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'social capital' Search Results



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The objective of the study was to find out the effect of EI and gender on job satisfaction of primary school teachers. A total of 300 (150 male and 150 female) primary school teachers were selected randomly for the study. Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS) were used to collect the data. The study found a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. Regression analysis showed that emotional management and emotional maturity significantly predicted the job satisfaction. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that the interaction effect of gender and EI was not significant. Results also showed that level of EI significantly affected the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. However, there is no significant difference between male and female teachers regarding the level of job satisfaction. There are other factors which affect job satisfaction but the role of EI cannot be neglected. So the level of EI must be taken into consideration in order to select the best teachers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.1
Pages: 1-9
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2007
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Research indicates attributes and practices for mentor teachers that can be used for effective mentoring. Universities provide guidelines for preservice teacher (mentee) engagement in schools generally from anecdotal evidence, however, what are desirable attributes and practices for mentees? This qualitative study gathers data from 25 mentor teachers through an extended response questionnaire and audio-recorded focus group discussions about attributes and practices for mentees. Findings showed that desirable attributes for mentees included: enthusiasm, being personable, commitment to children, lifelong learning/love of learning, open/reflective to feedback, develop resilience, and taking responsibility for their learning, while desirable practices included: planned and preparation for teaching, reflective practices; understanding school and university policies, knowing students for differentiated learning, and building a teaching repertoire (e.g. teaching strategies, behaviour management, content knowledge, and questioning skills). Preservice teachers need to consider teachers‟ suggestions on desirable attributes and practices that can help them achieve positive teaching experiences.

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10.12973/eu-jer.2.3.107
Pages: 107-119
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This paper explored the myriad problems associated with undergraduate research supervision in social studies and religious education using one of the primary Colleges of Education near Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana as a case study. The study applied qualitative research involving interviews and focus group interviews to solicit information from eight college lecturers and ten final year students doing research in Religious Education and Social Studies. The respondents were purposively selected on the basis that they would provide rich data on the supervision of research projects. Additional information was generated through document and content analysis. The findings revealed that supervisors and student teachers at undergraduate level experience a large array of problems related to research capacity. The students, for example lacked presentation skills which has resulted in failure to present original work. There is also evidence of a relatively inadequate supervisory skills by college lecturers in terms of executing their supervision duties. The study concludes by calling for both supervisors and their supervisees to consider undergraduate research as a two-way process which requires expertise and adequate skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.2.1.37
Pages: 37-50
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The study investigated the present position of literacy, information and communication technology (ICT} in Prisons by examining the perception of inmates .The study adopted a descriptive survey using structured questionnaire and observation guides on a randomly and purposively drawn sample of 664 inmates out of a population of 47,628 inmates nationally. Frequency counts and percentage were used to analyze the data. The results indicated that in the 21 prisons studied in 12 Nigerian states, the literacy level was low; that inmates were inadequately rehabilitated and that the presence of information and communication technology was lacking. The findings have important implication for literacy development, information and communication technology programmes in Prisons for empowering inmates and reducing recidivism. This paper points to the need to retrace, redirect, restructure and refocus their services and activities on literacy, rehabilitation, information and communication technology so as to empower the inmates.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.117
Pages: 117-126
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This study focuses on the evaluation of academic conferences and ways of improving them. The study includes a case study of one university in Israel. Sixty two academic faculty members from varied departments completed a questionnaire, including 61.7% women and 38.3% men. The research participants were asked a single open question: "What do you think could be improved at conferences?" In addition, age, seniority, and the number of times the respondents had initiated or served as a partner in initiating a conference were also examined. The main findings are as follows: Age predicts seniority. Seniority has a positive effect on the number of times the respondent organized or was a partner in organizing a conference. Seniority has a negative effect on time, i.e., the more senior the faculty member the more he or she would like conferences to be short and to the point. Moreover, the amount of initiatives to organize a conference or to be a partner in establishing a conference has a negative effect on interaction, i.e., the more initiating the faculty member the less he or she is interested in interpersonal interactions at conferences. The wish to space out sessions and lectures has a positive effect on the need to improve the quality of the lectures.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.445
Pages: 445-450
cloud_download 307
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307
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742
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12

