaction with higher education service and investigate the relationship between student satisfaction with education service quality and student satisfaction with educational outcomes in this model. A cross-sectional survey on 2933 students from four-member universities of Hue University in Central Vietnam was conducted. The research results showed that the model of student satisfaction with education service in Hue University was consistent with the proposed theoretical model, which comprises five dimensions including access to education service, facilities and teaching equipment, educational environment, educational activities, and educational outcomes. In addition, the satisfaction of all dimensions of education service quality from dimension 1 to 4 affects the satisfaction of educational outcomes, of which educational activities have the most significant impact. This research result can provide a number of implications and recommendations for Hue University to implement appropriate measures to improve student satisfaction with education services received, thereby enhancing educational outcomes, attracting and retaining students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1397
Pages: 1397-1410
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1434
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863
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10

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The primary purpose of this article is to analyze how the origin of the Cold War is represented in Turkish history textbooks for general secondary school education for the twelfth grade. The author examined three history textbooks, which are only approved by the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) for teaching the course of Contemporary Turkish and World History. This research applied content analysis, including narratives and visual interpretation of the origins of the Cold War, and also the events regarding the emergence of Soviet Bloc and Western Bloc in high school history textbooks in Turkey. Findings indicate that treatments of the origin of the Cold War in Turkish history textbooks are remarkably similar in many ways. The traditional approach of the origin of the Cold War, which depicts the Soviet Union as an aggressive power whose primary purpose was to expand Communism to the world, constitutes the dominant narrative in Turkish history textbooks. The representation of the United States is very positive. All textbooks underline that the United States played a crucial role in solving many problems in many different parts of the world to prevent the expansion of Communism.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1411
Pages: 1411-1421
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182
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1160
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This study investigated the influences of social constructivist approaches on history teachers' opinions of social science education. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of social constructivist approaches and explore the views and practices of teachers in their current use of teaching approaches in social science education. For this study, a qualitative study approach was employed. The study was conducted at intermediate secondary schools in the city of Erbil. For open semi-structured interviews, eight teachers of social science education were purposely selected from eight intermediate secondary schools of grade ninth, and eight social science classes were observed. The results revealed that despite significant changes of the system of education, many challenges were identified in implementing social constructivist approaches in social science education such as the environment of fear, the shortage of proper public infrastructure, lack of care, and resources. Also, the study revealed several barriers like absence of sufficient well-designed teaching guidelines, lack of adequate clear instructions, inadequacy classroom teachers' autonomy, and no freedom. Lastly, the study ends up by specifying several conclusions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1423
Pages: 1423-1436
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953
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578
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3

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Citizenship education has been recognised as a desirable attribute of students both by the educational system and Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. The aims of citizenship education will be difficult to achieve unless teacher educators incorporate citizenship education as a main outcome of their courses. Yet, that mainly depends on their understanding of the meaning of citizenship and what the component is that they ought to develop. The current article aims to analyse the perceptions of teacher educators about citizenship and their related teaching practices. Study adopted a qualitative method to collect the data by interviewing five teacher educators from college of education, Sultan Qaboos University. The findings showed that those educators associated citizenship with patriotism and a personally responsible vision of citizenship. In addition, they reported limited practices pertinent to citizenship education and clearly expressed their need for professional development in citizenship education.  

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1437
Pages: 1437-1447
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337
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This research explores how and what strategy is applied for preparing sustainable English teachers' professional development. This study utilizes lesson study strategy-based clinical supervision and quality assurance. Lesson study is a kind of action research based on a cycle base. This study is also recognized as research and development. Based on conceptual and empirical study, it is found that three grand principles of adding quality lesson study implication. Those are cycle reflection in accelerating the teachers’ competencies in English language teaching, clinical supervision nuance, a quality assurance principle by implementing the plan, do, check, and act strategy. This research successfully finds a model for preparing a prospective and sustainable professional teachers development based on lesson study, blended with the clinical supervision and a quality assurance implementation. The outputs consist of connection among professional English teachers; accelerating realization learning and teaching quality based on reflection implication; forming the open attitude and reflecting discussion and depth analysis; building a self-responsibility and awareness as professional teacher attitude; helping one each other in the professional teacher community for accelerating teaching quality by utilizing clinical supervision. Finally, the outcome is obtaining candidates of English professional teachers, prospectively and sustainably, with high-quality EFL teaching performance in national competitiveness.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1449
Pages: 1449-1470
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455
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Teachers who can adapt and be ready for all changes will also be able to provide a balance to increase the competence of vocational high school students. This is also not denied when teachers become assessors in student competency tests. The objectives of this study were to produce an instrument for the readiness of teachers as assessors; to knowing good grain reliability; to know the characteristics of the instrument; and to know the difficulty level of the item. The method used in this research is instrument development. Respondents were vocational school teachers who were candidates for competency test assessors. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire. Analysis of construct validity using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability using Cronbach’s alpha. Test the instrument items using the Rasch model. The results are the readiness instruments of the vocational teacher as an assessor has 19 indicators that have been grouped into 5 factors with consistency values being in the same construct (proven construct validity). The result of the calculation of the reliability of this instrument is 0.852, which means that the reliability coefficient is high; There are two items, namely numbers 24 and 18 which indicate the absence of a fit item in the overall item fit criteria; At the item difficulty level, items 8 and 6 have a difficulty score of more than 2, while this indicates that items 8 and 6 have a high difficulty level.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1471
Pages: 1471-1485
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229
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358
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7

