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'indirect effect' Search Results



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This study focused on the phenomenon of success at work asking whether it would be possible to find factors from top workers’ children and school experiences that would explain their later success. This study was a part of a larger research in which Finnish top workers, employees of the year, who have been selected as successful professionals of their field in Finland were researched. This article focuses on the narrative data collected through qualitative interviews. In this article, their childhood and adolescence experiences were analyzed in order to find out whether successful development could be enhanced already in early phases of life. This study employed the narrative interview method through which top workers were asked to reminisce their childhood and adolescence experiences. What factors have supported their success and how have they coped with adversities in life? According to the results, the most important key to success at work adopted from home was caring upbringing as parents did not set any ambitious goals for success for their children but made the children think about their future and have an optimistic attitude to life. The role of careers counseling at school was also discussed. Analyzing these factors is important if aiming at helping people’s chances of finding an occupation they fit and in which they can use their talents. Experiences and events taking place in childhood and adolescence can be crucial, or at least, direct people in a right direction.

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10.12973/eu-jer.2.2.69
Pages: 69-82
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The major purpose of this study was to create a path analysis model of academic success in a group of university students, which included the variables of academic confidence and psychological capital with a mediator variable - academic coping. 400 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in sophomore, junior and senior years participated in the study. The Academic Behavioral Confidence Scale, the Academic Coping Strategies Scale and the Psychological Capital Test Battery composed of the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Life Orientation Test, the Hope Scale and the Resilience Scale were utilized to disclose the predictive roles of these variables on academic success. The results of path analyses showed that academic confidence and psychological capital had pivotal direct and indirect effects on academic success via the mediator variable – academic coping. Academic coping had also a direct influence on academic success.  The findings of the study are essential for telling both vocational counselors and educational psychologists the fact that career interventions for university students should consider the non-cognitive factors on their academic achievements.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.133
Pages: 133-150
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1191
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The analyses described in this paper permitted an evaluation of whether capacity-building professional development practices were related to early childhood intervention practitioners’ reported use of capacity-building family-centered practices. This was ascertained by structural equation modeling for two different types of family-centered practices (participatory and relational) where the two models were compared to determine the better fitting model and the sizes of effects for the relationships among the variables in the models. Results provided converging evidence that capacity-building professional development engenders practitioners’ use of capacity-building family-centered practices. Implications for practice are described.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.513
Pages: 515-526
cloud_download 1142
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1142
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1476
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19

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22

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A modern teaching method influences both direct and indirect learning achievement through the student's nonacademic factors. The researcher has an intention to examine the influences of new teaching methodology on mathematics achievement towards mathematics attitude, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy of students as mediating variables (n teacher = 117, n student = 2,205). The Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling revealed that attitude towards mathematics is the most important factor in explaining the academic achievement of individual students. It could be explained the variance with achievement motivation and perceived self-efficacy of students by 60.50%. As for the modern teaching method, there was a positive effect on achievement both directly and indirectly through all three factors with statistical significance and explained conjointly about the variance of student achievement in each classroom by 99.00%. This finding suggests the importance and direction of teaching design that covers the development of relevant factors as proposed in discussions and implementations.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.713
Pages: 713-727
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1319
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1056
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17

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17

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Aggression in early childhood is considered to a common problem. Identification, reduction and prevention of aggression, especially in early childhood are also considered prevalent. Preschool teachers are known as one of the most important people in children’s lives as they are the first ones to meet the child after parents. Therefore, they hold an important role in identifying, reducing and preventing child aggression observed in early childhood. The purpose of the present study is to examine the knowledge and the awareness levels of preschool teachers about aggression and aggressive behaviours. The study is based on phenomenological approach, as one of the qualitative research designs. A semi-structured interview form, prepared for the study based on expert opinions, was applied to the participants. On the light of the findings from the preliminary findings, the related form was applied to a second group of teachers over the internet. Besides, an additional scale consisting of the items of two different instruments directed to determine the aggressive behaviours of preschool children were formed and applied to the second group of participants. The last scale, which was prepared depending on the findings obtained from the second group of teachers, was applied to a third group of participants because the first two participant groups could not recognize and define relational aggression. The relevant themes and sub-themes were created from the data obtained and the findings were discussed within the scope of the literature. According to the results of the study, it was seen that preschool teachers generally defined aggression as physical and verbal harm, and similarly, aggressive behaviours were categorized under physical aggression and verbal aggression types. It was determined that teachers generally recognized relational aggression when they saw the items related to it in the scale. However, they hardly emphasized it while they were defining aggression. So, it can be said that preschool teachers have limited knowledge and awareness of relational aggression as they recognize it only when they see it but can neither define nor name it. The results are discussed and some suggestions are recommended.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.471
Pages: 471-487
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784
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921
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3