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The aim of this study was to determine the causes of social media addiction of individuals, who define themselves as social media addicts, in a clearer and more concrete way. In order to achieve this aim, participants have been tested with an addiction test, and 25 university students who perceive themselves as social media addicts were selected for the study. The findings of the research showed that participants' reasons for using social media were lack of friends, social necessity of social media, feeling of fulfillment, fear of missing out, intertwining of social media and daily life. The study also pointed out that social media addiction has a beginning and a continuity phase. It has been shown that the individuals who were in the beginning phase tended to start using social media for reasons such as not being able to find friends, lack of socialization, and monotony of life. In the continuity stage of individual addiction, they stated that they use social media for reasons such as, fulfilling a duty, and protecting social relations that they had. One of the reasons for addiction was the need to socialize, while male participants were more interested in acquiring new friends, female participants were more interested in communicating with their real life friends.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.861
Pages: 861-865
cloud_download 10773
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18

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Gender differences in mathematics learning outcomes are still evident in many countries participating in large scale international testing, as well as in national testing in Israel, the context in which the study reported here was conducted. The participants were 281 students from three Israeli elementary schools and were in grades 4 and 6. The students completed a questionnaire with items based on a selection of variables included in explanatory models for gender differences in mathematics. It was found that many students held gendered beliefs related to mathematics learning, particularly when the questions asked related to themselves or to significant others in their lives (parents and teachers); the views of the majority of students were gender neutral. When presented with two photographs -a man, and a woman- and asked who was the one more likely to work with mathematics, it was clear that the students’ choices and explanations echoed perceptions of mathematics as a male domain.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.867
Pages: 867-876
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514
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6

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The major purpose of this study was to create a path analysis model of academic success in a group of university students, which included the variables of academic confidence and psychological capital with a mediator variable - academic coping. 400 undergraduates from Marmara University and Istanbul Commerce University who were in sophomore, junior and senior years participated in the study. The Academic Behavioral Confidence Scale, the Academic Coping Strategies Scale and the Psychological Capital Test Battery composed of the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Life Orientation Test, the Hope Scale and the Resilience Scale were utilized to disclose the predictive roles of these variables on academic success. The results of path analyses showed that academic confidence and psychological capital had pivotal direct and indirect effects on academic success via the mediator variable – academic coping. Academic coping had also a direct influence on academic success.  The findings of the study are essential for telling both vocational counselors and educational psychologists the fact that career interventions for university students should consider the non-cognitive factors on their academic achievements.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.1.133
Pages: 133-150
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The purpose of the present study is to determine if high school students' character strengths composed of twenty-four different features, being virtuous including six dimensions and demographic characteristics predict risky behaviors. The participants of the study were 380 students aged between 14-19 years and enrolled in general high schools. The data was collected by using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Young People and the Risky Behaviors Scale. From the findings, it was determined that the risk of school drop-out score was higher in the ninth grades and the male students had more risky behaviors compared to the their female counterparts. Moreover, it was also determined that the risky behaviors were significantly related to many character strengths. Besides this, as a result of the regression analyses, it was found that the character strengths predicted risky behaviors composed of the areas of anti-social behaviors, use of alcohol/cigarette, eating habits, suicide tendency and school leave at different levels. The findings were discussed within the context of adolescents’ psychological counseling needs and suggestionThe purpose of the present study is to determine if high school students' character strengths composed of twenty-four different strengths, virtues including six dimensions and demographic characteristics predict risky behaviors. The participants of the study were 380 students aged between 14-19 years and enrolled in general high schools. The data was collected by using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth and the Risky Behaviors Scale. From the findings, it was determined that the risk of school drop-out score was higher in the ninth grades and the male students had more risky behaviors compared to their female counterparts. Moreover, it was also determined that the risky behaviors were significantly related to many character strengths. Besides this, as a result of the regression analyses, it was found that the character strengths predicted risky behaviors composed of the areas of anti-social behaviors, use of alcohol/cigarette, eating habits, suicide tendency and school dropout at different levels. The findings were discussed within the context of adolescents’ psychological counseling needs and suggestions were proposed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.501
Pages: 501-513
cloud_download 754
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754
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869
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5

