logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
adiwiyata eco school environment literacy msels

The Role of Eco-School Program (Adiwiyata) towards Environmental Literacy of High School Students

N. Nurwidodo , Mohamad Amin , I. Ibrohim , S. Sueb

This study was intended to display the role of eco-school program (Adiwiyata) towards environtmental literacy (EL) of high school students by analyzin.


This study was intended to display the role of eco-school program (Adiwiyata) towards environtmental literacy (EL) of high school students by analyzing, (a) EL of students in Adiwiyata and non-Adiwiyata high schools, and (b) EL of students in Grade X and XI, Adiwiya and non-Adiwiyata high schools in Malang-East Java, Indonesia. The survey involved 275 students. The respondents were from four state high school i.e. SMAN 1, SMAN 3, SMAN 4, and SMAN 7. Data were taken via MSELS questionnaire that was modified and filled online. Aspects of EL include ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the level of students’ EL was significantly influenced by school type and grade. However, the interaction both of them had no significant effect on their EL. Univariate results on school type factor informed that significant differences occured in all aspects of EL, where the lower identified level of students in Adiwiyata schools compared to Non-Adiwiyata was only in the environmental affect. On the other hand, the significant influence of grade level only occurred in cognitive skills aspect. Broadly speaking, all data analyzes concluded that the application of the Adiwiyata program was able to bring a positive impact on the level of students’ EL. There was also a tendency that the higher the student's grade, the better their EL level.

Keywords: Adiwiyata, eco-school, environment literacy, MSELS

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Adela, D., Sukarno, S., & Indriayu, M. (2018). Integration of environmental education at the adiwiyata program recipient school in growing ecoliteracy of students. In I. Widiastuti, K. B. Sangka, N. Y. Indriyanti, N. M. Nordin, R. Mustapha, S. T. A. Hung, & K. Konsoongnoen (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Teacher Training and Education-ICTTE 2018 (pp. 67–71). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/ictte-18.2018.11

Aloqaili, A. S. (2012). The relationship between reading comprehension and critical thinking: A theoretical study. Journal of King Saud University - Languages and Translation, 24(1), 35–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksult.2011.01.001

Arslan, H. O., Moseley, C., & Cigdemoglu, C. (2011). Taking attention on environmental issues by an attractive educational game: Enviropoly. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 801–806). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.146

Asaju, K., & Arome, S. (2015). Environmental degradation and sustainability in Nigeria: The need for environmental education. American Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 56–61.

Austin, K. G., Schwantes, A., Gu, Y., & Kasibhatla, P. S. (2019). What causes deforestation in Indonesia? Environmental Research Letters, 14(024007), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaf6db

Belinawati, R. A. P., Soesilo, T. E. B., Asteria, D., & Harmain, R. (2018). Sustainability: Citarum River, government role on the face of SDGs (water and sanitation). In D. Chalil, S. F. Sidique, R. Barus, A. H. I. Abdul Hadi, M. Khaliqi, & M. I. Fatoni (Eds.), E3S Web of Conferences (pp.1–7). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20185200038

Biswas, A. (2019). A nexus between environmental literacy, environmental attitude and healthy living. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(1), 5922–5931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07290-5

Boeve-de Pauw, J., & Van Petegem, P. (2018). Eco-school evaluation beyond labels: The impact of environmental policy, didactics and nature at school on student outcomes. Environmental Education Research, 24(9), 1250–1267. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2017.1307327

Case, M., Ardiansyah, F., & Spector, E. (2007). Climate change in Indonesia implications for humans and nature. WWF.

Craig, C. A., & Allen, M. W. (2015). The impact of curriculum-based learning on environmental literacy and energy consumption with implications for policy. Utilities Policy, 35, 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2015.06.011

Dasrita, Y., Saam, Z., Amin, B., & Siregar, Y. I. (2015). Kesadaran lingkungan siswa sekolah adiwiyata [The environmental awareness of adiwiyata school students]. The Dynamics of the Indonesian Environment /Dinamika Lingkungan Indonesia, 2(1), 61–64.

