logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Headquarters
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA

'political context' Search Results



Learning to Teach for Social Justice as a Cross Cultural Concept: Findings from Three Countries

learning to teach social justice cross cultural concept

Marilyn Cochran-Smith , Larry Ludlow , Fiona Ell , Michael O'Leary , Sarah Enterline


...

All over the world, countries are paying close attention to how teachers are recruited, selected, and prepared for the nation’s schools. Increasingly, teachers are expected to teach all students to high standards at the same time that they play a major role in meeting rising expectations regarding social equity. Preparing teachers for these challenges is among the most pressing and complex tasks in teacher education. In response to these and other challenges, some initial teacher education programs now include among their major goals preparing teachers to teach for social justice, work toward equity and access for all students, and/or challenge inequities in existing educational systems and policies. This article focuses on three initial teacher education programs—one each in the United States, New Zealand, and Ireland. Although these programs differ from one another in many ways, they also share some goals related to teaching for social justice and equity. The article examines longitudinal survey data regarding teacher candidates’ scores on the “Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs” scale, which was designed to measure candidates’ endorsement of beliefs consistent with the concept of teaching for social justice. For each of the three research sites, the article analyzes: (a) demographic and teacher quality contexts, (b) initial teacher education program goals related to social justice/social equity, and (c) the results of surveys administered to teacher candidates at entry to and exit from the programs. The article concludes with discussion of learning to teach for social justice as a cross-cultural concept.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.171
Pages: 171-198
cloud_download 2240
visibility 2321
16
Article Metrics
Views
2240
Download
2321
Citations
Crossref
16

...

The educative project MelArete proposes an interpretation of ethical education: a form of Education to Virtue Ethics in the light of the philosophy of care. Starting from the ontological assumption that care is prime in life and without it the human being cannot flourish in his/her humanity, the project is based on an interpretation of the pedagogy of care. Since the practice of care reveals to have an ethical core and that core is made of ways of being-with-the-others, the pedagogical theory of MelArete states that in order to develop a project that is in relationship with the core of life we must educate to care. Therefore, educating to care means educating to virtues. On this basis MelArete proposes activities with the aim to guide children’s attention to the concepts of care and virtues.  MelArete has its many references in Plato and Aristotle; besides it assumes the distinction of Ricoeur between ethics and morality. In Plato/Socrates (Alcibiades I) ethics is an educational action that allows the others to thrive in their own existential capabilities; moreover, in Aristotle’s (Nicomachean Ethics) ethics searches for eudaimonia, a good quality of life. In our educational project with children, the educative methods are the following: conversations (promoting intersubjective thought), narratives (reading and writing stories about virtues), vignettes and games (stimulating ethical thinking through a playful language) and the “diary of virtues” (promoting a reflecting culture of virtues in everyday life). In this paper we present the theoretical background of the project and a summary of the pedagogical approach and application which we are testing in our research.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.6.3.269
Pages: 269-278
cloud_download 552
visibility 1163
6
Article Metrics
Views
552
Download
1163
Citations
Crossref
6

The Attitudes of Teachers towards Multicultural Education

multicultural education attitudes differences

Mehmet Fatih Karacabey , Mustafa Ozdere , Kivanc Bozkus


...

The purpose of this study is to determine the teachers' attitudes toward multicultural education. This is a survey study and the participants of the study were 248 teachers who are teaching Turkish to the Syrian immigrants in Sanliurfa. The data for this study was collected through a 5-point Likert scale called "Teachers' Multicultural Attitude Scale". According to findings, it is determined that teachers have positive attitudes towards multicultural education. Their attitudes do not differ in a statistically significant way according to their gender, mother tongue, and professional seniority. Literature teachers were found to have more positive attitudes than class teachers. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that more research is needed on how to develop, alter teaching methods and programs according to multicultural education and why teachers of certain subjects have a more positive attitude towards multicultural education. Also, studies that investigate if teachers’ attitudes towards multicultural education affect students’ academic achievement, social adaptation processes and so on may provide useful information. The participation of teachers in cultural exchange programs, formal education, courses may be useful to raise their awareness and competency on multicultural education.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.383
Pages: 383-393
cloud_download 1591
visibility 1571
27
Article Metrics
Views
1591
Download
1571
Citations
Crossref
27

Scopus
30

...