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This research employs survey-based correlational model. This study has been carried out to reveal the relationships among perceived multi-dimensional social support and satisfaction with life, job satisfaction and job stress. The research data were gathered from 355 teachers working at schools in Hatay city in 2018-2019 academic year. Data were achieved by “Perceived Multi-Dimensional Social Support Scale”, “Job Satisfaction”, “Job Stress” and “Satisfaction with Life”. The relationships between multi-dimensional social support and job satisfaction, job stress and satisfaction with life have been determined in the measurement model. Structural equation model shows that perceived social support has a positive impact on teachers’ job satisfaction and satisfaction with life, in reverse, a negative impact on teachers’ job stress. Besides this, perceived social support positively affects teachers’ satisfaction with life through the partial mediation effects of job satisfaction and job stress. It has been concluded in this study that increasing perceived social support is an effective strategy for increasing job and life satisfaction and decreasing stress of teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.607
Pages: 607-616
cloud_download 356
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356
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2

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This descriptive and regression research was conducted to determine the influence of empowerment on organizational behaviors of 215 teachers in Catholic Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines. The results revealed that Catholic teachers have high levels of teacher empowerment. Specifically, they have very high level of status, professional growth, self-efficacy, and impact and high level of decision-making and autonomy in scheduling. Meanwhile, they also high level of organizational behaviors. Furthermore, three of the subscales of teacher empowerment tend to predict almost all dimensions of organizational behaviors of teachers in the school. The research concludes that Catholic Higher Education teachers are empowered to their organization as they feel respected, have opportunities for professional growth, feel efficient and effective in the classroom, and have the capacity to influence students and the school life. However, they do not have enough avenues to be involved in the decision-making process of their institution and do not have enough freedom and opportunities to choose their own schedules and teaching loads. Furthermore, they exhibit positive organizational behaviors in their institutions as manifested in their strong attachment to their organization, high level of involvement to their work, harmonious relationship with their supervisors and middle level managers. Also, they exhibit discretionary actions that goes beyond their functions, and have a desire and passion to continue and uphold the teaching profession.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.617
Pages: 617-631
cloud_download 1472
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19

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Social media (SM) use is a rapidly growing phenomenon among Millennials. Thus, a growing body of studies have explored the beneficial applications and negative consequences of their use in an increasingly virtual world. The current study aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures university students’ motives for using SM from a psychological and social perspective. In Study 1 (N = 316), the psychometric properties of SM motives were examined. The estimated factorial structure was validated in Study 2 (N = 200). The Study 1 results showed two active personal motives scales (i.e., self-actualization and purposive motives), one passive motive scale (i.e., enjoyment), one active contextual motive scale (i.e., self-enhancement), and a contextual (neither active nor passive) motive scale (i.e., a factor of convenience). Study 2 findings confirmed this factorial structure. Construct validity was supported with significant differences between three types of users (i.e., productive, consuming, and disinterested) on their motives (151 words).

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.835
Pages: 835-851
cloud_download 793
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793
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781
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4

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4

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This research aims to analyze the effects of intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, and adversity quotient on the graduates quality of vocational higher education. Data were collected from 217 cadets at Surabaya Shipping Polytechnic who already took an internship as respondents using stratified cluster random technique. This is a correlational and quantitative study using a questionnaire developed from several existing scales and analyzed using Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine the path of effects and to create the best structural model of intelligence-based graduates quality (IESA-Q). The results indicate that there are direct and indirect effects of intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, and adversity quotient on graduates quality, meaning that each quotient has a positive effect on graduate’s quality. The process to create the professional and ethical quality of Surabaya Shipping Polytechnic graduate is dominated by Emotional Quotient (25,2%) and Spiritual Quotient (21,4%), while Intelligence Quotient (IQ) becomes the support as it effects the development process of all quotients, Emotional Quotient (EQ), Spiritual Quotient (SQ), and also Adversity Quotient (AQ). Therefore, based on the findings of this study, the student acceptance requirements are emphasized on IQ and EQ as a basis to develop other quotients in order to generate graduates with good quality. Learning is designed on IQ, EQ, SQ, AQ to control and to evaluate process and product outcomes.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1075
Pages: 1075-1087
cloud_download 1224
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1224
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1638
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8

