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This study investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on Iranian adult EFL learners’ use of direct strategies. To this end, a sample of 88 non-English major university students at Sohrevardi Nonprofit College in Qazvin were assigned to two groups, and each group received instruction under one of the treatment conditions including cooperative and competitive teaching techniques. To collect data, the Persian translation of a modified version of the subsection of Oxford’s Strategy Inventory of Language Learning pertaining to direct strategy use was administered before and after the treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) procedure. The result of data analysis showed no significant difference between the effects of competitive and cooperative teaching techniques on direct strategy use of Iranian adult EFL learners. The findings of the present study may have implications for learners, teachers, and syllabus designers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.5.1.19
Pages: 19-25
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921
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1102
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2

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Learning to Teach for Social Justice as a Cross Cultural Concept: Findings from Three Countries

learning to teach social justice cross cultural concept

Marilyn Cochran-Smith , Larry Ludlow , Fiona Ell , Michael O'Leary , Sarah Enterline


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All over the world, countries are paying close attention to how teachers are recruited, selected, and prepared for the nation’s schools. Increasingly, teachers are expected to teach all students to high standards at the same time that they play a major role in meeting rising expectations regarding social equity. Preparing teachers for these challenges is among the most pressing and complex tasks in teacher education. In response to these and other challenges, some initial teacher education programs now include among their major goals preparing teachers to teach for social justice, work toward equity and access for all students, and/or challenge inequities in existing educational systems and policies. This article focuses on three initial teacher education programs—one each in the United States, New Zealand, and Ireland. Although these programs differ from one another in many ways, they also share some goals related to teaching for social justice and equity. The article examines longitudinal survey data regarding teacher candidates’ scores on the “Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs” scale, which was designed to measure candidates’ endorsement of beliefs consistent with the concept of teaching for social justice. For each of the three research sites, the article analyzes: (a) demographic and teacher quality contexts, (b) initial teacher education program goals related to social justice/social equity, and (c) the results of surveys administered to teacher candidates at entry to and exit from the programs. The article concludes with discussion of learning to teach for social justice as a cross-cultural concept.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.171
Pages: 171-198
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The study investigated differences in students’ reported overall test anxiety before, during, or after test taking among two school-levels and gender. Differences among three test anxiety components (thoughts, off-task behaviors, and autonomic reactions) were also examined. Participants were 725 primary (349 females, 376 males) and 375 middle (180 females, 195 males) school students from a metropolitan city in Turkey. Turkish students’ reported overall test anxiety declined from primary to middle school, with females showing higher test anxiety throughout school years. Whereas students rated thoughts high, autonomic reactions were rated low; followed by off-task behaviors. Female and male students did not differ in thoughts and autonomic reactions. School-level differences were found in off-task behaviors and autonomic reactions. The pattern of Turkish students’ overall test anxiety derived as a combination of thoughts, off-task behaviors, and autonomic reactions was discussed, and educational implications were offered.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.2.187
Pages: 187-197
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1269
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1719
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9

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of ethical leadership on teachers’ job satisfaction, and affective commitment in an education sector. This study proposes that ethical leadership has a significant and positive effect on overall job satisfaction and affective commitment. Moreover, it suggests that ethical leadership has an influence on overall job satisfaction and affective commitment. In this study, the relationships among the variables were evaluated using correlation, and regression analysis. The results which is based on a sample of 150 teachers from four private schools in Pakistan demonstrate that overall job satisfaction has a significant and positive influence on affective commitment, whereas, marriage as a demographic variable has a positive effect on overall job satisfaction and affective commitment.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.475
Pages: 475-484
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604
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1398
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3