This research aims to examine the current situation of multicultural education in elementary schools. Therefore, the views of the classroom teachers on multicultural education have been examined and multicultural education activities have been observed in the classes. Having a case study research method which is considered as one of the qualitative research designs, the study hosts a total of 15 classroom teachers who worked in the province of Elazig during the 2016 and 2017 academic year. The maximum variation sampling method has been used in the research. The research has employed semi-structured interview and observation forms. The research data has been analyzed through content analysis. Research results have revealed that most of the teachers perceive multicultural education as education presented to the individuals with different ethnic identities. Teachers' perceptions towards multicultural education have been identified to be similar in terms of their gender, seniority and educational status. Teachers mostly do student-centred activities related to multicultural education, use drama and case studies in their classes. While practising multicultural education, teachers mostly encounter with student-related problems. The majority of the people have recommended that parents be trained on the relevant subject. Similar results have emerged in the observations made by the researcher. Based on the research findings, several recommendations have been provided. Primary school curricula should be organized taking multicultural education into consideration, and the problems identified by teachers should be eliminated by those concerned.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.233
Pages: 233-247
cloud_download 1321
visibility 1102
8
Article Metrics
Views
1321
Download
1102
Citations
Crossref
8

Scopus
6

...

This descriptive and regression research was conducted to determine the influence of empowerment on organizational behaviors of 215 teachers in Catholic Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines. The results revealed that Catholic teachers have high levels of teacher empowerment. Specifically, they have very high level of status, professional growth, self-efficacy, and impact and high level of decision-making and autonomy in scheduling. Meanwhile, they also high level of organizational behaviors. Furthermore, three of the subscales of teacher empowerment tend to predict almost all dimensions of organizational behaviors of teachers in the school. The research concludes that Catholic Higher Education teachers are empowered to their organization as they feel respected, have opportunities for professional growth, feel efficient and effective in the classroom, and have the capacity to influence students and the school life. However, they do not have enough avenues to be involved in the decision-making process of their institution and do not have enough freedom and opportunities to choose their own schedules and teaching loads. Furthermore, they exhibit positive organizational behaviors in their institutions as manifested in their strong attachment to their organization, high level of involvement to their work, harmonious relationship with their supervisors and middle level managers. Also, they exhibit discretionary actions that goes beyond their functions, and have a desire and passion to continue and uphold the teaching profession.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.617
Pages: 617-631
cloud_download 1472
visibility 1457
24
Article Metrics
Views
1472
Download
1457
Citations
Crossref
24

Scopus
19

...

The advent of the new economy brought university reforms to the limelight, and higher education research concentrated on the study of interactions of multi-level, multi-actor policy reforms, to the detriment of studying policy implementation. The ebbing of implementation analysis in the mid-1980s has probably put researchers off following up policies to the point of delivery, resulting in what critics dubbed a 'missing link'. Policymakers more pronounced need to evaluate the impact of the policies they adopt, inter alia, has led to a renewed interest in bottom-up implementation in other public policy fields, but not as much in higher education research. The article builds on a Network Governance-informed approach for studying policy reform in higher education and adapts it to study of policy implementation with a focus on transition systems. Witte's actor-centered new institutional framework is taken as a springboard, and some of its underlying assumptions are reviewed for that purpose, adding insights from public administration literature (NPM) and Lipsky's street-level bureaucracy (SLBy). Ultimately, it proposes a politics-institutions framework to account for the institutional change entailed to the reforms.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.671
Pages: 671-681
cloud_download 456
visibility 798
11
Article Metrics
Views
456
Download
798
Citations
Crossref
11

Scopus
13

...

