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Gender and Learner Characteristics

high ability gender learner characteristics working memory

Huda Hindal , Norman Reid , Rex Whitehead


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It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls differ in these learner characteristics and do any of the differences relate to examination performance. If the development of such learner characteristic is open to experiences in the formal learning situations, then this opens the door to possible ways to encourage the development of such characteristics, with possible concomitant enhancement of academic performance. It is found that girls outperform the boys in tests which measure extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and skills with the visual-spatial (all at p < 0.001). Confirming previous studies, the girls markedly outperform the boys in all school subject examinations but there are no differences in their measured working memory capacities. In looking at the relationships between various combinations of the measurements made, it is found that boys are much more dependent on working memory than girls in performing in examinations, and the boys are also much more dependent on employing skills related to divergent thought in achieving success in examinations. These observations are interpreted in terms of the way boys and girls learn, with girls being more conscientious and willing to memorise than the boys who, in turn, have to rely on working things out for success: girls tend to memorise; boys tend to try to work it out. This may offer an explanation of the greater success of girls in typical examinations where the accurate recall of information is so often the key to success.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.2.2.83
Pages: 83-96
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1494
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1558
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3

How In-Service Teachers Perceive Neuroscience as Connected to Education: An Exploratory Study

teaching learning educational neuroscience teachers

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Flavio Kulevicz Bartoszeck


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This exploratory study is concerned about the extent to which a sample of 163 pre-school, primary and secondary Brazilian school teachers, expressed their opinion on how neuroscience might help their teaching and pupils´ learning. Evaluation instruments for Brazilian pupils were analysed. Two questionnaires were completed by the teachers. Results of a quantitative analysis indicated that in general teachers believe that neuroscience may contribute to the teaching and learning of their subject matter. An outline for an elective neuroscience and education course is presented. Educational implications are discussed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.1.4.301
Pages: 301-319
cloud_download 1783
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1783
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1648
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11

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Acquiring the reading skills and using this skill effectively throughout life is possible by a qualified education hence qualified teachers. Therefore; teachers and candidate teachers are suggested to be; acquired the reading skills, focused on information and learning, trained well as individuals having knowledge of their fields and pedagogics. By the context; the aim of the study is suggested as examining the reading habits, interests, tendencies of the students studying at the Faculty of Education and analyzing the underlying reason behind their preferences. The descriptive phenomenology method; one of the qualitative research methods is used in the study. The studying group within the research is occurred by the 10 students from 5 different fields of Education Faculty, who read books constantly. The data acquired is collected by semi-structured interview questions and content analysis method is benefited to analyze the data. According to the results of the study; 140 discourses are observed to be expressed within the 6 themes, due to the reading habits, interests and tendencies of the students studying at the Faculty of Education. The mentioned themes herein, are formed as the following: “book type interested”, “content interested”, “topic interested”, “acquiring the reading habits”, “criteria for preferring books”, “the effect of social environment to prefer books”. While the most expressed theme is revealed as “criteria for preferring books”, the least one is about the reading habits, within the research.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.6.2.145
Pages: 145-156
cloud_download 644
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644
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1070
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2

Cognitive Analysis of Meaning and Acquired Mental Representations as an Alternative Measurement Method Technique to Innovate E-Assessment

e-assessment learning knowledge representation connectionism educational technology innovation neural nets

Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Ernesto Octavio Lopez-Ramirez , Claudia Castro-Campos , Maria Guadalupe Villarreal-Trevino , Claudia Jaquelina Gonzales-Trujillo


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Empirical directions to innovate e-assessments and to support the theoretical development of e-learning are discussed by presenting a new learning assessment system based on cognitive technology. Specifically, this system encompassing trained neural nets that can discriminate between students who successfully integrated new knowledge course content from students who did not successfully integrate this new knowledge (either because they tried short-term retention or did not acquire new knowledge). This neural network discrimination capacity is based on the idea that once a student has integrated new knowledge into long-term memory, this knowledge will be detected by computer-implemented semantic priming studies (before and after a course) containing schemata-related words from course content (which are obtained using a natural semantic network technique). The research results demonstrate the possibility of innovating e-assessments by implementing mutually constrained responsive and constructive cognitive techniques to evaluate online knowledge acquisition.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.455
Pages: 455-464
cloud_download 554
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554
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867
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10