Boeve-de Pauw, J., & van Petegem, P. (2011). The effect of Flemish eco-schools on student environmental knowledge, attitudes, and affect. International Journal of Science Education, 33(11), 1513–1538. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2010.540725

Desfandi, M., Maryani, E., & Disman, D. (2017). Building ecoliteracy through adiwiyata program (Study at adiwiyata school in Banda Aceh). Indonesian Journal of Geography, 49(1), 51–56. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.11230

Deswari, N., & Supardan, D. (2016). Upaya peningkatan environmental literacy peserta didik di sekolah adiwiyata (Studi inkuiri naturalistik di SD Negri 138 Pekanbaru) [Efforts to increase environmental literacy of students in adiwiyata schools (Naturalistic inquiry studies at 138 Negri Elementary School, Pekanbaru)]. Journal of Social Sciences Education and Learning/ Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial, 5(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.20527/jurnalsocius.v5i2.3331

Djuwita, R., & Benyamin, A. (2019). Teaching pro-environmental behavior: A challenge in Indonesian schools. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 2(1), 26–35. https://doi.org/10.7454/proust.v2i1.48

El-Batri, B., Alami, A., Zaki, M., & Nafidi, Y. (2019). Extracurricular environmental activities in Moroccan middle schools: Opportunities and challenges to promoting effective environmental education. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1013–1028. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1013

EoF team. (2019). Peat fires raging as Indonesian Government turns back the clock on restoration (1st ed.). Eyes on The Forest. http://eyesontheforest.or.id/reports/peat-fires-raging-as-indonesian-government-turns-back-the-clock-on-restoration

Erdogan, M., Bahar, M., & Usak, M. (2012). Environmental education in high school 9th - 12th biology course curricula Started to be implemented in 2007. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(3), 2230–2235.

Fadli, S., Nazaruddin, T., & Mukhlis, M. (2019). The state’s responsibility for forest fires in Indonesia in terms of an international legal perspective. Journal of the Law Faculty of Malikussaleh University /Suloh: Jurnal Fakultas Hukum Universitas Malikussaleh, 7(2), 48–76.

Fadlilah, U., & Ngabekti, S. (2018). The Adiwiyata school’s role in the development of character caring for the environment (A case study at Tuban). Journal of Innovative Science Education, 7(1), 53–61. https://doi.org/10.15294/jise.v7i1.23381

Farwati, R., Permanasari, A., Firman, H., & Suhery, T. (2017). Potret literasi lingkungan mahasiswa calon guru kimia di Universitas Sriwijaya. Journal of Science Education and Practice, 1(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.33751/jsep.v1i1.376

Fauzi, A., & Sa’diyah, W. (2019). Students’ metacognitive skills from the viewpoint of answering biological questions: Is it already good? Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(3), 317–327. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v8i3.19457

Febriasari, L. K., & Supriatna, N. (2017). Enhance environmental literacy through problem based learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 895(1), 012163. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/895/1/012163

Franzen, R. L. (2017). Environmental education in teacher education programs: Incorporation and use of professional guidelines. Journal of Sustainability Education, 16, 1-18.

Garg, T., Hamilton, S. E., Hochard, J. P., Kresch, E. P., & Talbot, J. (2018). (Not so) gently down the stream: River pollution and health in Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 92, 35–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2018.08.011

Goldman, D., Ayalon, O., Baum, D., & Weiss, B. (2018). Influence of ‘green school certification’ on students’ environmental literacy and adoption of sustainable practice by schools. Journal of Cleaner Production, 183, 1300–1313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.176

Grasby, K. L., Little, C. W., Byrne, B., Coventry, W. L., Olson, R. K., Larsen, S., & Samuelsson, S. (2019). Estimating classroom-level influences on literacy and numeracy: A twin study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2019(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000418

Greenstone, M., & Fan, Q. (2019). Indonesia’s worsening air quality and its impact on life expectancy. EPIC and University of Chicago.