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In this work, we have analyzed the opinions of teacher candidates of French as a foreign language on the method that should be used in the teaching of reading-comprehension, one of the main linguistic skills. At the end of the Fall Semester of the 2011-2012 academic year, a survey constituted of three open-ended questions was carried out among teacher candidates studying at the French Language Teaching Programme of the Faculty of Education of Uludag University. Among the 120 students enrolled in the Programme, 64 have participated in the survey voluntarily and expressed their opinions. Students have been priorly informed about the study and the link of the survey prepared via Google Docs has been sent to them through an e-mail where they were asked to fill in the study in Turkish. In the scope of the present work, only student opinions relating to option b of the study's second question -i.e. on the method that should be used in the teaching of the reading skill in French- have been taken into consideration. In this qualitative work based on a case study pattern, opinions have first been sorted out through the content analysis method and have been classified; then, they have been compared with and discussed in the light of opinions and suggestions that already exist in literature. Lastly, findings have been interpreted and presented as a determination.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.667
Pages: 667-677
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319
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626
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Firstly, the researcher provides an insightful introduction into the phenomenon focused on to explicate the learners’ views about the role of school counselors in line with career selection. To attain the study objectives, the researcher used a multi-unit case study to investigate the perceptions among high-school students about school counselors’ roles and career selection. The investigator used open-ended questionnaires to harness information and then utilized the qualitative descriptive approach to analyze the data. Analysis of the information collected via open-ended questionnaires was done through thematic analysis, which was a subset of the broader qualitative descriptive technique. The findings denoted that high-school learners have varied perceptions with regards to the roles of school counselors and career selection.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.763
Pages: 763-774
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1482
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6

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The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not teachers’ lifelong learning tendencies vary by gender, professional field, educational level of service, professional seniority, and frequency of reading a book, magazine, and newspaper. The study employs a descriptive research model. Its population consists of primary teachers and field teachers working in the central district of Kayseri province, located in the middle part of Turkey, in the 2015-2016 academic year. The study group consists of 380 teachers chosen from this population through stratified sampling. The data were collected through Personal Information Form and Lifelong Learning Tendency Scale developed by Diker-Coskun. The obtained data were analyzed via SPSS 20.00 at 0.05 significance level. The study revealed that the teachers working in the middle part of Turkey have low lifelong learning tendencies. Also, the study determined that the teachers’ lifelong learning tendencies significantly vary by gender, professional field, educational level of service, and frequency of reading a book, magazine, and newspaper, but professional seniority is not a factor that leads to a significant difference in lifelong learning tendency.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.729
Pages: 729-741
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481
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816
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6

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7

Budget Plan to Manage Income and Expenses in College Students: Some Features that Explain It

prevision plan savings life insurance car insurance

Arturo Garcia-Santillan , Teresa Zamora-Lobato , Jesica J. Ramos-Hernandez


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The purpose of this study is to describe the actions taken by college students to face their future retirement. For this, the test designed by the National Commission for the Protection and Defense of Financial Services Users (CONDUSEF) in Mexico was used, which has items related to financial knowledge, specifically topics about savings, emergency funds and life insurance, among others. The instrument was applied to 60 UPAV college students of different levels, during the school cycle of February-August 2018, in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz; it should be noted that the range of age was older than 21 but younger than 23 years old. The descriptive analysis showed results that lead us to believe that students have emergency funds (53%) but these are used to face unexpected situations (59%); also, students do not have life insurance, which could be concerning in their personal and family life if/when they have to face a present or future illness. Regarding car insurance, most of the respondents stated that they do not own one, besides considering it an unnecessary expense. One of the study limitations was the surveyed population; hence the need to widen this research to encompass more students from such geographical area in order to obtain a wider outlook of said behavior.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.809
Pages: 809-826
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2398
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This study considers the interaction between an e-learning system, the Blackboard system, and the students who use it in Saudi Arabia. While previous work exists, there is limited consideration of the assessment of the preferences of e-learning system usability variables based on students’ perspectives, especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. This paper attempts to fill the gap by investigating the relative importance of the design criteria developed for e-learning system usability evaluation from the students’ perspective in Saudi tertiary education. Based on reviewed literature, a set of usability principles was developed that have had an influence in the students’ learning process and use of the e-learning system. The list includes system navigation, system learnability, visual design, information quality, instructional assessment and system interactivity. An exploratory study was carried out to identify the most important usability design characteristics from a student’s perspective and then evaluate the overall usability of the current e-learning system, based on this subset. A quantitative approach was adopted to weigh usability design characteristics, based on 181 learners’ perceptions. The sample consists of undergraduates who are users of a web-based e-learning system in a university in Saudi Arabia. The research instrument was tested for construct validity and reliability. The analysed results have shown that information quality is the most important dimension followed by the navigation of the e-learning system. The study has also revealed that the system learnability and visual design came third and fourth in order of importance of e-learning system usability assessment. Finally, the least important design categories that influenced the e-learning system usability assessment were instructional assessment and system interactivity. The empirical results of this study may help to provide insights for designers and evaluators leading to a more effective approach to improve the usability and uptake of the e-learning system.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.839
Pages: 839-855
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1222
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1095
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25

