logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Headquarters
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
covid 19 higher education hybrid learning learning effectiveness

The Pattern of Hybrid Learning to Maintain Learning Effectiveness at the Higher Education Level Post-COVID-19 Pandemic

Sukiman , Sri Haningsih , Puspo Rohmi

Online learning during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has awakened and affirmed the necessity of learning based on digital technology. Th.

O

Online learning during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has awakened and affirmed the necessity of learning based on digital technology. The article was aimed to analyze the effectiveness of online learning at bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees of Islamic Religious Education as a reference to develop a learning pattern post-COVID-19 pandemic. The research employed a mixed-method design with a concurrent triangulation model. The samples were taken using stratified random and purposive sampling. Meanwhile, the data were collected through questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and forum group discussion. A descriptive analysis and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the quantitative data, while interpretative descriptive for the qualitative data. The research showed that online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic at the bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees of Islamic Religious Education have been effective. In detail, online learning at the doctoral degree was the most effective among all. On the other hand, face-to-face learning is still necessary. Therefore, the learning pattern developed post-COVID-19 pandemic combines face-to-face and online learning (hybrid learning). The formulation is adjusted to the characteristics, educational purpose and orientation, level of ability, readiness, and learning autonomy of the students at each educational level.

Keywords: COVID-19, higher education, hybrid learning, learning effectiveness.

cloud_download PDF
Cite
Article Metrics
Views
3885
Download
2176
Citations
Crossref
15

Scopus
13

References

Adams, D., Chuah, K. M., Sumintono, B., & Mohamed, A. (2021). Students' readiness for e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in a South-East Asian university: A Rasch analysis. Asian Education and Development Studies, 7(1), 198-206. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-05-2020-0100

Adams, D., Sumintono, B., Mohamed, A., & Noor, N. S. M. (2018). E-learning readiness among students of diverse backgrounds in a leading Malaysian higher education institution. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 15(2), 227-256. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli2018.15.2.9

Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and online learning: The challenges and opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 8(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180

Agarwal, S., & Dewan, J. (2020). An analysis of the effectiveness of online learning in colleges of Uttar Pradesh during the COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology, 12(5), 2957-2963. https://bit.ly/2YNwgPu

Agarwal, S., & Kaushik, J. S. (2020). Student’s perception of online learning during COVID pandemic. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87(7), 554–554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03327-7

Alfauzan, A. A., & Tarchouna, N. (2017). The role of an aligned curriculum design in the achievement of learning outcomes. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 4(3), 81-91. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2017.43.81.91

Allan, J., Clarke, K., & Jopling, M. (2009). Effective teaching in higher education: Perceptions of first year undergraduate students. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(3), 362-372. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ909070

Allo, M. D. G. (2020). Is online learning good during the COVID-19 pandemic? The case of EFL learners. Jurnal Sinestesia, 10(1), 1-10. https://bit.ly/3qvWAsR

Ames, C., Berman, R., & Casteel, A. (2018). A preliminary examination of doctoral student retention factors in private online workspaces. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 13(1), 79-107. https://doi.org/10.28945/3958

Amir, L. R., Tanti, I., Maharani, D. A., Wimardhani, Y. S., Julia, V., Sulijaya, B., & Puspitawati, R. (2020). Student perspective of classroom and distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic in the undergraduate dental study program Universitas Indonesia. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 392.-399 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02312-0

Bączek, M., Zagańczyk-Bączek, M., Szpringer, M., Jaroszyński, A., & Wożakowska-Kapłon, B. (2021). Students’ perception of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medicine, 100(7), 248-253. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024821

Bandalos, D. L. (2018). Measurement theory and applications for the social sciences. The Guilford Press.

Bell, B. S., & Federman, J. E. (2013). E-learning in postsecondary education. The Future of Children, 23(1), 165–185. https://doi.org/10.1353/foc.2013.0007

Berry, S. (2017). Student support networks in online doctoral programs: Exploring nested communities. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 12(1), 33-48. https://doi.org/10.28945/3676

Bestiantono, D. S., Agustina, P. Z. R., & Cheng, T.-H. (2020). How students' perspectives about online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic? Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(3), 133-139. https://doi.org/10.46627/silet.v1i3.46

Bhamani, S., Makhdoom, A. Z., Bharuchi, V., Ali, N., Kaleem, S., & Ahmed, D. (2020). Home learning in times of COVID: Experiences of parents. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 7(1), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v7i1.3260

Bialik, M., Fadel, C., Trilling, B., Nilsson, P., & Groff, J. (2015). Skills for the 21st century: What should students learn? Center for Curriculum Redesign.