Haris, I., & Afdaliah, A. (2016). Promoting the greening curriculum: A note on the implementation of environmental education in Indonesian school. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 11(1), 309–323.

Hartemink,  A. E. (2005). Plantation in the tropics: Environmental issues. Outlook on Agriculture, 34(1), 11–21. https://doi.org/10.5367/0000000053295150

Hendryx, M., & Ahern, M. M. (2008). Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia. American Journal of Public Health, 98(4), 669–671. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.113472

Hendryx, M., Ahern, M. M., & Zullig, K. J. (2013). Improving the environmental quality component of the county health rankings model. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4), 727–732. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.301016

Hollweg, K. S., Taylor, J., Bybee, R. W., Marcinkowski, T. J., McBeth, W. C., & Zoido, P. (2012). Developing a framework for assessing environmental literacy: Executive summary (No. 1033934). https://cdn.naaee.org/sites/default/files/devframewkassessenvlitonlineed.pdf

Husamah, H. (2015). Thinking skills for environmental sustainability perspective of new students of biology education department through blended project based learning model. Indonesian Science Education Journal /Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 4(2), 110–119. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v4i2.3878

Husamah, H., Fatmawati, D., & Setyawan, D. (2018). OIDDE learning model: Improving higher order thinking skills of biology teacher candidates. International Journal of Instruction, 11(2), 249-264. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11217a

Ichsan, I. Z., Sigit, D. V., Miarsyah, M., Ali, A., Arif, W. P., & Prayitno, T. A. (2019). HOTS-AEP: Higher order thinking skills from elementary to master students in environmental learning. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 935–942. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.935

Ichsan, I. Z., Sigit, D. V., Miarsyah, M., Ali, A., Suwandi, T., & Titin. (2020). Implementation supplementary book of green consumerism: Improving students hots in environmental learning. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(1), 227–237. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.227

Igbokwe, B. A. (2016). Environmental literacy assessment: Assessing the strength of an environmental education program (EcoSchools) in Ontario secondary schools for environmental literacy acquisition [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Windsor]. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6643&context=etd

Islam, M. S., Pei, Y. H., & Mangharam, S. (2016). Trans-Boundary haze pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through plural environmental governance. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(5), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8050499

Istikomayanti, Y., Suwono, H., & Irawati, M. H. (2016). Pembelajaran eksperiensial group investigation (GI) sebagai upaya mengembangkan kemampuan literasi lingkungan siswa kelas IV MI [Experimental group investigation (GI) learning as an effort to develop the environmental literacy skills of Grade IV MI students]. Indonesian Journal of Biology Education/ Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 2(1), 57–71. https://doi.org/10.22219/JPBI.V2I1.3372.G3961

Joko, T., Anggoro, S., Sunoko, H. R., & Rachmawati, S. (2017). Pesticides usage in the soil quality degradation potential in Wanasari subdistrict, Brebes, Indonesia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2017(5896191), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5896191

Kamarulzaman, M. S., Sailin, S. N., Mahmor, N. A., & Shaari, A. J. (2017). Correlation between LOTS and HOTS scores among UUM students. Asian Journal of Educational Research, 5(3), 71–74.

Karatekin, K. (2012). Environmental literacy in turkey primary schools social studies textbooks. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3519–3523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.096

Karimzadegan, H., & Meiboudia, H. (2012). Exploration of environmental literacy in science education curriculum in primary schools in Iran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 404–409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.131

Kaya, V. H., & Elster, D. (2018). German students’ environmental literacy in science education based on PISA Data. Science Education International, 29(2), 75–87.