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This research aims to investigate the effect of socio-scientific issues (SSI) based instruction on preservice science teachers’ soft skills and environmental awareness. By applying cluster random sampling, 83 preservice science teachers (PSTs) were selected from the Department of Science Education at a university in Indonesia. The participants were divided into two groups which comprised the experimental group who were taught using SSI-based instruction, while the control group received direct instruction. The quasi-experimental study was carried out through a pre- and posttest control group design. Data was gathered quantitatively using soft skills and environmental awareness questionnaires. The soft skills questionnaire comprised six sub-skills questions: communication, collaboration, problem-solving, creativity, teamwork, and social interaction. The environmental awareness questionnaire contained questions about the PSTs’ attitudes, behavior, and willingness to act. These sub-skills were developed based on literature studies and reviews of previous studies. Face validity was conducted by the experts, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.84 (for soft skills) and 0.86 (for environmental awareness) were obtained. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The result showed that SSI-based instruction had a significant effect on improving preservice science teachers’ soft skills and environmental awareness. After being taught using SSI-based instruction, all the sub-skills of the soft skills of the experimental group had increased compared to before. A similar trend was also found in their scores for environmental awareness. All the components of environmental awareness, after lecturing using SSI-based instruction, showed a significant increase compared to before. These results support the claim that SSI-based instruction fosters soft skills and promotes environmental awareness.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.161
Pages: 161-174
cloud_download 978
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978
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1411
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11

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Teachers in the constitution in Indonesia are professionals who must meet pedagogical, social, personal, and professional competencies. This qualitative research with a phenomenological approach aims to explore the experiences of the teacher professional education program (PPG) participants in gaining soft skills. The research data were collected through in-depth interviews conducted on fifteen PPG participants consisting of seven females and eight males. The fifteen participants attended PPG in five universities spread out from universities in Central Java, West Java, Yogyakarta Special Region, and Jakarta Special Capital Region. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. Data analysis was carried out through the horizontalization, texturally, structurally, and essential descriptions stages. The results of this research found that PPG participants received soft skills learning in hidden curriculum patterns so that each participant had an initial understanding and how to get various soft skill understandings. Soft skills obtained by participants during the PPG implementation are self-confidence, collaboration, hard work, respect for culture, patience, wisdom, maturity, mental resilience, humility, responsibility, creative thinking, positive thinking, cooperation, humility, respect for others, and tolerance. This research recommends that soft skills learning at PPG be implemented with a structured curriculum so that participants have better abilities as teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.313
Pages: 313-325
cloud_download 1077
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1077
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1110
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7

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5

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The aim of the study is to adapt Preschool Children’s Science Motivation Scale (PCSMS) developed by Oppermann et al. into Turkish and conduct the validity and reliability analyses. This scale is considered important in terms of evaluating the science motivation of preschool children through the science concepts they are familiar with, based on their daily life experiences. The research data were obtained from 303 children attending preschool education in central districts of Adana. The findings of exploratory factor analysis, a two-factor structure named self-confidence and enjoyment consist of 28 items was determined in accordance with the original structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that this two-factor structure showed good fit. Subsequently, the study proceeded to reliability analyses and Cronbach’s α and Composite Reliability values were calculated. In consequence of the study, it was seen that the original form of the scale and the goodness of fit and internal consistency values obtained within the scope of the adaptation form coincided. The findings of the study indicate that the Turkish version of the PCSMS is valid and reliable for Turkish preschoolers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.891
Pages: 891-906
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480
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649
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2