This study determined the challenging learning experiences of engineering students while completing their degree program as factor that might influence to their changing attitude towards achieving higher academic performance. Mixed method of research was utilised in the study considering the total population of 75 graduating students for quantitative and 12 students for qualitative part of the study using focus group discussion. Results showed that engineering students have significantly higher level of positive attitude towards academic performance during their junior level but significantly lower after taking professional courses. Attaining high academic performance still really matters for the engineering students during their junior level but continuously changing their perspective due to encountered challenging experiences while taking the professional courses. Performance in General Engineering courses describes the attitude of the students towards academic performance in personal aspect while professional courses define their attitude in professional aspect. The finding of the qualitative research revealed that there are three themes emerged in the challenging experiences of the engineering students and these are: Abandoned Social Freedom, Survival of the Fittest and Future Oriented Mindset which contributed to the changing perspectives of the engineering students.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1127
Pages: 1127-1140
cloud_download 1968
visibility 3458
5
Article Metrics
Views
1968
Download
3458
Citations
Crossref
5

Scopus
5

Involving Stakeholders in Shaping Educational Legislation and Policy in Ukraine

: education educational reform shaping educational legislation bottom-up approach

Valentyna Bobrytska , Elvira Luzik , Tatiana Reva , Yevheniy Spitsin , Victoria Akmaldinova


...

The purpose of this research was to explore how effective the bottom-up approach to producing and shaping educational legislation is in Ukraine and to identify what observed changes take place in students if the bottom-up approach is simulated in the classroom. Qualitative instruments and observational data were used to yield the data. Those were a survey questionnaire, semi-structured interview questionnaire, and focus group discussion observation checklists and moderators’ and facilitators’ reports. The data were processed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0.0.1. Software. The results of the study suggest the bottom-up approach to shaping educational legislation can be considered an option or an alternative to the conventional law-making procedure, at least in the sphere of education, in Ukraine. The use of mock policymaking experience has proven to be an efficient teaching tool. The application of the simulation of the bottom-up approach in the courses entitled “Educational policy” and “National Education Policy” was found to have the potential to encourage students to participate in the processes of shaping education policy, legislation, and regulation. The approach accelerated the desire of the students to participate in the processes of shaping education policy, legislation, and regulation. It also brought a change to the students’ vision of the school structure, the content of education, and the way the teacher is motivated. The intervention also brought a positive change to the students’ behaviour as citizens and their motivation as teachers-to-be.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1189
Pages: 1189-1200
cloud_download 422
visibility 728
2
Article Metrics
Views
422
Download
728
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
3

...

The objectives of this research included to study the effects of democratic parenting and teaching activities on global citizenship according to logical reasoning in making decisions on political attitudes among 2,286 students from 80 classrooms. The research instruments included 1) a set of rating- scale questionnaires for students with 92 items, having the reliability as 0.968 and 2) a set of rating- scale questionnaires for teachers with 23 items, having the reliability as 0.893. The results of the multilevel structural equation model analysis revealed that the factor of political attitudes was the most important in describing each student's global citizenship with the explanation of the variance with democratic parenting and the analysis of applying the reasons in students’ decisions was as 68.50%. Teaching activities affected positively on global citizenship both directly and indirectly through statistically significant factors with and together explained the variance of the global citizenship of each student by 84.00%. These findings highlight the importance of developing and fostering political attitudes that affect students' global citizenship through parenting and teaching activities covering the development of relevant factors as discussed in the Discussion and Implementation Part.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1569
Pages: 1569-1580
cloud_download 325
visibility 537
2
Article Metrics
Views
325
Download
537
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

...