Kim, M. H., & Morrison, F. J. (2018). Schooling effects on literacy skills during the transition to school. AERA Open, 4(3), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858418798793

Krnel, D., & Naglic, S. (2009). Environmental literacy comparison between eco-schools and ordinary schools in Slovenia. Science Education International, 20(1), 5–24.

Kurniawan, R., & Managi, S. (2018). Economic growth and sustainable development in Indonesia: An assessment. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 54(3), 339–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2018.1450962

Kusumaningtyas, S. D. A., & Aldrian, E. (2016). Impact of the June 2013 Riau province Sumatera smoke haze event on regional air pollution. Environmental Research Letters, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/075007

Landriany, E. (2014). Implementasi kebijakan adiwiyata dalam upaya mewujudkan pendidikan lingkungan hidup di SMA kota Malang [Implementation of adiwiyata policy in an effort to realize environmental education in high school in Malang]. Journal of Education Policy and Development/ Jurnal Kebijakan dan Pengembangan Pendidikan, 2(1), 82-88.

Lasno, Suriansyah, A., & Saleh, M. (2019). School principal’s role in the implementation of school-based management for adiwiyata program. European Journal of Education Studies, 11(5), 105–122. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2583734

Laveaux, D., Simonds, V. W., Picket, V., Cummins, J., & Calkins, E. (2018). Developing a curriculum for change: Water and environmental health literacy in a native american community. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 12(4), 441–449. https://doi.org/10.1353/cpr.2018.0069

Leimona, B., Amaruzaman, S., Arifin, B., Yasmin, F., Hasan, F., Agusta, H., Sprang, F., Jaffee, S., &  Frias, J. (2015). Indonesia’s ‘green Agriculture’ strategies and policies: Closing the gap between aspirations and application. In Occasional Paper 23. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Publications/files/occasionalpaper/OP0003-15.pdf

Liang, S. W., Fang, W. T., Yeh, S. C., Liu, S. Y., Tsai, H. M., Chou, J. Y., & Ng, E. (2018). A nationwide survey evaluating the environmental literacy of undergraduate students in Taiwan. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(6), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061730

Loyens, S. M. M., Jones, S. H., Mikkers, J., & van Gog, T. (2015). Problem-based learning as a facilitator of conceptual change. Learning and Instruction, 38, 34–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.03.002

Luko, I., & Kollarics, T. (2013). The significance of environmental sustainability in adult environmental education. International Journal of Environmental Protection, 3(4), 1–9.

Luo, P., Kang, S., Apip, Zhou, M., Lyu, J., Aisyah, S., Binaya, M., Regmi, R. K., & Nover, D. (2019). Water quality trend assessment in Jakarta: A rapidly growing Asian megacity. PLoS ONE, 14(7), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219009

Madsen, M. A. (2015, March). Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air. IAEA Bulletin, 56(1), 20–21.

Marra, R. M., Jonassen, D. H., & Palmer, B. (2014). Why problem-based learning works: Theoretical foundations. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25, 221–238. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2010.00745.x

McBeth, B., Hungerford, H., Marcinkowski, T., Volk, T., Cifranick, K., Howell, J., & Meyers, R. (2011). National environmental literacy assessment, phase two: Measuring the effectiveness of North American environmental education programs with respect to the parameters of environmental literacy (Final research report). North American Association for Environmental Education. https://www.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/NELA_Phase_Two_Report_020711.pdf

Mcbeth, B., Marcinkowski, T., Giannoulis, C., Hungerford, H., Volk, T., Howell, J., & Schoedinger, S. (2014). Secondary Aanalyses of the national environmental literacy assessment: Phase one & phase two student, teacher, program, and school surveys. North American Association for Environmental Education.