Bidabadi, N. S., Isfahani, A. N., Rouhollahi, A., & Khalili, R. (2016). Effective teaching methods in higher education: Requirements and barriers. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 4(4), 170-178. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065908/

Biwer, F., Egbrink, M. G. A. O., Aalten, P., & de Bruin, A. B. H. (2020). Fostering effective learning strategies in higher education: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 9(2), 186-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2020.03.004

Bowyer, J., & Chambers, L. (2017). Evaluating blended learning: Bringing the elements together. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment Publication, 23(1), 17-26. https://bit.ly/30klvF9

Bruggeman, B., Tondeur, J., Struyven, K., Pynoo, B., Garone, A., & Vanslambrouck, S. (2021). Experts speaking: Crucial teacher attributes for implementing blended learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 48(1), 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2020.100772

Cannon, R., & Knapper, C. (2011). Lecturing for better learning. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Inc.

Castro, R. (2019). Blended learning in higher education: Trends and capabilities. Education and Information Technologies, 24(4), 2523-2546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09886-3

Chang, C.-L., & Fang, M. (2020). E-learning and online instructions of higher education during the 2019 novel Coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) epidemic. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1574(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1574/1/012166

Chu, S. K. W., Reynolds, R. B., Tavares, N. J., Notari, M., & Lee, C. W. Y. (2017). 21st century skills development through inquiry-based learning: From theory to practice. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2481-8

Chyung, S. Y. Y., Roberts, K., Swanson, I., & Hankinson, A. (2017). Evidence-based survey design: The use of a midpoint on the Likert scale. Performance Improvement, 56(10), 15-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/pfi.21727

Coe, R., Aloisi, C., Higgins, S., & Major, L. E. (2014). What makes great teaching? Review of the underpinning research. Durham Research Online. http://dro.dur.ac.uk/13747/

Coman, C., Țîru, L. G., Meseșan-Schmitz, L., Stanciu, C., & Bularca, M. C. (2020). Online teaching and learning in higher education during the coronavirus pandemic: Students' perspective. Sustainability, 12(24), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410367

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage.

Deepika, N. (2020). The impact of online learning during COVID-19: Students' and teachers' perspectives. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 8(2), 784-793. https://ijip.in/pdf-viewer/?id=23304

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239520934018

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612453266

Eckhaus, E., & Davidovitch, N. (2019). Technology-supported teaching: Technological progress or a sham? European Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 697-702. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.697

Febrianto, P. T., Mas’udah, S., & Megasari, L. A. (2020). Implementation of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic on Madura Island, Indonesia. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(8), 233-254. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.8.13

Finch, D., & Jacobs, K. (2012). Online education: Best practices to promote learning. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1(1), 546-550. https://doi.org/10.1177/1071181312561114

Fisher, W. P. J. (2007). Transactions of the rasch measurement SIG. American Educational Research Association, 21(1), 1095-1108. https://bit.ly/3qvHBPz

Garson, G. D. (2013). Validity and reliability. Statistical Associates Publishing.

Gray, C., & Klapper, J. (2009). Key aspects of teaching and learning: Enhancing learning in legal education. In H. Fry, S. Ketteridge, & S. Marshall (Eds.), A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education (3rd ed.), pp. 381–399). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203891414-32

Greenleaf, E. (2008). Developing learning outcomes: A guide for the University of Toronto Faculty. Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation, University of Toronto.

Handayani, D. (2021). The effect of WhatsApp application assisted PjBL model and zoom meeting on learning outcomes of capita selecta. International Journal of Chemistry Education Research, 4(2), 46-52. https://doi.org/10.20885/ijcer.vol4.iss2.art2

Hendryka, K., Christjia, R., Chandra, W. A., Pedra, D., Timbuleng, M. B. P. H., Vincentius, K., & Hosoda, T. (2021). The impact of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic (Case study: Private University in Jakarta). International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 11(8), 72-79. https://doi.org/10.46338/ijetae0821_09

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review, 1(1), 1-15. https://bit.ly/3n9AU3E  

Huang, R., Tlili, A., & Yang, J. (2020). Handbook on facilitating flexible learning during educational disruption: The Chinese experience in maintaining undisrupted learning in COVID-19 outbreak. Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University.