The present study aims to discuss how political communication shape education policies in Turkey: How does political communication make education policy a political product based on ideology? What are the ideological differences between education policies in Turkey? The political party programs and election manifestos related to the General Election held on June 24, 2018 in Turkey are examined with the content analysis method in the context of political communication. The data of this research confirmed that political party’s ideologies are effective in the determination and the application process of education policies in Turkey. As a result, the impact of political communication on education policy is defended as a political product in this paper.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.227
Pages: 227-240
cloud_download 247
visibility 659
3
Article Metrics
Views
247
Download
659
Citations
Crossref
3

Scopus
1

...

The research investigated whether there is a correlation between participation in a course entitled "Diversity and multiculturalism in the global era" as perceived by Jewish and Arab students in Israel and a change in the students' attitudes and behaviors and their performance of activities in a multicultural context in the education field. The course was part of a master's degree program in Policy and Administration in Education in an academic college in central Israel. Pre-course and post-course questionnaires were administered to the course participants. Participants were 528 students; 177 responded to the pre-course questionnaire and 351 responded to the post-course questionnaire. The research findings indicated a direct association between participation in the course and activities conducted in the education field. In addition, students’ acquisition of knowledge on multiculturalism mediated the association between participation in the course and performance of multicultural activities in the education field. Differences were found between Jewish and Arab students' reports: Jews reported a multicultural academic atmosphere significantly more than Arabs. Contrastingly, Arab students gave significantly higher grades than Jewish students to reciprocal relations between the groups in the college and reported a more positive change in their attitudes towards the other group and towards multiculturalism and were more convinced that the course contributed to their multicultural thinking. These findings have theoretical and practical implications that can inform policymakers planning education for multiculturalism as a permanent component in academic programs, while responding to different sectors' cultural uniqueness to promote equality between them.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.757
Pages: 757-772
cloud_download 324
visibility 606
4
Article Metrics
Views
324
Download
606
Citations
Crossref
4

Scopus
5

Enhancing Analytical Thinking in Tertiary Students Using Debates

higher education analytical thinking debates reshaping the curriculum

Anastasiya M. Spaska , Viktoriia M. Savishchenko , Olha A. Komar , Tetiana Ya. Нritchenko , Olena V. Maidanyk


...

The purpose of the study was to identify how debates effected the analytical thinking abilities of tertiary students and how the debates as an instructional approach were perceived by the students. The study used quantitative data collection methods such as tests and observation checklists and qualitative data collection methods such as a focus group discussion. The data was yielded from the measurements of students’ analytical thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and decision-making skills. The pretest and posttest measurements were administered using the test of analytical skills, the quiz entitled “Get Ready to Test Your Analytical Skills!”, and the problem-solving test. The study found that the debates improve the students’ analytical thinking abilities and are perceived positively by them. The pretest and posttest measurements results, observation reports, and a focus group discussion showed that the debate-driven instructional model brought positive change to students’ analytical thinking, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and decision-making skills which are supported by the statistically significant Mean differences in all the variables. The findings from observations implied that the lessons were organised in a way that could sufficiently challenge the students, engage them in the search of information, and presenting their findings based on the facts and statistics. The results obtained from the students’ responses in the outline focus group discussion found that the students appreciated participation in the debates as they associated the experience with job benefits, the practical value of the debates, learning engagement, and research.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.879
Pages: 879-889
cloud_download 726
visibility 860
10
Article Metrics
Views
726
Download
860
Citations
Crossref
10

Scopus
8

...

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) preventive measures influenced teachers directly. The sudden shift to new teaching environment emerged unknown challenges influencing teachers’ work differently. As self-efficacy is a key factor of successful teaching, the goal of our study was to examine the relationship among teachers’ efficacy-related experiences, work satisfaction and workload during the pandemic. 769 teachers (55 men and 677 female, 32 undefined) completed the online version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale and the Relative Self-Efficacy Scale. Findings indicated significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and self-efficacy as well as job satisfaction and the sense of competency. Kruskal-Wallis Test proved higher level of self-efficacy among teachers with more experience in online teaching in the past. According to SEM analysis, job satisfaction is predicted by efficacy beliefs concerning the sense of competence, motivation, coping and conflict resolution. Our findings indicate that experience in online teaching methods can enhance self-efficacy, which contributes to higher job satisfaction.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.151
Pages: 151-162
cloud_download 923
visibility 694
5
Article Metrics
Views
923
Download
694
Citations
Crossref
5

Scopus
4

...

