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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 12 Issue 2 (April 2023)

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In the vulnerable and unstable contexts that characterize populations in mobility between countries, especially immigrants and refugees, the second language learning has assumed new traits of difficulty. To help the new generation of learners, mainly with origin in forced immigration, the mobile-assisted learning helps motivation for language learning and reduces anxiety related to language acquisition. Attending to this challenge educational scenario, this review study presents a literature systematic analysis and a concrete technology tool that advocates the student-centered approach. A mobile pedagogical plan was developed for the learning of European Portuguese as a Second Language and as a Foreign Language. A critical review of 38 studies was conducted to understand how the mobile-assisted learning responds to the inclusion and education, especially concerning minorities. Based on previous empirical data with 108 immigrants, we understand the type of tasks that new immigrants have more difficulty learning in Portuguese. It was developed as a mobile app for Android, IOS, computers and tablets: the GoGenius app. In mobile format, individuals can access fourteen themed units with a symmetrical game architecture. These games focused the tasks and themes with priority for new language learners who recently arrived in a hosting country. These units involve a consistent number of working hours that intentionally intend to complement to the contact hours that the subjects have in classroom contexts or in unstable communication contexts (daily communication). This technology project aims to match “tailored” psychological and technological resources. Flipped classroom approach showed how mobile-assisted learning reinforces the educational goals worldwide, specifically for language learning. However, mobile tools should be well structured and centered on students’ needs, especially with migration backgrounds.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.583
Pages: 583-592
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The Indonesian government has declared a strong commitment to information and communication technology (ICT) education reform but has made meager progress due to inconsistent education policies, fragmentary technological infrastructure, and ill-prepared teachers. Despite these obstacles, young people in Indonesia have embraced smartphones and related technologies as important means of maintaining their socially integrated lifestyles. This project sought to measure the adoption of smartphone technologies among pre-service teachers as part of their broader ICT consciousness and teaching. We examined the ICT competencies of 220 pre-service teachers at two state universities in western Indonesia. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants toward the end of the students' final practicum during the COVID-19 closure of the schools. Results showed very high use of smartphones in private contexts, infrequent use of laptops and desktop computers, a strong rejection of institutionally available (or often unavailable) devices and services, and a skewing of ICT skills toward tools available on smartphones, especially those accessible through social media platforms.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.593
Pages: 593-603
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Teachers’ Performance During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: Causality and Comparison

competence moderated factor teacher performance

Ngabiyanto , Ahmad Nurkhin , Kemal Budi Mulyono , Iwan Hardi Saputro , Didi Pramono , Asep Purwo Yudi Utomo


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The greatest impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Indonesian education was the decline in teacher performance. In light of this information, this study analyzes the role of supervision, salary and benefits, school climate, training and development, and perceived organizational support in moderating the impact of competence on teacher performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also compares the relationships between employed government and private teachers. Data were collected through questionnaires to teachers with a sample of 166 government teachers and 175 private teachers in primary and secondary schools through a Google form and analyzed using moderated Structural Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS), multigroup, and multilevel analysis. The results showed that salary and benefits, training, and development did not affect the performance of public school teachers. In contrast, only salary and benefits did not affect teacher performance for private teachers. Moreover, only supervision significantly moderated the effect of competence on the performance of public school teachers. However, supervision, salary, benefits, school climate, training and development, and perceived organizational support did not affect private teachers' performance. The Ministry of Education or the Foundation needs to review and improve the mechanisms of training and development, supervision, and school organizational climate to promote optimal teacher performance during the pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.605
Pages: 605-621
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Ursula von der Leyen identifies diverse classrooms have different knowledges and ‘epistemologies’. A typology of epistemologies for democratising knowledge ‘A Blueprint for Character Development for Evolution’ (ABCDE) is offered to mainstream policy benefits for all by Higher Education as hubs i) credentialing educational leaders by doctoral-study and ii) propelling networks of Professional Educators and Administrators Committees for Empowerment (PEACE) across professions credentialed by Higher Education and chaired by educational leaders. PEACE builds robust evidence bases to inform redesigning curriculums and culturally responsive pedagogies as policy benefits that empower students to use ABCDE with Assessment for Personal and Social Learning (APSL) to problem solve across the quadruple-helix. Education Outcomes include students’ self-management of personal and social understanding and wellbeing for resilience within sustainable circular, entrepreneurial, green and digitised economies with products and means of production regulated by professions credentialed by Higher Education. Impacts include communities developing responsible historical social consciousness to reinvigorate democratic governance, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and trustworthiness of rule-of-law based institutions and policies to expand active and inclusive citizenship empowered by safeguarding human rights. Further research, building on the powerful European Commission funded platform ‘DocEnhance’ is recommended to inform effective and efficient investment into high quality education and training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.623
Pages: 623-637
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Using Gamification to Motivate Students with Simple-Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

covid-19 gamification moderate intellectual disability motivation

Yasmeen Abu Mukh , Safia Tarteer , Mohammad AL-Qasim , Khtam Saqer , Wajeeh Daher