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This study examines the subjects and concepts in biology perceived to be difficult to learn and teach by 759 pre-service biology teachers registered in the pedagogical formation program at Uludag University Faculty of Education in the academic year of 2005-2016, as well as the associations that word “biology” first calls to their mind. The study was designed as a survey model, and a questionnaire of three scaled questions was used as a data collection tool. The data were classified into 10 different categories based on different branches of biology: Anatomy-Morphology, Biotechnology, Ecology, Evolution, Physiology, Genetics, Histology, Cytology, Systematics and Reproduction and Development. Following the classification, the data were analyzed using frequency and percentages. The subjects and concepts perceived to be difficult to learn by the pre-service teachers are respectively as follows: photosynthesis and its stages, genetics, circulatory system, aerobic respiration, respiratory system, anaerobic respiration, protein synthesis, phanerogams, DNA structure and function, cryptogams, mitosis, plant systematics, endocrine system, meiosis, ETC, urinary system, plant physiology, taxonomy, evolution and digestive system. The subjects and concepts perceived to be difficult to teach by the pre-service teachers are respectively as follows: photosynthesis and its stages, protein synthesis, circulatory system, endocrine system, meiosis, plant systematics, evolution, mitosis, reproduction, genetic crossing over problems, Latinization of names, urinary system, genetics, ecology, aerobic respiration, DNA structure and function, plant tissues, glycolysis and anaerobic respiration. These findings confirm the need for developing undergraduate programs in biology and promoting the research culture at the secondary education level.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.495
Pages: 495-508
cloud_download 687
visibility 978
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687
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978
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6

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The purpose of the study is to reveal the effect of cooperative learning on language skills in an English course. The study was carried out for 5 weeks with 66 students studying at the 10th grade at an Anatolian high school in the district of Karadeniz Eregli in Zonguldak during the fall term of the 2015-2016 academic year. The design of the study was ‘nonequivalent control groups pre-test post-test’ which is one of quasi-experimental designs. Data were gathered using an achievement test measuring students’ vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge, reading comprehension and listening skills. Results showed that cooperative learning had a larger effect on vocabulary knowledge, grammar, listening and reading skills compared to traditional method.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.591
Pages: 591-600
cloud_download 2365
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5
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2365
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1844
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5

Scopus
12

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The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the activities, which are prepared by teaching techniques that support scientific creativity, on the scientific creativity levels of prospective pre-school teachers. In the research, combined design is used, which is one of the mixed research approaches. The study group of the research included a total of 46 prospective pre-school teachers who have studied in the Education Faculty of Kafkas University in 2016-2017 academic year. The applications were carried out in the "science education" which is one of the third-grade 5th-semester courses of the pre-primary education program. The application process was completed in 4 hours a week for a total of 40 hours. In the analysis of the quantitative data collected by Scientific Creativity Test, percentage calculation and t-test were used. Explanatory and inferential codes were used in the analysis of qualitative data obtained from the in-class observations. As a result of the research, it was seen that the course activities in which different techniques were used positively influenced the scientific creativity levels of the prospective teachers. Prospective teachers' level of skills involved in creative trait, creative process, and creative product sub-dimensions also developed. It has been suggested in the direction of these results that different techniques should be used together to develop scientific creativity.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.71
Pages: 71-86
cloud_download 707
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707
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1268
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10

Assessment of the Practices for Early Mathematics Thinking in Preschools of Pasaje City, Ecuador

preschool curriculum mathematical thinking parents’ literacy socio-economical status

Clelia Consuelo Reyes-Cedeno , Hector Ivan Rivas-Cun , Carmen Elizabeth Espinoza-Cevallos , Carlos R. Rojas-Garcia


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Preschool education is fundamental to shape children’s aptitudes and skills in early life. Ecuador is following a global education trend for starting-up mathematical thinking at earlier development ages, but this is only reflected in vehement curricular changes that are not supported properly. As a result, the safeguarding of a good children’s education appears to be lessened. This work aimed to evaluate the mathematics thinking practices in preschools of Pasaje city, Ecuador. The investigation employed a descriptive approach, hence data were collected from 65 teachers and 810 parents from public and private preschools by means of interviews and questionnaire in an attempt define some causes (teacher’s education, children’s socio-economical and family circumstances) that impair the initiation of the numerical, spatial and metric and geometric aptitudes in children. The results showed that not only preschool practices but also the home environment linked to socio-economic status appear to have positive or unfavorable influences on their children’s education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1063
Pages: 1063-1070
cloud_download 387
visibility 747
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387
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747
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4