The emergence of digital technologies and a more global and digital society has brought about the need to develop and educate in Digital Citizenship, as well as to study how youth are taught to participate and learn citizenship in a digital age. This paper aims to explore the role of digital and socio-civic skills development, as facilitators for youth participation and analyses the relationship between sociodemographic variables (sex, age, educational level, and political ideology) with the participatory profile of participants. This is a study with a quantitative methodology, where, based on non-probabilistic convenience sampling, 534 young people between 16 and 35 years old from Spain, completed an online questionnaire regarding the development of digital and socio-civic skills. The results indicate how a participant’s participatory profile is related to other variables. In addition, significant differences are observed between the different participation profiles and digital and socio-civic skills, underlining that the development of digital and socio-civic skills are essential for educating in digital citizenship.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.697
Pages: 697-709
cloud_download 572
visibility 715
4
Article Metrics
Views
572
Download
715
Citations
Crossref
4

Scopus
2

The Effects of Online Supervisory Feedback on Student-Supervisor Communications during the COVID-19

communication esl supervisory feedback online feedback performance

Ushba Rasool , Muhammad Zammad Aslam , Jiancheng Qian , Sami Hussein Hakeem Barzani


...

This study focuses on online supervisory written feedback on PhD supervisees’ performance, given explicitly through online communication, particularly during the first wave of COVID-19. This unusual situation has brought many different effects on students’ academic lives. This scenario has influenced both students’ and teachers’ mutual communication. A directed qualitative content analysis (DQCA) approach was adapted from previous research and modified for the present context. The current study planned to bring forth the supervisee and supervisors’ perception of the communication and feedback process, considering that online feedback and communication has been a new experience for most students. According to the findings, teachers/supervisors give feedback on students’ production, whereas teacher-student communication also seemed crucial for the performance improvising of learners. The result brought forth a wide range of social, educational, and surprisingly psychological issues both supervisees and supervisors faced during online communication during COVID-19.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1569
Pages: 1569-1579
cloud_download 615
visibility 594
4
Article Metrics
Views
615
Download
594
Citations
Crossref
4

Scopus
8

...

In the last decades, the notion of universal design for learning (UDL) has gained prominence in the Greek educational scene (former government plan in education, projects based on UDL). This educational philosophy is essentially a necessary inclusive practice given the new conditions, the extreme heterogeneity of the student population due to socio-political and economic factors, and the exceptional circumstances due to COVID-19 pandemic. The UDL aims to ensure access and equity in learning for all learners despite differentiating characteristics. With our study, we seek to investigate whether teachers in secondary and second chance schools (SCS) are ready to implement UDL, what their expectations are, what obstacles they face, and the results of implementation through their records in reflection journals, a practice that is fully consistent with the context of UDL.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1851
Pages: 1851-1863
cloud_download 483
visibility 457
2
Article Metrics
Views
483
Download
457
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
1

...

Several reforms have been introduced to help enhance Vietnamese people’s English competencies. However, research on what reforms Vietnamese teachers support or resist is limited. Also, the impact of teachers’ demographic information on their responses to reforms is underrepresented. This mixed-methods study used a questionnaire, responded by 102 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers, and six semi-structured interviews to address the gap. The results revealed that the teachers supported the reforms in their teaching context. They preferred using their self-developed or self-adapted materials to using required materials. On the other hand, using the VSTEP framework for designing tests was not supported. Teachers’ demographic information, especially educational qualification, significantly differed one’s responses to reforms from those of another. Some practical implications were discussed at the end of this paper. Also, some recommendations were presented to be considered for further studies.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.341
Pages: 341-357
cloud_download 166
visibility 240
2
Article Metrics
Views
166
Download
240
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
0

Professional Learning Communities in Vietnamese Primary Schools in the Educational Reform Context: Forms and Challenges

principal leadership professional learning community teacher learning vietnamese schools

Hong-Van Thi Dinh , Quynh Anh Thi Nguyen , Ngoc Hai-Tran , Le-Hang Thi-Do , Hung Thanh Nguyen , Long Minh Dau , Bao-Phan Phung-Dinh


...