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By the spread of COVID-19, the entire world shifted suddenly to e-learning including schools. This study aims to find ways to enjoy teaching. Gamification in education refers to the introduction of game elements in non-game environment. A case study was adopted for this study as a qualitative approach to investigate the possibility of improving motivation. The study was conducted in the first and second semester of the 2020/2021. The sample consists of (6) participants of pre-services teachers studying in special education course for 15 weeks. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The result of the interview showed that there is a clear desire among the students to succeed during learning using game elements. Their desire is very clear and higher. Most of them became active during their learning. They enjoyed learning in gamified learning environment. The researchers recommended that the Ministry of Education should train teachers to employ game elements to motivate their students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.639
Pages: 639-647
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Development of a Self-Evaluation Instrument with Programmatic Assessment Components for Undergraduate Medical Students

instrument development medical education programmatic assessment

Dina Qurratu Ainin , Yoyo Suhoyo , Artha Budi Susila Duarsa , Mora Claramita


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This study aimed to develop and test a student self-assessment instrument based on the programmatic assessment (PA) components. We applied a series of psychometric research methods by (a) conducting a literature study to find PA constructs, (b) developing the students' self-questionnaires, (c) ensuring content validity, (d) testing face validity, and (e) conducting reliability tests that involve medical students, medical teachers, medical educationalist, and an international PA expert. Face validity (readability test) was conducted with 30 medical students from an Indonesian university who were in their last year of pre-clinical education and had average scores above or equal to their classmates. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to report the instruments’ validity and reliability. The final instrument was tested on 121 medical students with excellent GPAs from another medical school with a middle-level accreditation. The PA consists of five components: ‘learning activities’, ‘assessment activities’, 'supporting activities’, 'intermediate evaluations’, and ‘final evaluations'. These components are conveyed through 41 relevant statements with a four-point Likert scale and three yes/no statements. According to the respondents, there was a lack of 'supporting activities' and 'intermediate evaluation' components in the PA in their universities. This study has developed and tested a five-component evaluation instrument based on medical students' perceptions regarding PA implementation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.649
Pages: 649-662
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Development of the Multiple Intelligences Promotion Model for Thai Learners

learner model multiple intelligences screening test thai education

Panat Chanpleng , Ammara Wisuttranukul , Jomtup Khwanrat , Siwaporn Poopan , Kanchana Pattrawiwat , Wichuda Kijtorntham , Kunakorn Phonsuwan