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This article presents the findings of an action research study that evaluated the effectiveness of differentiated instruction in the subject of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in primary education in Greek primary schools. Effective teaching poses a challenge to all educators in all educational levels. The subject of ICT poses multiple challenges to educators due to its applied nature, the limited allocated time and the diverse needs of the students. A differentiated teaching intervention was designed and applied from January to March 2020 to 113 upper elementary students from two elementary schools in Athens. The findings of the research highlight the improvement of the quality of the students’ assessment and the level of students’ active participation due to differentiated instruction. Furthermore, the strategy of flexible grouping, the technique of “thumb it up” cards and the applied differentiated working routine proved to be highly effective. Lastly, the implementation of asynchronous working combined with hierarchical learning activities proved to be challenging to the educator due to its complexity. Based on these findings, the article discusses the importance of further research in the systematic implementation of differentiated instruction in mixed ability classrooms and in multiple subjects.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1487
Pages: 1487-1504
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889
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665
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The equal symbol has been used in diverse mathematical frameworks, such as arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, set theory, and so on. In mathematical terms, the equal sign has been used in fixed command of standings. The study reports on the students meaning and interpretations of the equal sign. The study involved Grade 6, 7, and 8 students in a secondary school in Alain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Much of the earlier research done on the equal sign has focused on the primary school level, but this one focuses on middle school students. The study shows that the maximum foremost understanding of the equal sign amongst Grade 6, 7, and 8 students is a do-something, unidirectional symbol. Students realize the equal sign as an instrument for marking the response moderately than as an interpersonal symbol to associate extents.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1505
Pages: 1505-1514
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392
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448
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9

Student Perceptions of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: A Study of Phenomenology

online learning covid-19 pandemic perceptions phenomenology

Purwadi , Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra , Amien Wahyudi , Agus Supriyanto , Siti Muyana , Prima Suci Rohmadheny , Restu Dwi Ariyanto , Shopyan Jepri Kurniawan


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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic impacted various lines in the international world, including Indonesia. Pandemic COVID-19 in Indonesia has also changed multiple performances in multiple sectors, one of which is education. The concept of learning from home changes lecturers' paradigm as educators in tertiary institutions applying online learning. This study aims to identify students' perceptions of the implementation of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study uses a qualitative research approach with the type of phenomenology. The subject of this study was 22 students in Indonesia who experienced the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This research instrument uses semi-structured interview guidelines. Students perceive online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic as (1) ineffective learning activities; (2) unpleasant learning activities; (3) limit self-actualization in education; (4) helping to become an independent person in learning; and (5) fun learning activities. Higher Education should create innovative and creative online learning strategies. Thus, students have a high enthusiasm for online learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1515
Pages: 1515-1528
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5002
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2153
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18

Assessments on Vocational Knowledge and Skills: A Content Validity Analysis

assessments content validity analysis i-cvi modified kappa vocational knowledge

Mazlili Suhaini , Adnan Ahmad , Normila Mohd Bohari


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While previous studies on assessments focused on measurement of principles and constructs, existing attention is given to content validation involving vocational education and skills. The emphasis on content validation has prompted a holistic perspective of teaching and learning to demand alternative research approaches. Using evidence of content validity based on expert judgment and assessment items, this paper argues that vocational knowledge and skills could be determined via constructs and construct functions. Content validity analysis was studied in two major phases, namely, through an assessment of an electrical technology course at a Malaysian higher education institution and expert panels’ examination of items. It was found that to increase confidence in providing reliable instruments for future empirical studies, a careful process in item development and content validity analysis was considered important. Therefore, applying these findings on item analysis and expert panels to reflect content validity can enhance the validity of assessment items.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1529
Pages: 1529-1540
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253
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416
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5