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43

Anxiety toward Math: A Descriptive Analysis by Sociodemographic Variable

anxiety towards mathematics economics students gender region type of university

Nemesis Larracilla-Salazar , Elena Moreno-Garcia , Milka Elena Escalera-Chavez


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The following analysis provides evidence from the comparative levels of anxiety towards mathematics of the variables from the categories presented by the AMARS and sociodemographic variables as well. A sample of 381 economics students in Mexico answered the survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (x̄, Sd.) was carried out and to identify if there are significant differences of means in the sociodemographic variables, the ANOVA analysis was carried out.  Although in general the anxiety towards mathematics presented in Mexican economics students is “very little”, in the dimension of mathematical evaluation the results of the descriptive analysis show that economics students from the south of Mexico have more anxiety than students from other regions. Regarding gender, women feel more anxiety than men towards mathematics evaluation. Likewise, students from public institutions show greater anxiety towards mathematics in the evaluation processes than those belonging to private. Finally, ANOVA test showed that the variable Region showed values less than 0.05 in two of three dimensions (ANXTASK and ANXCOUR). The ANXEVAL dimension showed values < 0.05 in the variable Gender as the ANXEVAL and ANXCOUR showed values < 0.05 in the variable University, this because there is a difference in means.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1039
Pages: 1039-1051
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419
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642
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2

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2

Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Engineering Students’ Desire to Cheat During Online and Onsite Statistics Exams

propensity for academic cheating learning evaluation online face-to-face evaluation and cognitive algebra

Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Ernesto Octavio Lopez-Ramirez , Yanko Norberto Mezquita-Hoyos , Rafael Lopez-Perez , Ana Yolanda Lara Resendiz


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A sample of 327 engineering bachelor students from a public university in Mexico took part in an information integration study to explore systematic thinking underlying propensity for cheating during a course exam. All study participants were provided with written descriptions of 12 scenarios pertaining to the academic evaluation criteria and were asked to rate the likelihood that they would cheat under such circumstances. The 12 scenarios reflected the experimental manipulation of three orthogonal factors: teacher’s teaching style, type of exam, and modality of assessment. Analysis results revealed four distinct attitudes toward cheating among students, two of which were independent of context (low and high desire to cheat) while the remaining two were context-dependent (low and moderate desire to cheat). All groups showed systematic thinking underlying their possible desire to cheat that was typified by the use of a summative cognitive rule for integrating information related to academic cheating. However, evaluation of factor relevance varied across the groups.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1145
Pages: 1145-1158
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435
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758
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6

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The article reveals the problem of empirical research of training higher education institutions teachers in the context of the master’s degree programme. This study specifies and adapts the methods of diagnostics, criteria for conducting teacher training which are reasonable, psychologically and pedagogically approved and could be implemented in the institutions of higher education of different profiles. It was found out that the training of a teacher within the boundaries of the master’s degree programme of institutions of higher education is an actual task of three-level training of a specialist in Ukraine and requires a differentiated approach for institutions of higher education of various profiles. The components of the programme, based on their comparative characteristics, the status of teacher training in higher education institutions of different profiles with the application of certain criteria, indicators and levels were determined. Comparative analysis of the results of determining the levels of activity empathy and pedagogical reflection formation at the final stage of the study showed objective differences in teacher training in the context of the master’s degree programme of institutions of higher education of different profiles. The perspective directions of the problem under consideration are the study of the didactic conditions of effective teacher training for the master's degree in higher education and the development of the Concept of master’s training in higher education institutions on this basis, the analysis of the influence of the main factors on the formation of a teacher of a higher educational institution in the context of a master’s degree programme, in the profile professional training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.67
Pages: 67-78
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571
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741
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5

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5

Emotional Intelligence of Elementary Scholar: Instructional Strategy and Personality Tendency

students' emotional intelligence elementary school students' learning strategies students' personality types

Nilawati Tadjuddin , Robingatin Robingatin , Meriyati Meriyati , Eti Hadiati , Rifda El Fiah , Ahmad Walid , Widayanti Widayanti