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Recently, Thailand's educational policy focused on developing learners’ potential according to multiple intelligences. The research objectives were to develop the multiple intelligences (MI) promotion model and an MI screening test for Thai learners and propose policies to encourage MI so that learners can reach their full potential. The sequential mixed method was applied. First, the model and the MI screening test were developed. The participants were two groups of key informants, comprising 93 and 185 participants, respectively. The sample group consisted of 460 primary and secondary school students selected through multistage random sampling. The MI screening test consisted of characteristics of 45 behavioral observations. The result showed that the developing model was the “A2D model or AAD.” This model consisted of three components: nine areas of intelligence, eight continuity mechanisms, and two success conditions. The MI screening result revealed that most learners had outstanding bodily–kinesthetic intelligence, accounting for 40.4%. The least prominent aspect was musical intelligence, representing 16.2%. The proposal policies comprised (a) The aspect of foundation for learning management with access to the A2D model, consisting of four sub-policy proposals, and (b) The aspect of encouraging learners to develop their full potential, consisting of six sub-policy proposals.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.663
Pages: 663-671
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This paper discusses the development and validation of a concept inventory for interpreting kinematics graphs in the Tanzanian context. The study involved 61 participants comprising physics pre-service teachers, secondary school teachers, diploma college tutors, and a university lecturer from Tanzania. We developed 25 multiple-choice questions for interpreting kinematics graphs. The different steps in the development process used are selecting the topic, setting objectives, constructing questions, validating questions, and reliability testing. We carried out descriptive and inferential statistical analysis by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 followed by item analysis for pre-and post-piloting. Findings revealed normal distribution scores with a mean and standard deviation of 39.28±10.893 for pre-piloting and 40.16±8.08 for post-piloting. It also revealed no significant difference between pre-and post-piloting results with a p-value of 0.414.  In addition, correlation coefficients for test re-test reliability were .783 and .878 for single and average measures respectively. Moreover, item analysis in terms of difficulty index, discrimination index, and distractor efficiency agreed with the published standards. Based on these findings, the study recommends the use of developed and validated kinematics graphs concept inventory by physics educators in both research and classroom instructions in the Tanzanian context.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.673
Pages: 673-693
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Reflective learning in community-based education (CBE) activities requires the role of a supervisor. The ‘intensive supervision’ based on Kolb's experiential learning can provide guidance for facilitating reflection on CBE experiences through discussion. Accordingly, supervisors must receive training on providing constructive feedback sessions to assist students in reflecting. This study aimed to determine the effect of training on facilitating reflection using experiential learning methods based on the concept of 'intensive supervision' for CBE supervisors. The study design used a training program evaluation with the Kirkpatrick model of levels 1 and 2. The training on facilitating reflection was divided into workshops and mentoring sessions based on the experiential learning cycle. The questionnaire was developed to assess tutoring performance before and after the training based on the perceptions of supervisors (n=10) and students (n=43) and observers' observations during the supervisor tutoring. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were employed. The trainees showed positive reactions to the training. The students’ and supervisors’ perception questionnaires showed a significant difference in the performance of the supervisors who were assessed before and after training. Our results indicated that most of the supervisors’ ability to facilitate reflection changed following the ‘intensive supervision' method. This training helps supervisors learn how to become facilitators and students to feel more assisted in the learning process.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.695
Pages: 695-704
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The successful application of the problem-based learning (PBL) approach requires feedback from the tutor to the student to guide the latter's learning process. The aim of this study was to characterise the views of a group of Chilean undergraduate students of Primary Teaching and their tutors regarding PBL methodology, and the role of feedback in it. Qualitative research was carried out based on a case study that gathered the views of students and tutors through a focus group. The methods of analysis adapted to the needs of this study are those derived from discourse analysis and especially from discourse in interaction in its three dimensions: interlocution (framework of participation), thematic (topic of discussion) and enunciative (enunciative positioning). The results indicate that students' views emphasised the inter-student collaboration involved in PBL, while tutors emphasised the motivational value of the methodology. However, both recognised the important role that feedback plays in enhancing learning opportunities. Knowing the views of both tutors and learners is central to improving PBL and feedback practices.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.705
Pages: 705-717
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Virtual Laboratory Design for Learning Electro-Pneumatic Practices in Vocational High Schools

design instructional electro-pneumatics practical learning virtual laboratory

Mochamad Sukardjo , Uswatun Khasanah , Stephanus Turibius Rahmat , Khaerudin , Budi Setiawan


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Teaching a subject in a vocational high school (VHS) requires specialized instructional design strategies. Recently, instructional VHS used a computer-based platform to teach theory and practice. The computer will assist teachers in creating instructional media. This study aims to design augmented reality-based virtual laboratory media for electro-pneumatic practicum learning in order to ease teachers and students to learn the pneumatic practice. It is specially designed for practical learning purposes. The method used in this research is research and development. The assessment results from Instructional design experts 4.5, material experts 4.5, media experts 4.4, and language experts 4.8. Based on the assessment of experts, this augmented reality-based virtual laboratory media is feasible to use. Next, the results of this study are a prototype of students' pneumatic practice tools installed on mobile phones consisting of eight worksheets. In the designed augmented reality media, 1) 3-dimensional pneumatics can be rotated in all directions so that students understand. 2) Pneumatic job sheet, where on the augmented reality media designed for the simulation circuit, there is an explanation of the components and how they work, and a simulation through markers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.719
Pages: 719-737
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The Role of Hemispheric Preference in Student Misconceptions in Biology

biology concepts hemispheric preference intuitive reasoning right hemisphere students’ misconceptions

Nektarios Lagoudakis , Filippos Vlachos , Vasilia Christidou , Denis Vavougios , Marianthi Batsila


