Research Article
Chinese Learning Anxiety on Foreign Students

Abd. Basith , Nur Musyafak , M. Aris Ichwanto, Andi Syahputra


APA 7th edition
Basith, A., Musyafak, N., Ichwanto, M.A., & Syahputra, A. (2019). Chinese Learning Anxiety On Foreign Students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1193-1200. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1193

Harvard
Basith A., Musyafak N., Ichwanto M.A., and Syahputra A. 2019 'Chinese Learning Anxiety On Foreign Students', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 1193-1200.
Chicago 16th edition
Basith Abd., Musyafak Nur, Ichwanto M. Aris, and Syahputra Andi. "Chinese Learning Anxiety On Foreign Students," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 1193-1200. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1193

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of anxiety in learning Chinese, discover the dominant factors of anxiety in learning Chinese language and analyze differences in Chinese language anxiety based on gender, year of study and HSK in foreign students in Wuhan, China. The research method used was quantitative using a survey approach. There are 250 foreign students as the samples, consisting of 108 male and 142 female students. The data collection technique used is questionnaire called CLAS (Chinese Learning Anxiety Survey) adapted from FLCAS (Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Survey). The data were analyzed using SPSS with descriptive statistical techniques and Multivariate Analysis. The results showed that Chinese language anxiety among foreign students is on a moderate level, with communication anxiety as the most dominant aspect. The male and female students have the same anxiety level in learning Chinese. The foreign students who had longer duration of learning Chinese and had higher HSK tend to have lower level of anxiety in learning Chinese. This showed that years of study and HSK were two factors that determine the high or low level of anxiety in learning Chinese for foreign students.

Keywords: Chinese learning, anxiety, foreign students.


References

Afiqah, N. (2015). A study on English language anxiety among adult learners in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 208 (2015), 223 – 232.

Aydin, S. (2008). An investigation on language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among Turkish EFL learners. Asian EFL Journal, 30(1), 421-444.

Aydin, U. (2017). Test anxiety: Do gender and school-level matter? European Journal of Educational Research, 6(2), 187-197.

Aydin, U. (2019). Test anxiety: Gender differences in elementary school students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 21-30.

Basith, A., & Ichwanto, M. A. (2019). Differences in anxiety on the new student of STKIP Singkawang. Journal of Education and Practice, 10(15), 54-57.

Bailey, P., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Daley, C. E. (1999). Foreign language anxiety and learning style. Foreign Language Annals, 32(1), 63-76.

Balemir, H. S. (2009). The sources of foreign language speaking anxiety and the relationship between proficiency level and degree of foreign language speaking anxiety (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Cagatay, S. (2015). Examining EFL students’ foreign language speaking anxiety: The case at a Turkish state university. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 648-656

Chapelle C. A., & Roberts C. (1986). Ambiguity tolerance and field independence as predictors of proficiency in English as a second language. Language Learning, 36(1), 27-45.

Dalkilic, N. (2001). An investigation into the role of anxiety on students' success in second language learning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Daly, J. A. (1991). Understanding communication apprehension: An introduction for language educators. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 3-13). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Daubney, M. (n.d.). Language anxiety: Creative or negative force in the language classroom? Retrieved from http://www.appi.pt/recursos/docsformacao/MDaubney1.pdf

Desrochers A., & Gardner R. (1981). Second language acquisition: An investigation of a bicultural excursion experience. Quebec, Canada: International Centre for Research on Bilingualism

Elkhafaifi, H. (2005). Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89(2), 206–220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00275.x

Ewald, J. D. (2007). Foreign language learning anxiety in upper-level classes: involving students as researchers [Electronic version]. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 122-142.

Fielding, M. (2007). Jean Rudduck (1937-2007) ‘Carving a new order of experience’: A preliminary appreciation of the work of Jean Rudduck in the field of students’ voice. Educational Action Research, 15(3), 323-336

Gardner R. C., Smythe P. C., & Brunet G. R. (1977). Intensive second language study: Effects on attitudes, motivation and French achievement. Language Learning, 27(2), 243-261

Gardner R. C., Smythe P. C., & Clement R. (1979). Intensive second language study in a bicultural milieu: an investigation of attitudes, motivation and language proficiency. Language Learning, 29(2), 305-320.

Gardner R. C., Tremblay P. F., & Masgoret A. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An empirical investigation. Modern Language Journal, 81(3), 344-362.

Gardner, R. C. (2003). Individual differences and second language learning. In G. R. Tucker & D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Language and Education. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hismanoglu, M. (2013). Foreign language anxiety of English language teacher candidates: A sample from Turkey. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 930-937

Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Annual review of applied linguistics (pp. 112-127). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132.

Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (Eds.). (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132

Huang, H. (2004). The relationship between learning motivation and speaking anxiety among EFL non-English major freshmen in Taiwan (Unpublished master's thesis). Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan.

Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1998). Ilmu kedokteran jiwa darurat [Science of mental emergency]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Widya Medika.

Khattak, Z. I., Jamshed, T., Ahmad, A., & Baig, M. N. (2011). An investigation into the causes of English language learning anxiety in students at AWKUM. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15(2011), 1600-1604.

Kondo, Y. (2005). A study on relationship between language anxiety and proficiency: In a case of Japanese learners of English. In Proceedings of 10th Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (pp. 129–138). Tokyo, Japan: PAAL Japan.

Krashen, S. (2003). Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Liu, M. (2006). Anxiety in Chinese EFL at different proficiency levels. System, 34(3), 301-316.

Liu, M. (2007). Anxiety in oral English classrooms: A case study in China. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(1), 119-137.

Liu, M., & Huang, W. (2011). An exploration of foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation. Educational Research International, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/493167

Luo, H. (2013). Chinese language learning anxiety and its associated factors. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 48(2), 109-133.

Luo, H. (2014). Foreign language speaking anxiety: A study of Chinese language learners. National Council of Less Commonly Taught Languages, 15(1), 99-117.

Mccroskey, J. C., & Anderson, J. (1976). The relationship between academic achievement and communication apprehension among college students. Human Communication Research, 3(1), 73-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1976.tb00506.x

Misqam, N. N., & Saidalvi, A. (2019). Investigating English language speaking anxiety among malaysian undergraduate learners. Asian Social Science, 15(1), 1-7.

Noels, K. A. (2001). Learning Spanish as a second language: Learners’ orientations and perception of their teachers’ communication styles. Language Learning, 51(1), 107–144.

Rafek, M. (2009). Anxiety level towards learning a foreign language: A focus on learning Japanese language among UTM students (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Technology, Malaysia.

Rodriguez, M., & Abreu, O. (2003). The stability of general foreign language classroom anxiety across English and French. The Modern Language Journal, 87(3), 365–374

Rosenfeld, L. W., & Berko, R. M. (1990). Communicating with Competency. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education.

Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2009). Kaplan & Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Samimy, K. K. (1994). Teaching Japanese consideration of learners’ affective variables. Theory Into Practice, 33(1), 29-33.

Sanchez-Herrero, S. A., & Sanchez, M. P. (1992). The predictive validation of an instrument designed to measure student anxiety in learning a foreign language. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 961-966.

Sila, A. Y. (2010). Young adolescent students’ foreign language anxiety in relation to language skills at different levels. The Journal of International Social Research, 3(11), 83–91.

Spielberger, C. D., & Vagg, P. (Eds.). (2004). Test anxiety: a transactional process model, test anxiety theory, assessment, and treatment. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Stuart, G. W. (2009). Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing. St. Louis, MI: Elsevier Mosby.

Suleimenova, Z. (2013). Speaking anxiety in a foreign language classroom in Kazakhstan. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1860-1868.

Tanveer, M. ( 2007) Investigation of the factors that cause language anxiety for ESL/EFL learners in learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language (Unpublished master thesis). University of Glasgow, Scotland.

Tsiplakides, I., & Keramida, A. (2009). Helping students overcome foreign language speaking anxiety in the English classroom: Theoretical issues and practical recommendations. International Education Studies, 2(4), 39–44.

Wahyuni, S. (2014). Hubungan antara kepercayaan diri dengan kecemasan berbicara di depan umum pada mahasiswa psikologi [The relationship between self-confidence and public speaking anxiety in psychology students]. Psychology/ Psikologi, 2(1), 50-64.

Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evauative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33(4), 448-457.

Williams, K. E., & Andrade, M. R. (2008). Foreign language learning anxiety in Japanese EFL university classes: Causes, coping, and locus of control. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 5(2), 181–191

Wolman, B. B. (1994). Anxiety and related disorders a handbooks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Wu, C. P., & Lin, H. J. (2014). Anxiety about speaking a foreign language as a mediator of the relation between motivation and willingness to communicate. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119(3), 785-798.

Yoshida, K. (2010). Coping with anxiety in the foreign language classroom: Japanese students on study-abroad language courses in the UK. The Journal of Language and Culture, (14), 59–80.

Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 426-439.

Zhao, A., & Whitchurch, A. (2011). Anxiety and its associated factors in college level Chinese classrooms in the U.S. The Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 46(3), 21-47.