logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
problem based learning aptitude treatment interaction creative mathematical thinking skills

The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning and Aptitude Treatment Interaction in Improving Mathematical Creative Thinking Skills on Curriculum 2013

Ruhban Maskur , Sumarno , Yasinta Rahmawati , Kenny Pradana , Muhamad Syazali , Ari Septian , Endah Kinarya Palupi

The development of the revolution era 4.0 which increasingly rapidly demands the wider community to have the ability to think creatively mathematicall.


The development of the revolution era 4.0 which increasingly rapidly demands the wider community to have the ability to think creatively mathematically. One effort to improve the ability to think creatively is through quality education. Quality education can be improved through to train thinking using the right learning model. This study aims to see which results are more effective in improving students' thinking skills between the two learning models applied. The two models are Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI) models. This research method uses quasi experimental method with a posttest only control test design not control group. This study uses two group subjects with two experimental classes. The analysis of the data used the hypothesis testing of the non-correlated 2-sample t-test. Based on the research results obtained Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI) models have a better effect on students' creative thinking abilities compared to Problem Based Learning (PBL) models.

Keywords: Problem based learning, aptitude treatment interaction, creative mathematical thinking skills.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Abdurrahman, A., Nurulsari, N., Maulina, H., Rahman, B., Umam, R., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2019). Multi-level scaffolding: A novel approach of physics teacher development program for promoting content knowledge mastery. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 7(8), 71–89.

Abello-romero, J., Mancilla, C., & Viancos, P. (2019). Diversity of the right to information and its negative effect on universities in Latin America. Utopia and Latin American Praxis /Utopia Y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(4), 5–9.

Abidin, Y. (2014). Desain sistem pembelajaran dalam konteks kurikulum 2013 [Design learning systems in the context of the curriculum 2013]. Bandung, Indonesia: Refika Aditama.

Andiyana, M. A., Maya, R., & Hidayat, W. (2018). Ability analysis thinking creative creative student mathematics students in material building construction. Journal of Innovative Mathematics Learning/Jurnal Pembelajaran Matematika Inovatif, 1(3), 239. https://doi.org/10.22460/jpmi.v1i3.p239-248

Anita, I. W. (2017). Implementasi Pembelajaran Berbasis Proyek Untuk Menumbuhkan Kemampuan Berpikir Kreatif Matematis Mahasiswa. Journal of Mathematics Research and Learning /Jurnal Penelitian dan Pembelajaran Matematika, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.30870/jppm.v10i1.1287

Arifin, Z. (2017). Developing information and technology based learning model in curriculum and instruction subject to improve students’ learning achievement. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Educational Sciences (ICES 2017) - Volume 2 (pp. 327-333). Bandung, Indonesia: SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda.

Ario, M. (2016). Analisis kemampuan penalaran matematis siswa smk setelah mengikuti pembelajaran berbasis masalah [Analysis of students' mathematical reasoning ability after attending problem-based learning]. Edu Research Scientific Journal /Jurnal Ilmiah Edu Research, 5(2), 125-134.

Choridah, D. T. (2013). The role of learning based on problems to improve the ability of communication and thinking creative and disposition mathematic high school students. Infinity Journal, 2(2), 35-48, 194.https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v2i2.35

Dewi, H. (2019). The ability of Indonesian students below the OECD average. Retrieved from https://katadata.co.id/infografik/2019/12/16/kemampuan-siswa-indonesia-di-bawah-rata-rata-oecd

Dhayanti, D., Johar, R., & Zubainur, C. M. (2018). Improving students’ critical and creative thinking through realistic mathematics education using geometer’s sketchpad. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 3(1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.23917/jramathedu.v3i1.5618

Diani, R., Herliantari, H., Irwandani, I., Saregar, A., & Umam, R. (2019). The effectiveness of SSCS learning model: Its impact on the students’ creative problem-solving ability on the concept of substance pressure. Journal of Physics Research and Its Applications /Jurnal Penelitian Fisika Dan Aplikasinya (JPFA), 9(1). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.26740/jpfa.v9n1.p%25p

Diani, R., Irwandani, I., Al-Hijrah, A.-H., Yetri, Y., Fujiani, D., Hartati, N. S., & Umam, R. (2019). Physics learning through active learning based interactive conceptual instructions (ALBICI) to improve critical thinking ability. Journal of Natural Sciences Research and Learning /JurnalPenelitian Dan Pembelajaran IPA, 5(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.30870/jppi.v5i1.3469.