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Each child has a different personality type of tendency. Personality type is closely related to emotional intelligence. Through this study, we report the analysis results of the effects of personality type tendencies and the application of learning strategies in controlling the emotional intelligence of elementary school students. This study uses the quasi-experimental method with a 2x2 factorial design in data collection. Data analysis used was a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Research findings show that students with extrovert tendencies personality are better than students with introvert personality types. The application of inquiry strategies in learning is better at controlling emotional intelligence than the application of expository strategies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.203
Pages: 203-213
cloud_download 789
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789
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947
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1

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In this study we aimed to investigate the role of hope, secure attachment with the parents, and satisfaction levels of the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) of university students in predicting their happiness levels. A total of 558 university students were recruited and 70% of them were female and 30% of them were male. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 29. The data were collected in classroom settings using personal information form, the Oxford Happiness Scale, the Attachment with the Parents Scale, the Basic Psychological Needs Scale, and the Dispositional Hope Scale. Results indicated that that the satisfaction levels of the competence needs were the most powerful predictor of happiness among university students. The satisfaction levels of autonomy, relatedness needs, and a secure attachment to the father, along with hope contributed little to the explanation of happiness; whereas, a secure attachment to the mother was not a predictor of happiness of the university students. The findings were discussed within the framework of the developmental characteristics of university students and the characteristics of collectivist societies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.433
Pages: 433-444
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816
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948
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6

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5

Didactic Modes of Scientific Experiments in Moroccan High Schools: Photosynthesis as an Example

scientific experiment didactical types typology of experiments

Sophia Bouzit , Anouar Alami , Sabah Selmaoui , Moncef Zaki , Boujemaa Agorram


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This exploratory study aims to verify whether the current use of scientific experiments in the Moroccan high-school science curriculum meets students’ needs for experimental scientific learning. For that purpose, a sample chapter of the official science textbook was analysed in detail. The analysis was carried out using a didactic model of the French didactician Coquide, which categorizes teaching objectives into three modes: practical familiarisation, empirical investigation and conceptual construction. Analysis grids were built based on a selection of the three didactical modes’ attributes. These grids were used to identify the presence and the weight of these three didactical modes within the chosen sample chapter. Results reveal that experiments in the high-school scientific curriculum are not presented in a balanced way and rarely implemented according to a didactic logic. The study also shows that the experiments analysed are essentially focused on the conceptual construction mode while neglecting practical familiarisation and empirical investigation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.775
Pages: 775-785
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405
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583
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2

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2

Analysis of Training Offers on Active Methodologies for University Teachers in Spain

university teacher training training needs training offers

Lina Higueras-Rodriguez , Maria del Mar Garcia-Vita , Marta Medina-Garcia


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The current offer of training courses for university teachers is due, among other needs, to the implementation of an educational model based on student learning, promoting the use of active methodologies for their motivation and academic performance. An exploratory-descriptive and ideographic study is presented where the main technique is the analysis of content. To this end, 15 Spanish universities with the greatest prestige were analyzed according to the parameters of the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) in relation to the topics related to active methodologies and the profile of university teachers. The results show the different teacher training courses that have been carried out during the 2019/2020 academic year. We find that there are more universities that present more training of this type than others, and who this type of training is aimed at: new teachers and teachers with professional experience. The conclusions are related to the importance of the courses for the professional development of university teachers, since they should not be anchored in the same methodology, but should be open to new challenges and always taking into account the students, enhancing their motivation and academic performance.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1223
Pages: 1223-1234
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302
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551
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3

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4

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New Inquiry-Based Learning (NIBL) was developed to improve students’ multiple higher-order thinking skills (MHOTS), such as thinking critically, analytically, creatively, and practically (CACP). This study aimed to examine the increase of students’ MHOTS ability, their perceptions of the NIBL model, and the contribution of the NIBL model to the learning outcomes.  A quasi-experiment of the nonequivalent control group design was implemented in this study. Research subjects were university students majoring in chemistry education and enrolling in the Organic Chemistry course. The experiment and the control groups consisted of 34 and 32 students, respectively. The collected data were analyzed by using t-test and ANCOVA procedures. N-Gain scores were calculated to measure the differences in the increase in learning outcomes. Eta square values measured the contribution of NIBL. The results of this study revealed that there were differences in the learning outcomes of the experiment and control group. The CACP thinking skills and the mastery of organic chemistry concepts of the experiment group increased significantly. The N-Gain scores of practical thinking skills aspect were on medium category, and for critical, analytical, and creative thinking, as well as for mastery of organic chemistry concepts were on high categories. For the control group, the N-Gain scores of all categories were on low or medium categories. The NIBL model effectively improved the prospective chemistry teachers’ M-HOTS in terms of CACP thinking skills and contributed significantly to the increase in the students’ mastery of organic chemistry concepts.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1309
Pages: 1309-1325
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913
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3