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5

Mathematics Teachers’ Practices of STEM Education: A Systematic Literature Review

instructional approaches mathematics stem education

Noor Anita Rahman , Roslinda Rosli , Azmin Sham Rambely , Lilia Halim


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Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education is regarded as one of the formulas to embracing many of our imminent challenges. STEM education benefits the learners by encouraging interest in STEM disciplines. This daunting task needs everyone’s concerted efforts in creating and innovating mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for STEM education following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) by Moher et al. (2015). The reviewed articles were published from 2016 to 2020 and accessed using the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases. Three themes for best practices were identified namely (a) core competencies encompassing 21st-century teaching skills; (b) instructional designs; and (c) requisite STEM execution. Results of PRISMA determined the dominant STEM practices were critical thinking, communication, collaboration, problem-solving, research-based pedagogy, problem-based learning and project-based learning, technological integration, accessibility, professional development and learning support, evidence of effectiveness, access to materials and practitioner support, and scalability. Mathematics teachers should determine the best STEM practices to employ even though there is a lack of studies on integrated STEM domains. When more students are interested in venturing and exploring into the field of STEM, the high demand for STEM related careers could be met by the younger generation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1541
Pages: 1541-1559
cloud_download 1038
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13
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1038
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712
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13

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19

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Many studies have pointed out a proportionate relation between metacognition and reading strategies. This study advances such an understanding by arguing that this relation is comprised of several sub-relations. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and Reading Strategies Inventory were conducted among 92 English as Foreign Language students at a Vietnamese university. This study highlights 3 major findings. First, metacognition processes do not merely mean “cognition about cognition”. Second, while previous studies tended to portray metacognition as a whole, it is argued in this study that it is constituted by two main clusters (knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition) which can be further specified into eight sub-components. Third, there seem to be some sub-linearities that underpin students’ metacognition and that influence their uses of reading strategies. These findings are hoped to shed light on preserving spaces and autonomy in curriculum/syllabus development for students to exercise their own metacognition.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1561
Pages: 1561-1578
cloud_download 901
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901
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449
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4

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The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between students’ academic motivation, implicit beliefs about intelligence and learning strategies among undergraduate healthcare students. First-year students of healthcare degree courses from a university in Southern Italy were surveyed. The study measured psychological constructs by means of Academic Motivation Scale, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Dweck’s implicit questions about beliefs of intelligence. Two regression models were computed to assess the association between students’ beliefs about intelligence, motivations for studying, and learning strategies. In the first regression model, predicting students’ use of cognitive strategies from implicit intelligence beliefs and motivations for studying, stronger autonomous motivations were significant predictors of cognitive strategies. The second regression model, predicting students’ use of metacognitive strategies from implicit intelligence beliefs and motivations for studying, was not significant. These findings can be useful to plan tailored educational interventions to promote students’ motivation, incremental beliefs about intelligence and their use of learning strategies positively related with academic performance.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1579
Pages: 1579-1587
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222
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293
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The reason of to be of any educational model is to ensure that its students are self-regulated, which implies the setting of objectives, the monitoring of their actions in order to reach them, the control of their cognitive processes, the use of diverse learning and motivation skills. One way to collaborate in this is to evaluate the student's current situation in order to intervene. Due to the above, the purpose of the study is to determine validity and reliability of the scale Students’ Approaches to Learning (SAL) in Mexican students. The SAL was applied to 894 high school students. Considering the results, the SAL presents good functioning and acceptable psychometric properties. In relation to the internal structure, the results support the composition of the 14 sub-factors of SAL, which is consistent with the original study. The results obtained have enough empirical support to interpret the construct of learning approaches from a multidimensional point of view.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1589
Pages: 1589-1597
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224
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Functional Measurement Applied to Engineering Students’ Test Anxiety Judgment for Online and Face-to-face Tests

test anxiety engineering students cognitive algebra information integration theory

Maria Isolde Hedlefs-Aguilar , Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Ricardo Jesus Villarreal-Lozano , Claudia Moreno-Rodriguez , Erick Alejandro Gonzalez-Rodriguez


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This study explored the cognitive mechanism behind information integration in the test anxiety judgments in 140 engineering students. An experiment was designed to test four factors combined (test goal orientation, test cognitive functioning level, test difficulty and test mode). The experimental task required participants to read 36 scenarios, one at a time and then estimate how much test anxiety they would experience in the evaluation situation described in each scenario. The results indicate three response styles (low, moderate, and high-test anxiety) among the participants. The orientation and difficulty of each given exam scenario were the most critical factors dictating test anxiety judgments. Only the moderate test anxiety group considered the test mode to be a third relevant factor. The integration mechanism for Cluster 1 was multiplicative, while for Clusters 2 and 3, it was summative. Furthermore, these last two clusters differed in terms of the valuation of the factors. These results suggest that programs that help students to cope with test anxiety need to take into account the valuation and integration mechanism that students use to integrate different information in specific examination contexts, since the way students assess their internal and external circumstances can influence how they deal with evaluative situations.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1599
Pages: 1599-1612
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394
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349
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2

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