McBeth, W., & Volk, T. (2009). The national environmental literacy project: A baseline study of middle grade students in the United States. Journal of Environmental Education, 41(1), 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/00958960903210031

Meilinda, H., Prayitno, B. A., & Karyanto, P. (2017). Student’s environmental literacy profile of adiwiyata green school in Surakarta, Indonesia. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 11(3), 299. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v11i3.6433

Murdani, D., Hakim, A., & Yanuwiadi, B. (2018). Strategies of regency adiwiyata (green) school management at secondary education level in sintang regency. Journal of Development and Sustainable Nature/Jurnal Pembangunan dan Alam Lestari, 9(2), 102–110. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jpal.2018.009.02.07

Narut, Y. F., & Nardi, M. (2016). Analisis sikap peduli lingkungan pada siswa kelas VI sekolah dasar di Kota Ruteng [Analysis of environmental care attitudes in grade VI elementary school students in the City of Ruteng]. Journal of Education and Culture /Scholaria: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 9(3), 259–266.

Nasution, Q. (2016). Analisis kemampuan literasi lingkungan siswa SMA Kelas X di Samboja dalam pembelajaran biologi [Analysis of the environmental literacy skills of high school students of Class X in Samboja in learning biology]. In A. Saputra (Ed), Proceeding Biology Education Conference (pp.352–358). Sebelas Maret University.

Nugraha, L., Rahman, R., Syaefudin, S., Wachidah, K., Septinaningrum, S., Gumala, Y., & Opik, O. (2019). Environmental literacy for elementary students based on sundanese local wisdom. In H. N. Hidayat, P. Pramono, E. Meigalia, K. Saddhono & K. Anwar (Eds.), Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Local Wisdom-INCOLWIS 2019 (pp. 40-49). CCER & EAI.https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.29-8-2019.2288973

Nurhafni, Syahza, A., Auzar, & Nofrizal. (2019). The strategy of environmental school through the program of national adiwiyata school in Pekanbaru (high school level). Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 15(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.29333/ijese/6289

Nurtian, J. A., & Aminatun, T. (2019). Reinforcing national character education in biology based on the education for sustainable development concept. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1241(012025), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1241/1/012025

Nurwaqidah, S., Suciati, S., & Ramli, M. (2019). Environmental literacy mapping based on adiwiyata and non adiwiyata at junior high school in Ponorogo. In H. Hidayat, E. Syahmaidi & L. Refnita (Eds.), The First International Conference on Education, Science and Training: Empowering Educational Human Resources for Global Competitiveness (pp.179–190).  KNE Social Sciences. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i15.4365

Nuzulia, S., Sukamto, S., & Purnomo, A. (2019). Implementasi program adiwiyata mandiri dalam menanamkan karakter peduli lingkungan. SOSIO DIDAKTIKA: Social Science Education Journal, 6(2), 155-164.

Olsson, D. (2018). Student sustainability consciousness: Investigating effects of education for sustainable development in Sweden and beyond (Publication No. diva2:1257928) [Doctoral Thesis, Karlstad University Studies]. Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet.

Ozsoy, S., Ertepinar, H., & Saglam, N. (2012). Can eco-schools improve elementary school students’ environmental literacy levels? Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 13(2), 1–25.

Palupi, T., & Sawitri, D. R. (2018). The importance of pro-environmental behavior in Adolescent. In H. Hadiyanto, S. Sudarno & M. Maryono (Eds.), E3S Web of Conferences (pp. 1–4).  EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20183109031

Parviainen, T., Lehikoinen, A., Kuikka, S., & Haapasaari, P. (2018). How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry? WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 17(1), 49–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13437-017-0134-z

Pereira, J. C. (2015). Environmental issues and international relations, a new global disorder. Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography, 58(1), 191–209. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7329201500110

Petrenko, C., Paltseva, J., & Searle, S. (2016). Ecological impacts of palm oil expansion in Indonesia | International Council on Clean Transportation. The International Council on Clean Transportation.