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The various intuitive reasoning types in many cases comprise the core of students’ misconceptions about concepts, procedures and phenomena that pertain to natural sciences. Some researchers support the existence of a relatively closer connection between the right hemisphere and intuitive thought, mainly due to a notably closer relation of individual intuitive cognitive processes with specific right hemisphere regions. It has been suggested that individuals show a different preference in making use of each hemisphere’s cognitive capacity, a tendency which has been termed Hemisphericity or Hemisphere Preference. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between hemispheric preference and students’ misconceptions. A correlational explanatory research approach was implemented involving 100 seventh grade students from a public secondary school. Participants completed a hemispheric preference test and a misconceptions documentation tool. The results revealed that there wasn’t any differentiation in the mean score of misconceptions among the students with right hemispheric dominance and those with left hemispheric dominance. These findings imply a number of things: (a) the potential types of intuitive processes, that might be activated by the students, in interpreting the biology procedures and phenomena and their total resultant effect on students’ answers, probably do not have any deep connection with the right hemisphere; (b) it is also possible that students might use reflective and analytic thought more frequently than we would have expected.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.739
Pages: 739-747
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This experimental research aimed to examine the effectiveness of the transformative learning program (TLP) on the active global citizenship (AGC) of 60 undergraduate students who had joined student affairs engaging in community development, working with a volunteer spirit, and community service. The participants were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups (n=30 for each group). The data were collected using the AGC Scale with a reliability of .968. Assessments were conducted three times: before, after the experiment, and follow-up. The TLP consisted of five steps: (a) Review social issues and crises contributing to disorientation; (b) Reflect critically to reach solutions; (c) Reformulate the meaning of perspectives to plan a course of action based on new perspectives; (e) Accept and improve new practices; and (f) Evaluate. MANOVA was performed to analyze the data. The results showed that students in the experimental group had a higher mean score of AGC than the control group, both after treatment and at follow-up (p < .05); the mean scores of the AGC of the experimental group after treatment and at follow-up were higher than the mean score before treatment (p < .05); and the mean score of AGC of the experimental group at follow up was higher than the score after treatment with no statistical significance. In conclusion, educational personnel could use this TLP to promote AGC for university students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.749
Pages: 749-758
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This study presented the effect of interactive mathematics (IM) software assisted-teaching on primary three learners' conceptual understanding and performance. The cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML) supported the quasi-experimental design of this study drawing on IM software features that fit a multimedia tool for effective learning. This study used a sample of 138 lower primary learners. Learners’ test scores and examples of their work provided data to be analyzed. Learners' conceptual understanding was measured using the percentage of learners who performed a particular item and analyzed using sample learners' work while the overall performance was measured using the mean class scores. From the data analysis, IM-assisted teaching influenced conceptual understanding and performance based on a .05 p-value, the effect size of significance, and learning gains. The analysis of learners’ workings revealed different errors in addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication, which were remarkably reduced in the post-test by IM-supported teaching. This evidenced conceptual understanding development by IM-supported teaching. The study suggested the integration of IM in the Rwandan Competence-Based curriculum and its use as an instructional tool in teaching and learning mathematics at the primary level. Besides, it was recommended that Rwanda Education Board support teachers in developing basic computer skills to effectively create and monitor a multimedia learning environment for effective learning. Furthermore, further similar research would improve the literature about interactive technologies in supporting quality mathematics delivery and outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.759
Pages: 759-774
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It is important for students who learn history to have the skills to think, read and analyze historical sources because past events can only be reconstructed and understood from these numerous resources. Various media methods are needed to support the development of these skills, especially in online learning. Therefore, this research aims to create a virtual field trip (VFT) based history learning media to help students improve their thinking skills using primary source evidence. It was carried out by using the research and development (R&D) method consisting of four stages, namely analysis, designs, conducting trials, and testing media effectiveness. The sample subjects consisted of six teams as expert validators, seven history teachers, 70 and 280 Class X students who assessed the product's practicality and determined the developed media's effectiveness. Data were collected through expert validation, student and teacher response questionnaire sheets, as well as description exams. The level of validity and practicality of the medium were determined using descriptive analysis, while the N-Gain approach evaluated the media's effectiveness. The expert validation result is very good, with an average score of 3.77. The teacher and student response tests showed an average score of 4.67, indicating that the VFT medium is practical for learning history. The N-Gain value of 72% showed that the students' abilities to use primary source evidence are increasing. Therefore, using VFT based history classes to develop explanation skills using primary source evidence is feasible, practical, and useful.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.775
Pages: 775-793
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Digital Puzzle Worksheet for Identifying Metacognition Level of Students: A Study of Gender Differences

contextual math problem digital puzzle worksheet metacognition level primary school