Irawan, A. W., Dwisona, D., & Lestari, M. (2020). Psychological impacts of students on online learning during the pandemic COVID-19. KONSELI: Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling, 7(1), 53-60. https://doi.org/10.24042/kons.v7i1.6389

Jiang, M., Ballenger, J., & Holt, W. (2019). Educational leadership doctoral students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of instructional strategies and course design in a fully online graduate statistics course. Online Learning Journal, 23(4), 296-312. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v23i4.1568

Johnson, B., & Cristensen, L. (2014). Educational research: Quantitative, publications qualitative and mixed approach (5th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Jones, T. A., Vidal, G., & Taylor, C. (2020). Interprofessional education during the COVID-19 pandemic: Finding the good in a bad situation. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 34(5), 633-646. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2020.1801614

Kaden, U. (2020). COVID-19 school closure-related changes to the professional life of a k–12 teacher. Education Sciences, 10(6), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10060165

Kalman, R., Macias Esparza, M., & Weston, C. (2020). Student views of the online learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic: A comparison of upper-level and entry-level undergraduate perspectives. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 3353-3357. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00712

Kaur, N., Dwivedi, D., Arora, J., & Gandhi, A. (2020). Study of the effectiveness of e-learning to conventional teaching in medical undergraduates amid COVID-19 pandemic. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy, and Pharmacology, 10(7), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.5455/njppp.2020.10.04096202028042020

Khusniyah, N. L. (2020). Teacher's perception on SQ4R in English reading comprehension learning using zoom application. VELES: Voices of English Language Education Society, 4(2), 231-238. https://doi.org/10.29408/veles.v4i2.2554

Kyriacou, C. (2009). Effective teaching in schools’ theory and practice (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Lester, P. E., Inman, D., & Bishop, L. (2014). Handbook of tests and measurement in education and the social sciences (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.

Lile, R., & Bran, C. (2014). The assessment of learning outcomes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 163(1), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.297

Lohr, S. L. (2010). Sampling: Design and data analysis (2nd ed.). Brooks/Cole.

Mahajan, M., & Singh, M. K. S. (2017). Importance and benefits of learning outcomes. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22(3), 65-67. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2203056567

McCutcheon, K., Lohan, M., Traynor, M., & Martin, D. (2015). A systematic review is evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face-to-face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(2), 255-270. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12509

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Müller, C., Stahl, M., Alder, M., & Müller, M. (2018). Learning effectiveness and students' perceptions in a flexible learning course. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 21(2), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.2478/eurodl-2018-0006

Mupa, P., & Chinooneka, T. I. (2015). Factors contributing to ineffective teaching and learning in primary schools: Why are schools in decadence?. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(19), 125-132. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1079543

Muthuprasad, T., Aiswarya, S., Aditya, K. S., & Jha, G. K. (2021). Students' perception and preference for online education in India during COVID -19 pandemic. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100101

Noesgaard, S. S., & Ørngreen, R. (2015). The effectiveness of e-learning: An explorative and integrative review of the definitions, methodologies, and factors that promote e-Learning effectiveness. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 13(4), 278-290. https://bit.ly/3c6vtfh

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

Porter, W. W., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. A., & Welch, K. R. (2014). Blended learning in higher education: Institutional adoption and implementation. Computers & Education, 75(1), 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.02.011

Price, L. R. (2017). Psychometric methods: Theory into practice. The Guilford Press.

Rafique, G. M., Mahmood, K., Warraich, N. F., & Rehman, S. U. (2021). Readiness for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A survey of Pakistani LIS students. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(3), 178-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2021.102346

Rasouli, A., Rahbania, Z., & Attaran, M. (2016). Student readiness for e-learning application in higher education. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(3), 51-64. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1106478

Rosyid, N. M., Thohari, I., & Lismanda, Y. F. (2020). Penggunaan aplikasi Zoom Cloud meetings dalam kuliah statistik pendidikan di Fakultas Agama Islam Universitas Islam Malang [Use of Zoom Cloud meetings application in education statistics lecture at Faculty of Islamic Religion, Islamic University of Malang]. Journal of Islamic Education/ Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 5(11), 47-52. https://bit.ly/3oIoAqL  

Roy, T. S. (2016). Quality teaching: Its importance in higher education- a conceptual view. International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary & Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(11), 91-102. https://bit.ly/3wHRCu0  

Rubio, C. M. (2009). Efective teachers-profesional and personal skills. Essays: Magazine of The Faculty of Education of Albacete/ Ensayos: Revista de La Facultad de Educación de Albacete, 24(1), 35-46. https://bit.ly/3FaZ2ce

Salim, M. A., Burhanuddin, M. S., Bisri, A. M., Arsyad, A. M., & Ahmad, S. (2018). Standar kompetensi lulusan dan capaian pembelajaran lulusan untuk program studi jenjang magister dan doktor pada perguruan tinggi keagamaan Islam dan fakultas agama Islam pada perguruan tinggi [Graduate competency standards and graduate learning achievements for master and doctoral study programs at Islamic religious colleges and faculty of Islamic religion at universities]. The Directorate of Islamic Religious Higher Education (Diktis) of the Indonesian Ministry of Religion.