Pitman, S. D., & Daniels, C. B. (2016). Quantifying ecological literacy in an adult western community: The development and application of a new assessment tool and community standard. PLoS ONE, 11(3), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150648

Rachman, S. P. D., & Maryani, E. (2018). Teachers’ and students’ green behaviour of adiwiyata targeted school. In N. Nandi, A. Ismail, & L. Somantri (Eds.), IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (pp. 1-8). IOP Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/145/1/012042

Ramdiah, S., Mayasari, R., Husamah, H. & Fauzi, A. (2018). The effect of TPS and PBL learning models to the analytical ability of students in biology classroom. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 19(2).

Riskina, M. D., & Listyaningsih, L. (2019). Studi deskriptif tentang sikap peduli lingkungan melalui program sekolah adiwiyata di SMAN 2 Pamekasan [Descriptive study of the attitude of caring for the environment through the adiwiyata school program at SMAN 2 Pamekasan]. Moral and Citizenship Study/ Kajian Moral dan Kewarganegaraan, 7(1), 1–15.

Roshayanti, F., Wicaksono, A. G. C., & Minarti, I. B. (2019). The profile of students’ analytical skills in environmental issues of coastal area. Indonesian Journal of Biology Education / JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 5(1), 33–40. https://doi.org/10.22219/jpbi.v5i1.7574

Roswita, W., Saam, Z., Siregar, Y. I., & Mubarak, M. (2019). Evaluation of environment-friendly school program based on adiwiyata at friendly school program based on adiwiyata at senior high school in Dumai City-Indonesia. International Journal of Current Research, 11(3), 1833–1838. https://doi.org/10.24941/ijcr.34614.03.2019

Sahin, M., & Uzun, N. (2017). Investigation of secondary school students’ environmental literacy levels. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(9), 356–368. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.885544

Saltan, F. & Divarci, O. F. (2017). Using blogs to improve elementary school students’ environmental literacy in science class. European Journal of Educational Research, 6(3), 347–355. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.347

Samsudin, S. (2016). Eco-mapping: Audit internal di SMKN 6 Malang [Eco-mapping: Internal audit at SMKN 6 Malang]. SMKN 6 Malang-East Java.

Saribas, D., Teksoz, G., & Ertepinar, H. (2014). The relationship between environmental literacy and self-efficacy beliefs toward environmental education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 111, 3664–3668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.820

Savci, S. (2012). An agricultural pollutant: Chemical fertilizer. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 3(1), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijesd.2012.v3.191

Schmidt, C. W. (2007). Environmental connections: A deeper look into mental illnes. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(8), 404–410. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.115-a404

Schußler, D., Richter, T., & Mantilla-Contreras, J. (2019). Educational approaches to encourage pro-environmental behaviors in Madagascar. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113148

Siswati, B. H., & Corebima, A. D. (2017). The effect of education level and gender on students’ metacognitive skills in Malang, Indonesia. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(4), 163–168. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.44.2813.

Spinola, H. (2015). Environmental literacy comparison between students taught in Eco-schools and ordinary schools in the Madeira Island region of Portugal. Science Education International, 26(3), 392–413.

Srbinovski, M., Erdogan, M., & Ismaili, M. (2010). Environmental literacy in the science education curriculum in Macedonia and Turkey. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4528–4532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.725

Steg, L., & Vlek, C. A. J. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(3), 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.10.004

Stevenson, K. T., Peterson, M. N., Bondell, H. D., Mertig, A. G., & Moore, S. E. (2013). Environmental, institutional, and demographic predictors of environmental literacy among middle school children. PLoS ONE, 8(3), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059519

Sukarsono (2018a). Islamic values in the practice of natural conservation in Indonesia. In A. Inan, D. S. Sayogo, M. M. Widayat, I. Latipun & Zulfatman (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Community Development (AMCA 2018) (pp. 624–627). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/amca-18.2018.173

Sukarsono (2018b). The importance of the religious and scientific values-based knowledge in the conservation of the natural resources and environment in Indonesia. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 13(8), 755–766.