Ramlah , Agung Prasetyo Abadi , Dewi Siti Aisyah , Karunia Eka Lestari , Mokhammad Ridwan Yudhanegara


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Digital puzzle worksheet (DPW) is innovative teaching material designed using open-source software such as Canva and Liveworksheets. Subsequently, puzzle games in the form of questions can improve problem-solving skills by engaging in metacognitive processes. This research used a case study method to describe the impact of applying the DPW to identify the metacognition levels of students through the assignment of contextual maths problems. The source of informants was third-grade elementary school students in West Java, Indonesia. Test instruments, observation sheets, and interviews were used, while data analysis adopted an iterative model. Furthermore, the method and time triangulation increased confidence in the resulting conclusions. The results showed that male students were at the metacognitive level of ‘strategic use’ and ‘aware use’ for females, based on the characteristics of the observed metacognitive level. The most prominent feature was identifying and determining problem-solving strategies with metacognitive awareness. The reaction of students to the DPW improved problem-solving abilities, expanded conceptual understanding, and enhanced digital technology competence. Therefore, this experience was applied when solving contextual mathematical problem assignments.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.795
Pages: 795-810
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Pedagogy-Andragogy Continuum with Cybergogy to Promote Self-Regulated Learning: A Structural Equation Model Approach

andragogy continuum cybergogy pedagogy self-regulated learning

Amiruddin , Fiskia Rera Baharuddin , Takbir , Wirawan Setialaksana , Muhammad Hasim


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The increasing sophisticated learning technology and COVID-19 have pushed the teaching-learning process to use pedagogy, andragogy, and cybergogy approaches. The current research aims to investigate the relationship between the practices of these three approaches and student self-regulated learning. The structural equation model used indicates that pedagogy practices may affect the andragogy practices in teaching-learning process. Pedagogy approach shows no direct effect but has an indirect effect on students’ self-regulated learning. The indirect effect comes from the pedagogy-andragogy continuum and the impact of pedagogy instruction on cybergogy practices. Andragogy practices also gives a significant impact on students’ self-regulated learning and how the students use learning technology in cybergogy approach. Andragogy and the continuum of cybergogy promote students’ self-regulated learning. These results indicate that pedagogy-andragogy continuum can have an interplay with cybergogy. The interplay of these approaches may encourage students’ self-regulated learning. The current research can be a baseline to construct a new approach in teaching-learning process and its instructions in the classroom.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.811
Pages: 811-824
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Education in public speaking often relies largely on qualitative feedback. In this study, we explored how a numerical feedback form based on a validated scale could be used in an educational public speaking program. Data were collected at three clubs of Toastmasters International. Speech content was labeled to enable statistical analysis of correlations between speech content and audience ratings. 216 speeches by 59 speakers were evaluated by audience members, providing 1416 individual evaluations. All rating categories correlated strongly with each other. Speeches mentioning relationships, personal stories and positive emotions were rated more favorably. Speeches given in-person were rated more highly in several dimensions compared to speeches given through online video. There were some sex differences in choice of content and emotional expressiveness, but not in audience ratings of speech quality. Overall, the study found that the method was useful for both providing individual feedback and aggregated data for research purposes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.825
Pages: 825-835
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Constructive Cognitive Assessment of Learning in a Course on the Computational Cognition in Psychology Students

academic learning cognitive evaluation mental representation of knowledge natural semantic networks

Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Angel Garcia-Collantes , Rafael Manuel Lopez-Perez


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Learning evaluation is a complex task, and this study illustrates the Constructive Assessment of Learning as a complementary alternative to evaluate the computational cognition schema construction. The authors designed a mental representational task under the Chronometric Constructive Cognitive Learning Evaluation Model. Control and experimental groups performed a conceptual definition task based on the Natural Semantic Network technique (NSN). They defined ten target concepts related to computational cognition theory, using verbs, nouns, and adjectives as definers. Afterward, the participants rated the conceptual quality of each definer one by one, on a scale of one to ten; the higher the rating, the greater the quality of the definer to define the target concept. The results indicate that the NSN technique was sensitive to measuring and discriminating cognitive changes in knowledge structures produced by the specific learning of computational cognition theory. In contrast, the learning of broad psychology subjects produced general cognitive changes without organization related to the specific learning of the evaluated course. Data showed more sophisticated cognitive change patterns on the evaluated schema in the experimental group than in the control group. The findings of this study suggest that cognitive assessment techniques can be helpful in the formative assessment of learning and provide clear indicators of students' knowledge management skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.837
Pages: 837-850
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Evaluation of Preservice Teachers’ Performance in School through Video Observations during the COVID-19 Pandemic