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3

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This research aims to analyze the effects of intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, and adversity quotient on the graduates quality of vocational higher education. Data were collected from 217 cadets at Surabaya Shipping Polytechnic who already took an internship as respondents using stratified cluster random technique. This is a correlational and quantitative study using a questionnaire developed from several existing scales and analyzed using Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine the path of effects and to create the best structural model of intelligence-based graduates quality (IESA-Q). The results indicate that there are direct and indirect effects of intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, and adversity quotient on graduates quality, meaning that each quotient has a positive effect on graduate’s quality. The process to create the professional and ethical quality of Surabaya Shipping Polytechnic graduate is dominated by Emotional Quotient (25,2%) and Spiritual Quotient (21,4%), while Intelligence Quotient (IQ) becomes the support as it effects the development process of all quotients, Emotional Quotient (EQ), Spiritual Quotient (SQ), and also Adversity Quotient (AQ). Therefore, based on the findings of this study, the student acceptance requirements are emphasized on IQ and EQ as a basis to develop other quotients in order to generate graduates with good quality. Learning is designed on IQ, EQ, SQ, AQ to control and to evaluate process and product outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1075
Pages: 1075-1087
cloud_download 1224
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8

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The paper aims to know the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on the students' entrepreneurial intentions as well as its impact on teacherpreneurship. The design employed was quantitative with the ex post facto method using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the hypothesis. The samples were taken using a stratified random sampling technique, obtaining 70 teachers and 285 students as the respondents. The data were gathered through a questionnaire, which has been tested for validity and reliability. The validity and reliability tests of each variable show the Cronbach's Alpha value, and the Composite Reliability is higher than 0.6 (the minimum standard), while the average variance extracted (AVE) value is higher than 0.50 (the minimum standard for validity). The hypothesis tested using the path coefficient is accepted if the t-statistic is above 1.96 and p-value less than 0.05.The results of the path coefficient and indirect effect are above 1.96 and below 0.05 for the t-statistic and p-value, respectively. Therefore, the three hypotheses are accepted. First, entrepreneurial leadership has a positive and direct significant influence on teacherpreneur, with a t-statistic value of 18.057 and a p-value 0.000. Second, similarly, the teacherpreneur positively and significantly influences students' entrepreneurial intentions, with a t-statistic value of 3.558 and a p-value 0.000. Third, entrepreneurial leadership has an indirect influence on entrepreneurial intentions, mediated by teacherpreneur. In other words, teacherpreneur mediated the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on entrepreneurial intentions, with a t-statistic value of 3.282 and p-value 0.0001. The findings recommend the importance of entrepreneurial leadership and teacherpreneur in establishing the students' entrepreneurial intentions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1605
Pages: 1605-1614
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854
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2

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The research investigated whether there is a correlation between participation in a course entitled "Diversity and multiculturalism in the global era" as perceived by Jewish and Arab students in Israel and a change in the students' attitudes and behaviors and their performance of activities in a multicultural context in the education field. The course was part of a master's degree program in Policy and Administration in Education in an academic college in central Israel. Pre-course and post-course questionnaires were administered to the course participants. Participants were 528 students; 177 responded to the pre-course questionnaire and 351 responded to the post-course questionnaire. The research findings indicated a direct association between participation in the course and activities conducted in the education field. In addition, students’ acquisition of knowledge on multiculturalism mediated the association between participation in the course and performance of multicultural activities in the education field. Differences were found between Jewish and Arab students' reports: Jews reported a multicultural academic atmosphere significantly more than Arabs. Contrastingly, Arab students gave significantly higher grades than Jewish students to reciprocal relations between the groups in the college and reported a more positive change in their attitudes towards the other group and towards multiculturalism and were more convinced that the course contributed to their multicultural thinking. These findings have theoretical and practical implications that can inform policymakers planning education for multiculturalism as a permanent component in academic programs, while responding to different sectors' cultural uniqueness to promote equality between them.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.757
Pages: 757-772
cloud_download 324
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324
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606
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4