Scopus
4

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Developing Indonesian English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ structural knowledge presents a number of complexities especially in the bilingual context. This study aimed to determine how the structural knowledge patterns of Indonesian EFL students is, and it specifically explored various aspects that make structural knowledge representation difficult. The research also aimed to formulate an accommodative assessment model for the development of students' structural knowledge. Using a case study design, this study involved 120 English literature students (N=120) taking the Psycholinguistics class at one of the tertiary institutions in Malang, Indonesia. The research instruments included essay tests and questionnaires. The research findings showed that students in bilingual contexts have certain diversity and patterns in their structural knowledge. Second, students’ structural knowledge could be influenced by a number of aspects such as topic mastery and the flow of thought. Furthermore, students’ structural knowledge can be accommodated in an adequate evaluation model that measures structural knowledge and critical thinking skills. Further research in the area of content and language assessment will complete the study of the significance of structural knowledge in a bilingual context.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.629
Pages: 629-638
cloud_download 393
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393
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584
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2

Scopus
2

South Kalimantan Local Wisdom-Based Biology Learning Model

biodiversity material biology learning tools south kalimantan local wisdom

Siti Ramdiah , A. Abidinsyah , Muhammad Royani , H. Husamah , Ahmad Fauzi


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The objectives of this study were to analyze the validity, practicality, and effectiveness of South Kalimantan local wisdom-based biology learning and its effect on student learning outcomes. The research method used is research and development. This research was in a Develop stage of Thiagarajan’s Model. This development has produced learning models (lesson plans, student’s worksheet, learning achievement test questions, teacher activity sheets, student activity sheets, and student response sheets). The local wisdom-based learning model were designed with seven stages using Banjar language (regional language of South Kalimantan). Model that have been developed were tested for the level of validity, practicality, effectiveness, and its effect in learning. The level of validity is determined based on the assessment and review of the four validators. To find out the effectiveness and the effect of the learning model, quasi-experimental design was applied by involving two classes at SMAN 7 Banjarmasin-Indonesia. Data were collected using a variety of instruments, namely the validity assessment sheet, the student’s worksheet and lesson plan sheets, student achievement test questions, and student response sheets. Data analysis was implemented to measure the effectiveness and the effect of learning by calculating n-Gain and ANCOVA, respectively. The results, the learning tools met the "valid" criteria so that it can be implemented. Learning also concluded having good practicality criteria. Moreover, it can be seen that the application of local wisdom-based learning model and tools was quite effective in improving student learning outcomes, in contrast to learning in the control class. Furthermore, ANCOVA test concluded that there were significant differences in learning outcomes between students in the experimental and the control class.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.639
Pages: 639-653
cloud_download 1072
visibility 1121
20
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1072
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1121
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20

Scopus
10

The Effects of the ECIRR Learning Model on Mathematical Reasoning Ability in the Curriculum Perspective 2013: Integration on Student Learning Motivation

ecirr mathematical reasoning ability student learning motivation

Agus Pahrudin , Nur Ahid , Syamsul Huda , Nita Ardianti , Fredi Ganda Putra , Bambang Sri Anggoro , Watcharin Joemsittiprasert


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This study aims to determine the impact of the ECIRR(Elicit, Confront, Identify, Resolve, Reinforce) learning model on students' mathematical reasoning abilities in terms of student motivation. The research method used was a quasy-experimental method with a post-test only control design research design. The population of this study was all students in five classes XII Private School. The Samples were taken at class XII AP-2 and XII MM-1 as the experimental class, and class XII AP-1 and XII MM-2 as the control class. The data analysis technique used is hypothesis testing using ANAVA 2 paths. Based on the research results obtained that (a) There is an influence of the ECIRR (Elicit, Confront, Identify, Resolve, Reinforce) learning model on mathematical reasoning abilities. (b) There is an influence of student learning motivation on mathematical reasoning abilities. (c) There is no interaction between the treatment of learning models and categories of students' learning motivation towards mathematical reasoning abilities. So as a whole it can be concluded that the ECIRR (Elicit, Confront, Identify, Resolve, Reinforce) learning model influences the ability of mathematical reasoning and can increase students' learning motivation.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.675
Pages: 675-684
cloud_download 832
visibility 795
10
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832
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795
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10

Scopus
6

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This study determined the challenging learning experiences of engineering students while completing their degree program as factor that might influence to their changing attitude towards achieving higher academic performance. Mixed method of research was utilised in the study considering the total population of 75 graduating students for quantitative and 12 students for qualitative part of the study using focus group discussion. Results showed that engineering students have significantly higher level of positive attitude towards academic performance during their junior level but significantly lower after taking professional courses. Attaining high academic performance still really matters for the engineering students during their junior level but continuously changing their perspective due to encountered challenging experiences while taking the professional courses. Performance in General Engineering courses describes the attitude of the students towards academic performance in personal aspect while professional courses define their attitude in professional aspect. The finding of the qualitative research revealed that there are three themes emerged in the challenging experiences of the engineering students and these are: Abandoned Social Freedom, Survival of the Fittest and Future Oriented Mindset which contributed to the changing perspectives of the engineering students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1127
Pages: 1127-1140
cloud_download 1968
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5
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1968
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3459
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5