observation preservice teachers rubrics student evaluation teacher education

Maria Carme Peguera-Carré , Jordi Coiduras , David Aguilar , Àngel Blanch


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Lesson study, observation and analysis are relevant to professional development and initial teacher education. As a strategy, it helps to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The health conditions brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic forced the restriction of the tutors’ direct observation of preservice teachers at school. This study analyses preservice teachers’ performance through video observations to evaluate their professional activity at school during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fifteen Items Revised Tsang-Hester Observation Rubric (FIR-THOR) was administered to a sample of 166 preservice teachers in their internship schools and their video recordings each one of 45-minute teaching lessons were analysed. The results show that the FIR-THOR appears as a robust instrument, which allows us to conclude that the instrument works well in the three five-items dimensions that compose it - Instruction, Management, and Assessment - proving to be reliable for assessing teacher intervention in the classroom. Among the three dimensions, the preservice teachers’ performance stands out in the Management of the classroom, as well as in the classroom Instruction. This contribution is relevant considering the potential of lesson analysis in learning and professional development during initial teacher training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.851
Pages: 851-863
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Preservice Teachers’ Noticing Skills in Relation to Student Misconceptions in Algebra

mathematical understanding misconceptions pedagogical content knowledge preservice teachers teacher education

Rahmah Johar , Desy Desy , Marwan Ramli , Putri Sasalia , Hannah-Charis O. Walker


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Many students have misconceptions about mathematics, so preservice teachers should be developing the skills to notice mathematical misconceptions. This qualitative study analyzed preservice teachers' skills in noticing student misconceptions about algebra, according to three aspects of noticing found in the literature: attending, interpreting and responding. Participants in this study were seven preservice teachers from one university in the capital of Aceh province, Indonesia, who were in their eighth semester and had participated in teaching practicums. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews, which were analyzed descriptively. The results revealed the preservice teachers had varying levels of skill for the three aspects of noticing. Overall, the seven preservice teachers' noticing skills were fair, but many needed further development of their skills in interpreting and responding in particular. This university’s mathematics teacher education program should design appropriate assessment for preservice teachers’ noticing skills, as well as design and implement learning activities targeted at the varying needs of individual preservice teachers regarding noticing student misconceptions, in order to improve their overall teaching skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.865
Pages: 865-879
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This study was undertaken to assess the level of readiness of higher education institutions (HEIs) for horizontal typology, institutional sustainability, and quality assurance in the key result areas (KRAs) for the enhancement of mechanisms, systems, and policies for the HEIs’ effective operation. It is a descriptive correlational design using the modified self-evaluation document (SED). The study showed that all the seven HEIs that participated in this study had been operating for 40 years and above, offering more than sixteen program courses with more than sixteen accredited programs. Four of the HEIs were Level 2 in accreditation status and five were ISO Certified. The level of readiness of HEIs for horizontal typology was moderately ready, which means the HEIs need some improvements in horizontal typology.  The most identified challenges affecting the level of readiness of HEIs in horizontal typology were the lack of innovation, technology, and sustainability; the lack of administrative strategies, leadership competencies, and management skills; and the lack of financial allocation for institutional development and advancements, respectively. There is no significant relationship between the institutional profile and terms of observing the standards in the KRAs. The study recommends further re-assessing the level of readiness of the HEIs in terms of documentation/evidence, observance for the improvement of the systems, processes and practices towards a more effective and efficient delivery of academic services to young people by conducting the more focused study in every KRAs and institutional self-assessment as future researches for the further improvement of the operations of HEIs.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.881
Pages: 881-890
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The purpose of the current study was to analyze social media content related to physical education. In the context of summative qualitative content analysis, I took advantage of big data analytics to access the data. Machine learning of this big data mapped the large content volume from four major social media platforms. The data was collected by extracting social media posts from January to December 2020. The big data analysis process sorted, categorized, and classified the enormous data into several preeminent topics regarding PE. These computerized analyzes were used to identify themes that were further analyzed using qualitative methods. The results revealed two overarching themes. These themes were (a) PE representation as a school subject and (b) the images of PE teachers on social media. The second theme consisted of three subthemes: masculine traits of PE teachers and negative and positive sentiments toward these teachers. I concluded that key aspects of PE discourse in virtually mediated reality share topical characteristics with what people have previously socially constructed. However, the themes offer a new addition to the literature in that the analysis offers a new perspective on ongoing debates about the social construction of PE through enormous large data sets.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.891
Pages: 891-900
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238
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321
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Smart Teaching Based on Lesson Study Promoting Stundent's Digital Literacy in The Rural Area

digital literacy education in the rural area lesson study smart teaching

Arsad Bahri , Arifah Novia Arifin , Asham Bin Jamaluddin , Andi Muharni , Wahyu Hidayat