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5

Information Integration Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Face-to-Face or Online Statistics Test Anxiety Judgments of Engineering Students

test anxiety engineering students online classroom face to face classroom integration information theory

Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Angel Garcia-Collantes , Maria Isolde Hedlefs-Aguilar , David Jose Charles-Cavazos , Yanko Norberto Mezquita-Hoyos


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This study examined information integration cognitive mechanisms underlying the test anxiety judgments of 474 engineering students. The experimental design considered the orthogonal combination of three factors (teaching style, exam type, and test mode), resulting in 12 experimental scenarios. During the experiments, participants were provided one scenario at a time and were asked to rate their anticipated anxiety level in the described situation. Subsequent analyses failed to reveal statistically significant differences in the anxiety levels reported by females and males. However, the factor selection and valuation female students adopted to make their anxiety judgments differed from those employed by their male peers. Cluster analysis identified three groups based on the anxiety level (low, medium, and high). The most relevant factor for all clusters was test mode, and only the medium anxiety group considered a second factor (exam type) to make their anxiety judgments, which was integrated through an additive cognitive rule. These findings suggest that participants place a higher weight on the examination context than its type when making their test anxiety judgments. Identifying these cognitive mechanisms underlying test anxiety could help regulate conditions that undermine the students' ability to cope with test anxiety.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.23
Pages: 23-37
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728
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3

Reflection of Down Syndrome Children on Cartoons: Cases of ‘My Brother Ozi’ and ‘Punky’

down syndrome children’s reality perception social representation cartoon

Özlem Dağlı Gökbulut , Burak Gökbulut , Mustafa Yeniasır


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In several shows prepared for children and adults in the media, the representation of “individuals with special needs” can ensure that other members of the society empathize with disability and the characteristics of disabled people, and make it easier that prejudices are replaced by social acceptance through gaining information. Finding a place frequently used in children’s literature, children’s reality satisfies the curiosity and experience-gaining demands of children about the cases they encounter for the first time using various examples, and helps them internalize the information and experience they gain. Children’s shows and cartoons have an effective power in influencing the viewpoint of children as target group for disabled people within the framework of “children’s reality” by means of the representation of children with special needs who are socially disadvantaged. In this context, the purpose of this study is to evaluate and examine in terms of various factors the social representation style of main characters with Down Syndrome represented in “My Brother Ozi” and “Punky” cartoons broadcasted on local children television channels and internet sites where cartoons for children can be found. 51 episodes of both cartoons (26 and 25) were viewed in the framework of the study and findings were analyzed using “document analysis” method which is a qualitative research method.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.719
Pages: 719-728
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597
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0

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Considering the low achievement of Indonesian students in international studies (PISA), which measures Higher-Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) in solving the problem, improving the quality of mathematics learning in Indonesia is very important. The purpose of this research was conducted to explore the variations in students’ learning strategies and students’ Self–Regulated Learning (SRL) in solving mathematical HOT problems. The study employed a mixed-method, namely quantitative and qualitative methods were applied through five tests and seven interviews for over eight weeks. Two types of instruments were employed in this study, and they include tests and interviews. At the initial stage, we randomly selected 30 students from all those in grade 10 (Senior High School ), after which 12 were chosen purposively after the pre-test for an interview, having satisfied all complete group, middle group, and lower group. All of them were treated using metacognitive questions. Data analysis techniques used were percentage, data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The quantitative results showed the students could generally use orientation, organization, and elaboration learning strategies as observed with 68.3%, 60%, and 56.7% for complete, middle, and lower groups. Moreover, the students were also observed to have conducted three cognitive processes in selecting the rules for solving the mathematical HOT problem, namely using models and drawing, written texts, and combining both. Furthermore, their final solution failures were affected by their misconceptions and errors in creating the mathematical model. The interview results on designing the learning procedures, monitoring the progress, and evaluating the outcomes, show that the students’ SRL level is good for complete (89.3%), middle (75%), and lower groups (60.7%).

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.743
Pages: 743-756
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903
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923
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4

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5

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