Scopus
5

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The ability to think critically and creatively is essential for students to be able to face the challenges of the industrial revolution 4.0. Lectures must be designed to enhance students’ critical and creative thinking skills. This study aims to examine the implementation of problem-based learning in learning management information systems courses to improve students critical and creative thinking skills. The research design carried out was classroom action research. The subject in this study was students of Economics Education, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang. The research was conducted in April-May 2019. The procedure for implementing class action research are two cycles (plan, action, observation, and reflection). The research data was taken by observation and interview methods. The data analysis method used is descriptive quantitative and qualitative methods. The results showed that two class action research cycles were well implemented. The application of the problem-based learning method can improve students’ critical and creative thinking skills. Students are able to solve a given case by doing the right analysis and being able to provide alternative solutions. Students consider the learning process to be more exciting and challenging. Students can express their opinions well in front of the class. The implication of this research is that lecturers can apply PBL with various combinations of learning strategies to improve students' critical and creative thinking skills.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1141
Pages: 1141-1150
cloud_download 2597
visibility 2020
38
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2597
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2020
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38

Scopus
29

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New Inquiry-Based Learning (NIBL) was developed to improve students’ multiple higher-order thinking skills (MHOTS), such as thinking critically, analytically, creatively, and practically (CACP). This study aimed to examine the increase of students’ MHOTS ability, their perceptions of the NIBL model, and the contribution of the NIBL model to the learning outcomes.  A quasi-experiment of the nonequivalent control group design was implemented in this study. Research subjects were university students majoring in chemistry education and enrolling in the Organic Chemistry course. The experiment and the control groups consisted of 34 and 32 students, respectively. The collected data were analyzed by using t-test and ANCOVA procedures. N-Gain scores were calculated to measure the differences in the increase in learning outcomes. Eta square values measured the contribution of NIBL. The results of this study revealed that there were differences in the learning outcomes of the experiment and control group. The CACP thinking skills and the mastery of organic chemistry concepts of the experiment group increased significantly. The N-Gain scores of practical thinking skills aspect were on medium category, and for critical, analytical, and creative thinking, as well as for mastery of organic chemistry concepts were on high categories. For the control group, the N-Gain scores of all categories were on low or medium categories. The NIBL model effectively improved the prospective chemistry teachers’ M-HOTS in terms of CACP thinking skills and contributed significantly to the increase in the students’ mastery of organic chemistry concepts.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1309
Pages: 1309-1325
cloud_download 1232
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1232
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912
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3

Scopus
5

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This research aimed at analyzing the influence of ‘Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning’ model assisted by realia media, in which it was to improve the scientific literacy and critical thinking skill of primary school students, especially for the material of energy. This quasi-experiment research used single factor independent groups design. The research sample of this research were fourth grade students of SD Inpres Oeba 2 Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, of which students were in the academic year of 2019/2020. The technique of sample collection was carried out purposive sampling for 2 classes. The IVA class was used as the experimental class (POGIL model assisted by the realia media), in which it consisted of 30 students and the IVB class was used as the control class (expository learning) that consisted of 28 students. The learning was carried out in four meetings. The data of scientific literacy and the results test of critical thinking were collected by means of objective test on the energy material. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data using significance level of 0.05. The results indicate that (1) There is a significant difference between the students’ scientific literacy who gain the POGIL learning assisted by the realia media and the students’ scientific literacy who get the expository learning; and (2) There is a significant difference between the critical thinking of students who get POGIL learning assisted by realia media and the students who get the expository learning. It can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the scientific literacy and the students’ critical thinking taught by the POGIL learning that assisted by realia media to the students who use expository learning. Since there is a significant difference, it means that the POGIL learning assisted by realia media has an influence on the students' scientific literacy and critical thinking.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1635
Pages: 1635-1647
cloud_download 1279
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15
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1279
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1160
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15

Scopus
10

Motivation and Learning Strategies: Student Motivation Affects Student Learning Strategies

learning strategies metacognition motivation self-regulated learning student

Hasan Hariri , Dedy Hermanto Karwan , Een Yayah Haenilah , Riswanti Rini , Ujang Suparman