Professional learning communities (PLCs) are important for improving student achievement and school development. According to PLC research, teachers' knowledge and practice in teaching are significantly improved by various PLC forms and favorable working environments. This qualitative research was conducted to find out what forms of PLCs were popular and what challenges were facing three primary schools in a province in Vietnam. The study utilizes a multiple-site case study design relating to PLCs in those schools with the data from interviews with the principals, group leaders and teachers, observations of PLC activities and related policy documents. The two forms of PLCs were identified in this research, including professional groups and groups of core teachers. Besides, four challenges facing PLCS implementation in those schools included the old habit of professional learning in PLCs, structural conditions of schedules and facilities, economic conditions of teachers and motivation for reforms. The study provides recommendations based on the findings for PLC research and practice within and beyond the Vietnamese context.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.551
Pages: 551-565
cloud_download 210
visibility 415
0
Article Metrics
Views
210
Download
415
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

...

Ursula von der Leyen identifies diverse classrooms have different knowledges and ‘epistemologies’. A typology of epistemologies for democratising knowledge ‘A Blueprint for Character Development for Evolution’ (ABCDE) is offered to mainstream policy benefits for all by Higher Education as hubs i) credentialing educational leaders by doctoral-study and ii) propelling networks of Professional Educators and Administrators Committees for Empowerment (PEACE) across professions credentialed by Higher Education and chaired by educational leaders. PEACE builds robust evidence bases to inform redesigning curriculums and culturally responsive pedagogies as policy benefits that empower students to use ABCDE with Assessment for Personal and Social Learning (APSL) to problem solve across the quadruple-helix. Education Outcomes include students’ self-management of personal and social understanding and wellbeing for resilience within sustainable circular, entrepreneurial, green and digitised economies with products and means of production regulated by professions credentialed by Higher Education. Impacts include communities developing responsible historical social consciousness to reinvigorate democratic governance, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and trustworthiness of rule-of-law based institutions and policies to expand active and inclusive citizenship empowered by safeguarding human rights. Further research, building on the powerful European Commission funded platform ‘DocEnhance’ is recommended to inform effective and efficient investment into high quality education and training.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.623
Pages: 623-637
cloud_download 656
visibility 355
2
Article Metrics
Views
656
Download
355
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
0

...

It is important for students who learn history to have the skills to think, read and analyze historical sources because past events can only be reconstructed and understood from these numerous resources. Various media methods are needed to support the development of these skills, especially in online learning. Therefore, this research aims to create a virtual field trip (VFT) based history learning media to help students improve their thinking skills using primary source evidence. It was carried out by using the research and development (R&D) method consisting of four stages, namely analysis, designs, conducting trials, and testing media effectiveness. The sample subjects consisted of six teams as expert validators, seven history teachers, 70 and 280 Class X students who assessed the product's practicality and determined the developed media's effectiveness. Data were collected through expert validation, student and teacher response questionnaire sheets, as well as description exams. The level of validity and practicality of the medium were determined using descriptive analysis, while the N-Gain approach evaluated the media's effectiveness. The expert validation result is very good, with an average score of 3.77. The teacher and student response tests showed an average score of 4.67, indicating that the VFT medium is practical for learning history. The N-Gain value of 72% showed that the students' abilities to use primary source evidence are increasing. Therefore, using VFT based history classes to develop explanation skills using primary source evidence is feasible, practical, and useful.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.775
Pages: 775-793
cloud_download 566
visibility 499
2
Article Metrics
Views
566
Download
499
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
0

...