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Education for all and education equality has been an important issue to be payed attention to, especially in the rural areas in Indonesia. Education in rural areas is very underdeveloped due to the lack of the equitable distribution of education services. The main factors behind this problem are the pedagogic competence of teachers and inadequate infrastructure. These factors have a direct impact on the digital literacy of students in rural areas, even though digital literacy is very important in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0. This research is a development research that is aimed at developing a valid, practical and effective Lesson Study (LS)-based smart teaching model. The study was conducted at a junior high school in Jeneponto Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The results showed that the LS-based smart teaching model developed was valid, practical, and effective to promote students' digital literacy. The development of this teaching model is expected to improve the quality of educators' pedagogic competence in teaching and be able to form educators' creative innovations that can directly have an impact on improving the quality of learning in the classroom.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.901
Pages: 901-911
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This research aims to describe secondary school students' functional thinking in generating patterns in learning algebra, particularly in solving mathematical word problems. In addressing this aim, a phenomenological approach was conducted to investigate the meaning of functional relationships provided by students. The data were collected from 39 ninth graders (13-14 years old) through a written test about generating patterns in linear functions. The following steps were conducting interviews with ten representative students to get detailed information about their answers to the written test. All students' responses were then analyzed using the thematic analysis software ATLAS.ti. The findings illustrate that students employed two types of approaches in solving the problem: recursive patterns and correspondence. Students favored the recursive patterns approach in identifying the pattern. They provided arithmetic computation by counting term-to-term but could not represent generalities with algebraic symbols. Meanwhile, students evidenced for correspondence managed to observe the relation between two variables and create the symbolic representation to express the generality. The study concludes that these differences exist due to their focus on identifying patterns: the recursive pattern students tend to see the changes in one variable, whereas the correspondence ones relate to the corresponding pair of variables.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.913
Pages: 913-925
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392
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424
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of online social support (OSS) on the psychological well-being (PWB) of caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The role of gender as a moderator variable in the relationship between online social support and psychological well-being was also investigated. A quantitative research design was used to collect data from 154 caregivers of children with ASD in Indonesia using PWB and OSS questionnaires adapted into Bahasa Indonesia. Data were analyzed using SMART PLS 3.0. Online social support influences the psychological well-being of caregivers of children with ASD. At the dimension level, several OSS dimensions also affect PWB. The effect of online social support on psychological well-being is the same in both the male and female groups. This means that male and female groups benefit equally from online social support. Future research should combine the study with a qualitative method to gather data from caregivers on how OSS affects their PWB in order to gain a holistic perspective. It could be a suggestion to policymakers to provide beneficial online social media for caregivers of children with ASD.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.927
Pages: 927-946
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482
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480
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The study explored the perspectives and experiences of the participating teachers regarding the sudden switch to online learning during the COVID-19 epidemic. 159 teachers from four junior high schools in Taguig City, Philippines, provided the data. The study used the quantitative approach to research, specifically it utilized the descriptive method using survey as way to gather data. The data was statistically analyzed using the frequency distribution, percentage formula, mean, and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The study's findings show that the respondents' perceptions and experiences during the sudden change to online learning, which was caused by the pandemic that focuses on internet access, digital infrastructure, administrator assistance, and learning environments, are typically similar. Additionally, there were no significant differences found between the participants’ responses and their demographics as to sex, highest educational attainment, years in service and specialization.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.947
Pages: 947-956
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307
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Scientific Experiments in Moroccan High Schools Life Science Courses: Constraints and Solutions