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5

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This study aimed to investigate the mediation role of coping with stress between psychological capital and teacher well-being based on positive psychology, conservation resource, and broaden-and-build theories. Participants in this study were 836 teachers from three clustered, ethnically diverse public universities. Our findings showed that, in line with previous studies, the psychological capital (PsyCap), coping with stress (CWS), and teacher well-being (TWB) dimensions showed the best fit in our data. PsyCap was related positively to TWB (total and dimensions), CWS, coping through withdrawal, and negative coping with acceptance and change. The indirect effect of PsyCap on TWB through coping with stress was fully mediated. PsyCap also positively and directly affected TWB and CWS. Coping through acceptance and change were fully mediated by PsyCap and TWB dimensions, while coping through withdrawal was not. PsyCap directly and positively affected coping with stress (acceptance and change) and negatively affected coping through withdrawal. Future theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1227
Pages: 1227-1245
cloud_download 1236
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1236
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1623
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6

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6

The Interrelationships between Metacognition and Modeling Competency: The Moderating Role of the Academic Year

academic year levels confirmatory factor analysis mathematical modeling metacognition structural equation modelling

Riyan Hidayat , Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed Zamri , Hutkemri Zulnaidi , Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee Abdullah , Mazlini Adnan


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Several concerted movements toward mathematical modeling have been seen in the last decade, reflecting the growing global relationship between the role of mathematics in the context of modern science, technology and real life. The literature has mainly covered the theoretical basis of research questions in mathematical modeling and the use of effective research methods in the studies. Driven by the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) theory and empirical evidence on metacognition and modeling competency, this research aimed at exploring the interrelationships between metacognition and mathematical modeling and academic year level as a moderator via the SEM approach. This study involved 538 students as participants. From this sample, 133 students (24.7%) were from the first academic year, 223 (41.4%) were from the second and 182 (33.8%) were from the third. A correlational research design was employed to answer the research question. Cluster random sampling was used to gather the sample. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized moderation employing IBM SPSS Amos version 18. Our findings confirmed the direct correlation between metacognition and mathematical modeling was statistically significant. Academic year level as a partial moderator significantly moderates the interrelationships between the metacognitive strategies and mathematical modeling competency. The effect of metacognition on mathematical modeling competency was more pronounced in the year two group compared to the year one and three groups.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1853
Pages: 1853-1866
cloud_download 566
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566
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499
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7

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6

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The higher educational institution needs a group of dedicated and committed lecturers to endure the institution during these turbulent times. As the organizational commitment reflects the self-identification of an employee with the organization, it has far-reaching implications on multifarious aspects in the organization. This present study investigated whether job satisfaction could mediate the relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment. A total of 452 lecturers from Heilongjiang province in China participated in this study. Structural equation modelling showed that job satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between the dimensions of learning organization and organization, specifically on the effect of continuous learning, connection, and strategic leadership. Job satisfaction is also found to be a stronger predictor of organizational commitment than learning organization. These findings are discussed thoroughly and recommended a holistic plan to be devised that could strengthen learning organization and job satisfaction of lecturers in various aspects of the organization.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.847
Pages: 847-858
cloud_download 753
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753
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828
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4

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4

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The onset of the Coronavirus disease COVID-19 crisis has forced pedagogical institutes to adopt online teaching/learning as an urgent strategy to cope with the pandemic. Utilizing the theories of social capital, knowledge sharing, and mobile learning constructs, this research aims to investigate the association among these constructs in one of the higher education institutes in the context of developing countries. Additionally, to improve our understanding of the mediation effect of mobile learning on this relationship, the author used the structural equation modeling technique to analyze the data from questionnaires administered to undergraduate students attending classes during the pandemic. Results revealed that the relationship between social capital factors and knowledge sharing is significantly positive. Results also showed that there is a partial mediation to back up the correlation of social capital factors and knowledge sharing.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.1197
Pages: 1197-1207
cloud_download 241
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241
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452
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2