Sankar, J., Kalaichelvi, R., John, J., Menon, N., Elumalai, K., Alqahtani, M., & Abumelha, M. (2020). Factors affecting the quality of e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of higher education students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 19(1), 731-753. https://doi.org/10.28945/4628

Sarwar, H., Akhtar, H., Naeem, M. M., Khan, J., Waraich, K., Shabbir, S., Hasan, A., & Khurshid, Z. (2020). Self-reported effectiveness of e-learning classes during COVID-19 pandemic: A nation-wide survey of Pakistani undergraduate dentistry students. European Journal of Dentistry, 14(1), 34-43. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1717000

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., Burroughs, H., & Jinks, C. (2018). Saturation in qualitative research: Exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality and Quantity, 52(4), 1893-1907. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8

Schwandt, T. A. (2007). The sage dictionary of qualitative inquiry (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412986281

Singh, V., & Thurman, A. (2019). How many ways can we define online learning? A systematic literature review of definitions of online learning (1988-2018). American Journal of Distance Education, 33(4), 289-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2019.1663082

Soffer, T., & Nachmias, R. (2018). Effectiveness of learning in online academic courses compared with face-to-face courses in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(5), 534-543. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12258

Subedi, B. P. (2016). Using Likert type data in social science research: Confusion, issues, and challenges. International Journal of Contemporary Applied Sciences, 3(2), 230-236. https://bit.ly/3CcCGFo  

Sun, A., & Chen, X. (2016). Online education and its effective practice: A research review. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 15(1), 157-190. https://doi.org/10.28945/3502

Suwadi. (2016). Pengembangan kurikulum pendidikan agama Islam pada pendidikan tinggi (mengacu KKNI-SNPT berparadigma integrasi-interkoneksi di program studi Pendidikan Agama Islam FITK UIN Sunan Kalijaga [Development of Islamic religious education curriculum in higher education (referring to KKNI-SNPT with integration-interconnection in Islamic Religious Education FITK UIN Sunan Kalijaga study program]. Journal of Islamic Education/ Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 4(2), 67-74. https://bit.ly/30pbRkg

Tartavulea, C. V., Albu, C. N., Albu, N., Dieaconescu, R. I., & Petre, S. (2020). No title online teaching practices and the effectiveness of the educational process in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Amfiteatru Economic, 22(55), 17-25. https://doi.org/10.24818/EA/2020/55/920

Tootoonchi, A., Lyons, P., & Hagen, A. (2002). MBA students' perceptions of effective teaching methodologies and instructor characteristics. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 12(1), 79-93. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb047438

Torres, J., And, C., & Eberle, J. (2010). Student demographics and success in online learning environments. Emporia State Research Studies, 46(1), 4-10. https://bit.ly/3Dd9qQ1

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st-century skills: Learning for life in our times. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Tuckett, A. G. (2004). Qualitative research sampling-the very real complexities. Nurse Researcher, 12(1), 47-61. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2004.07.12.1.47.c5930

Verma, J. P. (2013). Data analysis in management with SPSS software. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-0786-3

Virtič, M. P., Dolenc, K., & Šorgo, A. (2021). Changes in online distance learning behavior of university students during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, and development of the model of forced distance online learning preferences. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 393-411. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.393

Wang, C., Cheng, Z., Yue, X.-G., & McAleer, M. (2020). Risk management of COVID-19 by universities in China. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(2), 167-175. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13020036

Watkins, C., Carnell, E., & Lodge, C. (2007). Effective learning in classrooms. SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446211472

Watkins, J. C. (2017). An introduction to the science of statistics: From theory to implementation. Technometrics, 46(1), 371-372. https://doi.org/10.1198/tech.2004.s214

Wilson, C. D., Miles, C. L., Baker, R. L., & Schoenberger, R. L. (2002). Learning outcomes for the 21st century. League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

Woo, B., Evans, K., Wang, K., & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2021). Online and hybrid education in a social work PhD Program. Journal of Social Work Education, 57(1), 138-152. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2019.1661921

Yan Ju, S., & Yan Mei, S. (2018). Perceptions and practices of blended learning in foreign language teaching at USIM. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and Research, 12(1), 170-176. https://doi.org/10.26417/ejser.v12i1.p170-176

Yen, S. C., Lo, Y., Lee, A., & Enriquez, J. (2018). Learning online, offline, and in-between: Comparing student academic outcomes and course satisfaction in face-to-face, online, and blended teaching modalities. Education and Information Technologies, 23(5), 2141-2153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9707-5

Yu, Z. (2021). The effects of gender, educational level, and personality on online learning outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-021-00252-3

Zaharah, Z., & Kirilova, G. I. (2020). Impact of coronavirus outbreak towards teaching and learning activities in Indonesia. SALAM: Jurnal Sosial Dan Budaya Syari, 7(3), 165-171. https://doi.org/10.15408/sjsbs.v7i3.15104

...