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Despite being a popular research subject internationally, self-regulated learning is relatively under-investigated in the Indonesian context. This article examined student learning motivation and its use as an indicator to predict student learning strategies in an Indonesian school context. This article applied quantitative research design, with Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) used to collect the data. This questionnaire was completed by 408 public high secondary students randomly selected from the population in Lampung Province schools, and multiple regression was used to analyze the obtained data. Results show that student motivation and learning strategies were positively and significantly correlated; three predictor variables of student motivation could significantly predict learning strategies; and value components of student motivation best predicted learning strategies. In conclusion, these findings indicate that, when teachers apply learning strategies, such variables as motivation including value, expectancy, and affective components should be strongly considered to be in place. It is hoped finally that the students will be self-regulated learners for their success.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.39
Pages: 39-49
cloud_download 9312
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16
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9312
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5516
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16

Scopus
13

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This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the IPA KIT teaching aids for earthquakes science KIT in improving students' collaboration skills and creative thinking. The design of this research is a quasi-experimental research with a stratified random sampling technique. This study involved two classes, namely the experimental class (n = 32) and the control class (n = 33) with a pretest-posttest control group design. This research was conducted at SMP Negeri 5 Depok. The statistical analysis used to test the research hypothesis based on the pretest and posttest scores is the normality test, linearity test, homogeneity test, correlation test, effect size, and MANOVA test. The results showed that the use of IPA KIT teaching aids for earthquakes was more effective in improving students' creative thinking skills and collaboration. Therefore, teachers are advised to use the earthquake science KIT teaching aids for earthquakes to improve the creative thinking skills and collaboration of junior high school students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.187
Pages: 187-197
cloud_download 470
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3
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470
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703
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3

Scopus
3

The Effect of Negative Peace in Mind to Aggressive Behavior of Students in Indonesia

aggressive behavior peace education peace of mind

Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra , Agus Supriyanto , Prima Suci Rohmadheny , Budi Astuti , Yulia Ayriza , Sofwan Adiputra


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This ex-post facto research aims to identify the negative influence of peace of mind on students' aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior of students has become a problem that has not been alleviated to the maximum and is increasingly complex. One model of education that seeks to build students' peace of mind is the peace education model. The use of this educational model can suppress the urge of students to show aggressive behavior. The research data was collected using the peace of mind scale (PoMS) and aggressive behavior scale (ABS). The research sample was taken using cluster random technique with a total of 1263 students coming from western part of Indonesia (East Java, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and Lampung), the central part of Indonesia (West Nusa Tenggara and Central Sulawesi), and the eastern part of Indonesia (North Maluku). Data in this study were analyzed using simple linear regression. The results of the analysis of the study concluded that negative peace of mind has an effect of 62.9% on aggressive behavior committed by students. This study is recommended for future researchers to develop peaceful thinking training programs to reduce students' aggressive behavior.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.485
Pages: 485-496
cloud_download 1064
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0
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1064
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737
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0

Scopus

...

Students' critical thinking ability requires improvement from schools as an educational institution. Besides, it is important to maximally integrate character education into mathematics learning. One of the attempts was implementing mathematics comic that contains Pancasila values as teaching material through contextual teaching and learning. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of mathematics comic teaching material with Pancasila values in improving students' critical thinking and character. This is a quasi-experimental study that involves non-equivalent control group design. The population was fourth-grade students of elementary schools in Gajahmungkur District, and data were collected using a critical thinking test and questionnaire. The results showed that using mathematics comic teaching material with Pancasila values was (1) effective in improving students' critical thinking ability; (2) effective in developing character, especially discipline and hard work trait. In the beginning, both character traits were categorized as good, and after treatment, there was an increase in the very good category. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of mathematics comic teaching material with Pancasila values is effective in improving critical thinking ability and character traits.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.497
Pages: 497-508
cloud_download 1096
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20
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1096
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1159
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20

Scopus
14

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The study is intended to expose mind mapping used as strategy for learning which is able to assist students to write their writing assignments. Thirty students who registered in the Teacher Qualification Improvement Program of Universitas Terbuka (UT) was involved as the participants in this present study. The participants had to follow the face-to-face tutorial session of the Instructional System Design course (ISD) course. One of the given assignments of the course was writing the modular based learning materials for the primary school students. The participants had to study the required knowledge and skills of writing the printed modular based learning materials through the systematic and systematic ways. The mind mapping strategy was used to help the students to complete their writing assignments – the printed modular based leaning resources. At the beginning the participants felt uncertain about the writing assignment. The study was found that the use of mind mapping as learning strategy increased the students learning motivation and improve the ability to write the printed modular based learning materials.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.907
Pages: 907-917
cloud_download 1139
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3
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1139
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1020
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3

Scopus
7

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