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0

The Effects of Online Supervisory Feedback on Student-Supervisor Communications during the COVID-19

communication esl supervisory feedback online feedback performance

Ushba Rasool , Muhammad Zammad Aslam , Jiancheng Qian , Sami Hussein Hakeem Barzani


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This study focuses on online supervisory written feedback on PhD supervisees’ performance, given explicitly through online communication, particularly during the first wave of COVID-19. This unusual situation has brought many different effects on students’ academic lives. This scenario has influenced both students’ and teachers’ mutual communication. A directed qualitative content analysis (DQCA) approach was adapted from previous research and modified for the present context. The current study planned to bring forth the supervisee and supervisors’ perception of the communication and feedback process, considering that online feedback and communication has been a new experience for most students. According to the findings, teachers/supervisors give feedback on students’ production, whereas teacher-student communication also seemed crucial for the performance improvising of learners. The result brought forth a wide range of social, educational, and surprisingly psychological issues both supervisees and supervisors faced during online communication during COVID-19.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1569
Pages: 1569-1579
cloud_download 615
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615
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596
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4

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8

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Students' academic self-concept is a concerning concept in educational research. The purpose of this research is to examine the simultaneous influence and relationship of learning motivation, democratic parenting, and peer relations with academic self-concept in students. This is a correlational research with a cluster random sampling method used to collect data from 962 students. The result showed that learning motivation, democratic parenting, and peer relations had a partial and simultaneous relationship with students' academic self-concept. Furthermore, support from guidance and counselors, homeroom teachers, and parents is essential for students to actualize and develop their character optimally and effectively.  

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1629
Pages: 1629-1641
cloud_download 504
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504
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517
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2

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0

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In the last decade, vocational education in Indonesia has experienced problems in making career decisions for students, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this research aims to examine the role of self-efficacy and mediate digital literacy, social environment, and counselling guidance in influencing career decision-making. This is an ex-post-facto research design with data collected from a sample of 566 vocational education students in Indonesia through a questionnaire method distributed online using Google Form. The collected data was then analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM) with path analysis and bootstrap methods. The results revealed that self-efficacy plays a vital role in mediating digital literacy and guiding students in career decision-making. On the other hand, digital literacy, guidance, and counselling have a significant direct effect on self-efficacy and career decision-making. Meanwhile, the social environment only has a significant direct effect on students’ career decision-making. The real role of all elements of vocational education in strengthening self-efficacy, growing digital literacy, monitoring social environment interactions, and providing counselling guidance to students is needed to increase optimism and the quality of career decision-making in vocational education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1669
Pages: 1669-1682
cloud_download 677
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677
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478
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7

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11

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Mathematics anxiety has always been an interesting topic to study and discuss in the world of education. This study aimed to (1) investigate the impact of teacher roles, mathematics content, and mathematics anxiety on learning motivation, and (2) explore how students manage mathematics anxiety as a stimulus in learning motivation. This research used mixed methods with embedded concurrent design. The research sample was 100 respondents. The questionnaire instrument was arranged based on a Likert scale with 5 answer choices. This study used a structural equation model and confirmatory factor analysis as data analysis methods. The research findings indicated that: (1) a significant direct impact emerged between mathematics anxiety and students' learning motivation, and there was an indirect impact between the teacher's role and mathematics content on learning motivation; (2) students could manage mathematics anxiety when they were in optimal anxiety or positive anxiety so that they could overcome mathematics anxiety as a stimulus for achievement and deconstruct anxiety into motivation according to experience and personal resources. Results of this study confirmed that the statements about mathematics anxiety which always has a negative impact on motivation and learning achievement is not universal, because mathematics anxiety does not always have a negative impact on motivation and learning achievement if this anxiety is managed effectively.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1683
Pages: 1683-1697
cloud_download 437
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437
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530
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2