Diniyah, A. N., Akbar, G. A. M., Akbar, P., Nurjaman, A., & Bernard, M. (2018). Analisis kemampuan kemampuan penalaran dan self confidence siswa sma dalam materi peluang [Analysis of the ability of reasoning abilities and self-confidence of high school students in the material opportunities]. Journal on Education, 1(1), 14-21.

Felisardo, F., Llinas-audet, X., & Amestica-rivas, L. (2019). Competencies In the formation of the administrator: Unreto higher education institutions in Brazil. Utopia and Latin American Praxis /Utopia Y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(4), 13–24.

Fitri, I. (2017). Self-efficacy terhadapmatematikamelaluipendekatan aptitude treatment interaction. Journal of Mathematics Learning Review /Jurnal Review Pembelajaran Matematika, 2(2), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.15642/jrpm.2017.2.2.167-175.

Fuadi, R., Johar, R., & Munzir, S. (2016). Peningkatkan kemampuan pemahaman dan penalaran matematis melalui pendekatan kontekstual [Enhancing ability to understand and introduce mathematics through the contextual context]. Journal of Mathematical Didactics /Jurnal Didaktika Matematika, 3(1), 47-54.

Habibi, B., Hartinah, S., Umam, R., Syazali, M., Lestari, F., Abdurrahman, A., & Jauhariyah, D. (2019). Factor determinants of teacher professionalism as development of student learning education at school of SMK PGRI in Tegal City, Indonesia. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 6(2), 125–134.

Happy, N., & Widjajanti, D. B. (2014).Keefektifan PBL Ditinjau Dari KemampuanBerpikirKritis Dan Kreatif Matematis, Serta Self-Esteem Siswa SMP. Journal of Mathematics Education Research /Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 1(1), 48-59. https://doi.org/10.21831/jrpm.v1i1.2663

Hidayat, W., Jayanti, K., Nurismadanti, I. F., Ikhsanuddin Akbar, M. Z., Pertiwi, K. A., & Rengganis, P. (2019). Learning RME (Realistic Mathematics Education) against the mathematical creative thinking ability in middle school students. Journal of Innovative Mathematics Learning /Jurnal Pembelajaran Matematika Inovatif, 2(1), 41-58. https://doi.org/10.22460/jpmi.v2i1.p41-50

Huang, P.-S., Peng, S.-L., Chen, H.-C., Tseng, L.-C., & Hsu, L.-C. (2017). The relative influences of domain knowledge and domain-general divergent thinking on scientific creativity and mathematical creativity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 25(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2017.06.001

Ismayani, A. (2016). Pengaruh Penerapan Stem Project- Based Learning Terhadap Kreativitas. Indonesian Digital Journal of Mathematics and Education3(4), 264–272. https://doi.org/2407-8530

Kasayanond, A., Umam, R., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2019).Environmental sustainability and its growth in Malaysia by elaborating the green economy and environmental efficiency. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 9(5), 465–473. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.8310.

Kusumawati, M. (2016).Description of students’ activity in mathematics learning through the implementation of aptitude treatment interaction based on cognitive style of grade Ix.2 At SMPN 26. Makassar. Journal of Mathematical Power /Jurnal Daya Matematis, 4(3), 339-349. https://doi.org/10.26858/jds.v4i3.2927

Laurens, T., Batlolona, F., Batlolona, J., & Leasa, M. (2017).How does Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) improve students’ mathematics cognitive achievement? Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(2), 569–578. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/76959

Lehmann, J., Goussios, C., & Seufert, T. (2016).Working memory capacity and disfluency effect: An aptitude-treatment-interaction study. Metacognition Learning, 11(1), 89–105.

Lestari, F., Saryantono, B., Syazali, M., Saregar, A., Jauhariyah, D., & Umam, R. (2019). Cooperative learning application with the method of network tree concept map : Based on Japanese learning system approach. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 7(1), 15–32. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.471466.

Lestari, I. (2018). The effect of aptitude treatment interaction learning model on mathematical communication ability. Jurnal Gantang, 3(2), 153–160. https://doi.org/10.31629/jg.v3i2.478.

Maskur, R., Syazali, M., & Utami, L. F. (2019).Islamic-nuanced calculus module with open-ended approach in real number system material. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1155(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1155/1/012081.

Munoz-fritis, C. (2019). Culture and leadership styles in academic units: a study in a higher education institution. Utopia and Latin American Praxis /Utopia Y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(4), 25–35.