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1

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More and more student trajectories involve an academic stay abroad. To achieve the intercultural, personal or linguistic objectives associated with such placements, social inclusion with peers and faculty in the place of study is needed. This paper applies Bourdieu’s theory of capital as a conceptual framework to examine the experiences of students who have competed a placement abroad, in particular students from educationally disadvantaged families, students with disabilities, and migrant students. Longitudinal data were taken from the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) with N=8.469 students. The findings show the interrelatedness of social inclusion and a placement abroad: students who experience high social inclusion with peers and faculty at the beginning of their studies are more likely to study abroad. Social capital with faculty increases after such a placement, in particular for at-risk student groups, while no difference in the increase in social inclusion is observed between student groups. The findings imply a need for early interventions as some of the effects already take place in the first semester.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.945
Pages: 945-955
cloud_download 388
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388
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538
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2

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This study aimed to investigate the mediation role of coping with stress between psychological capital and teacher well-being based on positive psychology, conservation resource, and broaden-and-build theories. Participants in this study were 836 teachers from three clustered, ethnically diverse public universities. Our findings showed that, in line with previous studies, the psychological capital (PsyCap), coping with stress (CWS), and teacher well-being (TWB) dimensions showed the best fit in our data. PsyCap was related positively to TWB (total and dimensions), CWS, coping through withdrawal, and negative coping with acceptance and change. The indirect effect of PsyCap on TWB through coping with stress was fully mediated. PsyCap also positively and directly affected TWB and CWS. Coping through acceptance and change were fully mediated by PsyCap and TWB dimensions, while coping through withdrawal was not. PsyCap directly and positively affected coping with stress (acceptance and change) and negatively affected coping through withdrawal. Future theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1227
Pages: 1227-1245
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1236
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1623
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6

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The primary purpose of this research was to determine the effect of principal instructional leadership behavior on several determinants: organizational commitment, efficacy, and teacher satisfaction through school health. Five instruments that had been used are the principal instructional management rating scale (PIMRS); organizational health inventory for elementary schools (OHI-E); online course questionnaire (OCQ); teacher satisfaction scale (TSS); teacher efficacy scale (TES). All of these instruments had high validity and reliability; with Cronbach’s alpha values of each was PIMRS (.83), OHI-E (.81), OCQ (.80), TSS (.86), and TES (.79). A total of 350 public primary school teachers in Surakarta had been selected as respondents in this study with satisfied random sampling. AMOS software version 6.0 is used to analyze CFA and SEM. The results of SEM analysis to the structural model built by the researcher was good, with Probability = .001; RMSEA = .043; GFI = .941; AGFI = .907; CMIN/DF = 1.522), so the relationship between the variables in the constructs was interpreted; (1) The Principal instructional leadership behavior had a significant direct influence on the school health, (2) The school health parameter had a significant direct influence on organizational commitment, efficacy, and teacher satisfaction, (3) The principal instructional leadership behavior did not have a significant direct effect on organizational commitment, efficacy, and teacher satisfaction through the variables and school health.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1275
Pages: 1275-1286
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1

Mathematics Teachers’ Practices of STEM Education: A Systematic Literature Review

instructional approaches mathematics stem education

Noor Anita Rahman , Roslinda Rosli , Azmin Sham Rambely , Lilia Halim


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Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education is regarded as one of the formulas to embracing many of our imminent challenges. STEM education benefits the learners by encouraging interest in STEM disciplines. This daunting task needs everyone’s concerted efforts in creating and innovating mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for STEM education following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) by Moher et al. (2015). The reviewed articles were published from 2016 to 2020 and accessed using the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases. Three themes for best practices were identified namely (a) core competencies encompassing 21st-century teaching skills; (b) instructional designs; and (c) requisite STEM execution. Results of PRISMA determined the dominant STEM practices were critical thinking, communication, collaboration, problem-solving, research-based pedagogy, problem-based learning and project-based learning, technological integration, accessibility, professional development and learning support, evidence of effectiveness, access to materials and practitioner support, and scalability. Mathematics teachers should determine the best STEM practices to employ even though there is a lack of studies on integrated STEM domains. When more students are interested in venturing and exploring into the field of STEM, the high demand for STEM related careers could be met by the younger generation.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1541
Pages: 1541-1559
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19

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