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1

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This paper analyzes the key determinants of the quality of preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Based on the analysis of recent data, the paper indicates the status and development trends in this regard in the last decade. Although preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina has a long tradition, it is facing a number of challenges, mostly arising from the arrangement of the state system and post-war transition processes which have significantly impoverished this level of education. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to point out the recent public policy efforts made in the attempt to ensure the quality of preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the effects that are being achieved in this regard. Since quality can be approached from the aspects of structure and process, the elementary structural and process dimensions of preschool education will be taken as units of this analysis. Conceptualizing the results of this analysis, the status and quality of preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be positioned through an orientation towards the European framework for the quality and development trends of preschool education in Europe.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1923
Pages: 1923-1936
cloud_download 694
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694
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826
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1

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The loss of direct experiences with nature among today's children is of concern as it affects their conservation willingness (CW). While little is known about the influence of live experiences on CW, much less is known about how these events are related. This study aimed to examine the serial mediating effects of biodiversity knowledge (BK) and affective attitudes (AA) on the relationship between live experiences with species and CW. An online questionnaire was administered to 429 school children (11-12 years) in the Maldives. A two-serial mediation analysis revealed that live experiences exerted significant negative direct and positive indirect effects on CW. Thus, although a predictive sequential pathway from live experiences to BK to AA to CW was confirmed, partial mediation involving other mediators or moderators is likely. The direct effects of live experiences on BK and AA and of BK on AA suggest that experiential learning that stimulates AA is necessary to achieve overall positive impacts on CW. Therefore, educators and policymakers are critical in providing first-hand experiences to instill positive biodiversity conservation traits in children, enabling successful education for sustainable development and long-term biodiversity conservation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2057
Pages: 2057-2067
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339
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419
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1

Analysis of the Effect of Social Skills and Disposition of Digital Literacy on Mathematical Literacy Ability

digital literacy disposition mathematical literacy social skills

Busnawir Busnawir , Kodirun Kodirun , Nana Sumarna , Zulham Alfari


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This study aims to analyze the characteristics of social skills, digital literacy disposition, and mathematical literacy abilities of 49 students; to analyze the theoretical model of the direct and indirect influence of digital literacy skills and social skills on mathematical literacy skills. The number of samples is 49 of the 12th-grade students at state high school #1 Southern Konawe. The research instruments consisted of a mathematical literacy ability test, a social skills questionnaire, and a digital literacy disposition questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and structural equational models (SEM) with a Smart PLS 3.0 application. The results showed that students' mathematical literacy skills tended to be better on content and context indicators but they are weak on competency and process indicators. Students' social skills tend to be better on indicators of peer-relationship skills and self-management skills, but are also weak on indicators of academic skills and compliance skills. Mastery of the digital literacy disposition tends to be better on the internet searching, content evaluation, and information sharing indicators but is still weak on knowledge assembly. Furthermore, it was found that (a) social skills have a direct effect on digital literacy disposition but do not directly affect mathematical literacy skills; (b) the digital literacy disposition has a direct effect on mathematical literacy skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.59
Pages: 59-69
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480
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570
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1

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Crises like COVID-19 affect organizations as well as employees' well-being. Leaders, in this sense, have a critical role to play in reducing the challenges and promoting a healthy workplace. With employees feeling overwhelmed and anxious to cope, leaders should provide the appropriate support and guidance. This quantitative study examined the relationship between different leadership styles, which are participative, directive, supportive, and Laissez-Faire, and teachers' well-being in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study adds insights into the UAE's public school context, where 101 teachers were surveyed following a snowball sampling technique. Findings revealed that Laissez-Faire and directive styles were the most dominant among the four leadership styles examined. In terms of the relationships between leadership styles and well-being, correlation and regression analyses were done through SPSS, and findings from the Generalized Linear Model analysis revealed that although the four styles correlated positively with well-being, the participative leadership style had the most decisive influence. The results showed that none of the demographics had any significant influence on well-being, and no differences in well-being in terms of demographics were reported.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.297
Pages: 297-315
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444
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484
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2

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1

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