Munifah, Huda, S., Hamida, U. D., Subandi, Syazali, M., & Umam, R. (2019a). The use of management strategies to attract the public’s interest in Pesantren : A new model for Pesantren dynamics study. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 8(8), 363–383.

Munifah, Romadhon, A. N., Ridhona, I., & Ramadhani, R. (2019b). How to Manage Numerical Abilities in Algebra Material? Al-Jabar: Journal of Mathematics Education /Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 10(2), 223–232. https://doi.org/ 10.24042/ajpm.v10i2.5325

Munifah, Iskandar, T., Yasin, M., Tortop, H. S., Palupi, E. K., & Umam, R. (2019c). Management system of education: Conceptual similarity (integration) between Japanese learning system and Islamic learning system in Indonesia. Tadris Journal of Teacher Training and Tarbiyah Science /Tadris Jurnal Keguruan Dan Ilmu Tarbiyah, 4(2), 159–170. https://doi.org/10.24042/tadris.v4i2.4893

Nasution, P. R. (2017). Perbedaan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis dan kemandirian belajar siswa pada pembelajaran berbasis masalah dan pembelajaran konvensional di SMPN 4 Padangsidimpuan [Difference increased ability creative thinking creative mathematic and independence learning student at learning based problems and learning conventional in SMPN 4 Padangsidimpuan]. Teacher Journal /Jurnal Paidagogeo, 2(1), 46-62.

Networks, S., Channels, D., Participation, C., Moreno, Z., & Trejo, G. Z. (2019). Social networks as digi-impact channels in citizen participation. Utopia and Latin American Praxis/Utopia Y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(3), 30–45.

Nugroho, A. (2018). Effects of aptitude treatment interaction learning on ability of problem solving problems mathematics students class XI IPA of SMA Negeri Baturraden (Unpublished bachelor degree thesis). Muhammadiyah University Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indenosia.

Pahrudin, et al (2019). The analysis of pre-service physics teachers in scientific literacy: Focus on the competence and knowledge aspects. IPA Indonesian Science Education Journal /jurnal pendidikan ipa indonesia, 8(1), 52–62. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v8i1.15728

Pamungkas, Y., & Afriansyah, E. A. (2017). Aptitude treatment interaction against the abilities of understanding student mathematics. RAFA Mathematics Education Journal /Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika RAFA, 3(1), 122–130. https://doi.org/10.19109/jpmrafa.v3i1.1445.

Prastowo, R., Huda, S., Umam, R., Jermsittiparsert, K., Prasetiyo, A. E., Tortop, H. S., & Syazali, M. (2019). The effectiveness of environmental geophysical learning in developing academic achievement and conceptual understanding of electrodynamics: Applications Geoelectricusing cooperative learning model. Scientific Journal of Physical Education Al-Biruni/ Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika Al-Biruni, 8(2), 165–175. https://doi.org/10.24042/jipfalbiruni.v0i0.4614.

Preacher, K. J., & Sterba, S. K. (2019).Aptitude-by-treatment interactions in research on educational interventions.Exceptional Children, 85(2), 248–264. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402918802803.

Rahmawati, R., Lestari, F., & Umam, R. (2019).Analysis of the effectiveness of learning in the use of learning modules against student learning outcomes. Decimal: Journal of Mathematics /Desimal: Jurnal Matematika, 2(3), 233–240.

Ramadhani, R., Umam, R., Abdurrahman, A., & Syazali, M. (2019). The effect of flipped-problem based learning model integrated with LMS-google classroom for senior high school students. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young, 7(2), 137–158. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.548350.

Rodriguez-ponce, E., & Rodriguez-ponce, J. (2019). University governance: A case study from a school of education in Chile. Utopia and Latin American Praxis /Utopia Y Praxis Latinoamericana, 24(4), 36–46.

Rusman, R. (2013). Learning models develop teacher professionalism. Bandung, Indonesia: Pt Raja grafindo Persada.

Sagala, R., Umam, R., Thahir, A., Saregar, A., & Wardani, I. (2019). The Effectiveness of STEM-based on gender differences: The impact of physics concept understanding. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 753–763. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.753.

Sanders, S. (2016). Critical and creative thinkers in mathematics classrooms. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 6(1), 19-27.