Sukarsono, S., & Utami, U. (2019). Knowledge system of religious communities in watershed conservation education; Case studies in Islamic Boarding Schools in East Java and West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. In Barlian, E. (Ed), IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (pp. 1-12). IOP Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/314/1/012057

Susilastri, S. D., & Rustaman, N. Y. (2010). Students’ environmental literacy profile in school-based nature and in school that implement the adiwiyata program. In Saputra, A. (Ed), National Seminar on Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources/Seminar Nasional Konservasi dan Pemanfaatan Sumber Daya Alam (pp. 263–269). Sebelas Maret University.

Susilowati, Wilujeng, I., & Hastuti, P. W. (2018). Growing environmental literacy towards adiwiyata schools through natural science learning based on pedagogy for sustainability. Journal of Science Education Research,  2(2), 97–100. https://doi.org/10.21831/jser.v2i2.22480

Syamsussabri, M., Suhadi, & Sueb. (2019). The effect of environmental pollution module on environmental worldview in senior high school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1417(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1417/1/012076

Szczytko, R., Carrier, S. J., & Stevenson, K. T. (2018). Impacts of outdoor environmental education on teacher reports of attention, behavior, and learning outcomes for students with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral disabilities. Frontiers in Education, 3(June), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00046

Szczytko, R., Stevenson, K., Peterson, M. N., Nietfeld, J., & Strnad, R. L. (2019). Development and validation of the environmental literacy instrument for adolescents. Environmental Education Research, 25(2), 193–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2018.1487035

Tacconi, L., Rodrigues, R. J., & Maryudi, A. (2019). Law enforcement and deforestation: Lessons for Indonesia from Brazil. Forest Policy and Economics, 108(September 2018), 101943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2019.05.029

Ulutas, A., & Köksalan, B. (2017). Investigation of environmental problem solving skills of preschool age children. Research in Pedagogy, 7(2), 298–311. https://doi.org/10.17810/2015.66

Utami, A. D. (2018). An evaluation of green school program at SMA Negeri 1 Selong as a preparation towards a Swaliba school. Sumatra Journal of Disaster, Geography and Geography Education, 2(1), 177. https://doi.org/10.24036/sjdgge.v2i1.126

Wardani, R. A. K., Karyanto, P., & Ramli, M. (2018). Analysis of high school students’ environmental literacy. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1022(1), 012057. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1022/1/012057

Wardani, R. A. K., Karyanto, P., & Ramli, M. (2019). Analysis of high school students’ environmental literacy. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1022(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1022/1/012057

Warju, W., Harto, S. P., Soenarto, S., & Hartmann, M. D. (2017). Evaluating the implementation of green school (Adiwiyata) program: Evidence from Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 12(6), 1483–1501.

WHO. (2018). Air pollution and child health: Prescribing clean air. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/ceh/publications/Advance-copy-Oct24_18150_Air-Pollution-and-Child-Health-merged-compressed.pdf?ua=1

Wicaksono, R. S., Susilo, H., & Sueb. (2019). Implementation of problem based learning combined with think pair share in enhancing students’ scientific literacy and communication skill through teaching biology in English course peerteaching. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1227(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1227/1/012005

Wulandari, R. (2017). Perbedaan environmental literacy siswa SMA adiwiyata dan non-adiwiyata pada pengelolaan sampah dan penghijauan [Differences in the environmental literacy of high school adiwiyata and non-adiwiyata high school students in waste management and greening] [Unpublished bachelor thesis]. UIN Sunan Kalijaga.

Wulandari, R., & Sulistiyowati, E. (2017). Environmental literacy (kesadaran dan pengetahuan) pengelolaan sampah dan penghijauan siswa SMA adiwiyata dan non-adiwiyata [Environmental literacy (awareness and knowledge) of waste management and greening of adiwiyata and non-adiwiyata high school students]. Edusains, 9(2), 201–211.