Santoso, H. R. W., Ratu, N., & Yunianta, T. N. H. (2014). Description of ability levels of thinking creative (TKBK) on the material of the quadrilateral students class VII junior high school 1 Pabelan Semarang Regency. Satya Widya, 30(2), 82-94. https://doi.org/10.24246/j.sw.2014.v30.i2.p82-95

Saregar, A., Diani, R., Kholid, R., & Lampung, I. R. I. (2017). Efektivitas penerapan model pembelajaran ATI (Aptitude Treatment Interaction) dan model pembelajaran TAI (Team Assisted Individualy): Dampak terhadap hasil belajar fisika siswa [Effectiveness of ATI (Aptitude Treatment Interaction) learning model and TAI (Team Assisted Individualy) learning model: Impact on student learning outcomes physics students]. Journal of Physical and Scientific Education/ Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika dan Keilmua, 3(1), 8-19.

Sariningsih, R., & Herdiman, I. (2017). Developing the ability to recognize statistics and think creatively about student scholarship in the City of Cimahi always open-ended approach. Journal of Mathematics Education Research /Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 4(2), 239. https://doi.org/10.21831/jrpm.v4i2.16685

Sariningsih, R., & Kadarisma, G. (2016). Improving mathematical creative thinking ability and independence of junior high school student learning through scientific approaches based on ethnomatatics. P2M STKIP Siliwangi, 3(1), 53-63. https://doi.org/10.22460/p2m.v3i1p53-56.478

Schettino, C. (2016). A framework for problem-based learning: Teaching Mathematics with a relational problem-based pedagogy. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1602

Sitorus, J., & Masrayati. (2016). Students’ creative thinking process stages: Implementation of realistic mathematics education. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22(1), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2016.09.007.

Sriyakul, T., Umam, R., Jermsittiparsert, K., Development, T., Chi, H., City, M., … City, M. (2019). Internal supply chain integration and operational performance of Indonesian fashion industry firms : A supplier to buyer approach. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(2), 479–486. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7256

Sriwongchai, A. (2015). Developing the mathematics learning management model for improving creative thinking in Thailand. International Education Studies, 8(11), 77-87. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n11p77

Suastika, K. (2017). Mathematics learning model of open problem solving to develop students’ creativity. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 12(3), 569-577.

Sugiyono,  S. (2013). Educational research methods (Quantitative, qualitative, and R & D approaches). Bandung, Indonesia: Alfabeta.

Sumarni, S., Yuni Pertiwi, S. T., Rukiyah, Andika, W. D., Astikae, R. T.,  Abdurrahman, & Umam, R. (2019). Behavior in early childhood (2-3) years : A case study on the use of gadgets in social environments. International Journal of Innovation Creativity and Change, 8(8), 384–404.

Syahrir, S., Syazali, M., Maskur, R., Amrulloh, M. A., Sada, H. J., & Listiani, B. (2019).Calculus module for derivative application materials with an Islamic contextual teaching and learning approach. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1155(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1155/1/012079

Syazali, M., Sari, N. R., Sukawati, S., Sari, W. R., Pertiwi, S. D., Putra, A., & Putra, F. G. (2019). Islamic-nuanced linear algebra module with problem-based learning approach for linear equation system material. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1155(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1155/1/012097

Tanujaya, B. (2016). Development of an instrument to measure higher order thinking skills in senior high school mathematics instruction. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(21), 144-148.

Tanujaya, B., Prahmana, R. C. I., & Mumu, J. (2017). Mathematics instruction, problems, challenges and opportunities: A case study in Manokwari Regency, Indonesia. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 15(3), 287-291.

Tohir, M., Abidin, Z., Dafik, & Hobri (2018). Students creative thinking skills in solving two dimensional arithmetic series through research-based learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1008(2018), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1008/1/012072

Ulfa, F. M., & Asriana, M. (2015). Keefektifan model PBL dengan pendekatan open ended pad pencapaian kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis dan disposisi matematis siswa [The effectiveness of the PBL model with the open-ended approach to the achievement of mathematical creative thinking abilities and student's mathematical disposition]. Prisma: Proceedings of the National Mathematics Seminar/ Prisma: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika, 1, 289-298.

UsmanMulbar, V. I., NurdinArsyad. (2015). Application of the POE learning approach (Predict-Observe-Explain) to improve the creative thinking ability of students of class XI IPA-1 SMAN 22 Makassar. Journal of Mathematical Power/Jurnal Daya Matematis, 3(1), 51. https://doi.org/10.26858/jds.v3i1.1317

Wibowo, A. (2017). The effect of realistic and scientific mathematics approach to learning achievement, mathematical reasoning ability and interest in learning. Journal of Mathematics Education Research /Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 4(1), 1–10.

Yew, E. H. J., & Goh, K. (2016). Problem-Based Learning: An overview of its process and impact on learning. Health Professions Education, 2(2), 75–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2016.01.004