scientific experiment life science constraints solutions

Sophia Bouzit , Anouar Alami , Sabah Selmaoui , Youness Rakibi


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The teaching of experimental sciences in high school contributes to the development of a set of cognitive, methodological, and psychomotor skills among learners. Combining, both theoretical and practical aspects, it involves an important use of scientific experiments in the process of knowledge construction. With the help of appropriate tools that include interviews and observation of teaching practices, data related to the constraints encountered in the implementation of scientific experiments in the high school life sciences classroom was collected as well as proposals of solutions to overcome these constraints. The results show the existence of a set of constraints that oppose the realization of experiments in class. These constraints are not only limited to insufficient or deficient external factors but also to the teachers' relationship to knowledge which influences their choice of teaching activities within a predefined curriculum.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.957
Pages: 957-966
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The objective of the study was to develop a structural model that explores the relationship between Mathematics Performance and students’ self-regulated learning skills, grit, and expectancy-value towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The research collected survey data from 664 senior high school students from 17 STEM high schools, and conducted a covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. The results of the SEM analysis indicate that the Re-specified Self-Regulated Learning Skill – Expectancy-Value towards STEM – Grit – Mathematics Performance (Re-specified SRL-EV-GR-MP) model is the most parsimonious fit, offering the best empirical support for the theoretical model of the study. The research findings suggest that the mathematics performance of senior high school students in STEM curriculum is attributed to their high expectancies for success and perceived values of the STEM tasks, high grit, and high self-regulated learning skills. Moreover, the research also observed evidence of mediating and moderating grit effects in the concurrent effects of expectancy-values towards STEM and self-regulated learning skills towards students’ mathematics performance.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.967
Pages: 967-976
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304
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Psychometric Analysis of the Social Support Scale Among Indonesian Academicians

factor analysis reliability social support validity

Sri Lestari , Gita Aulia Nurani , Wisnu Sri Hertinjung


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The current study investigates the psychometric characteristics of the Social Support Scale as an instrument for assessing social support for academics. The original version of the scale was adapted and translated into Indonesian and was administered to academics in Indonesia through a google form. The data were then analyzed to investigate the reliability, construct validity, and structure of factors of the instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis confirms that the three-dimension model was the best model regarding the internal structure. Our findings also advocate the Social Support Scale as a valid and reliable tool for assessing social support in Indonesian academics. Thus, it can be employed to examine lecturers’ social support level which helps the universities to build a supportive working climate, as well as improve the relationship quality between employees.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.977
Pages: 977-989
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565
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505
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School quality has become a guiding concept that increasingly shapes educational planning and school development. For many decades, it has been a topic of significant interest, resulting in a wide-ranging and diverse research field. However, it is far from clear how school quality should be defined, what it should encompass, and how it influences student performance. The goal of this scoping review is to examine the existing evidence of the relationship between characteristics of school quality and student cognitive output/ student performance in secondary school. More precisely, it aims to (a) identify, (b) categorize, and (c) examine and evaluate the effects of characteristics of school quality affecting student performance and teaching characteristics in secondary school. In order to achieve these aims, we selected, clustered, and analyses 37 articles. The process was conducted by the research group through regular meetings, discussions, and consensus decisions. Our findings contribute to the comprehensive body of literature by identifying the following dimensions: aims and strategies for quality development, leadership and management, professionalism, school culture, and resources. Furthermore, the review revealed that although the field of school quality has been extensively researched, it lacks consistency, with many different operationalisations and definitions, making comparisons and syntheses challenging or even impossible. We believe that clear operationalisations and definitions are crucial to achieving comparability. Additionally, to achieve a standardized understanding of school quality and establish the categories internationally, uniform, theoretically sound, and content-related definitions of each category are necessary.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.991
Pages: 991-1013
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322
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477
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The Use of Mathematics Comics to Develop Logical-Mathematical Intelligence for Junior High School Students

logical-mathematical intelligence mathematics comics rural school students urban school students

Rahmah Johar , Mailizar , Yulinar Safitri , Cut Morina Zubainur , Suhartati Suhartati


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Logical-mathematical intelligence is highly needed to ease students’ understanding of mathematics concepts. Therefore, it is necessary to delivery an innovative teaching approach to enhance students’ logical-mathematical intelligence. This study aims to investigate the use of mathematics comics to increase the logical-mathematical intelligence of junior high school students in urban and rural schools. This study employed a quantitative approach with a pretest-posttest control group design. The population of this study were seventh-grade students from a junior high school in Banda Aceh (urban areas) and a junior high school in Aceh Besar (rural areas), Indonesia. The samples of this study were two classes (experimental and control) from each school which were selected randomly. To collect data, we used a logical-mathematical intelligence test and analyzed it by using t-test. This study shows that the use of mathematical comics in urban schools can improve mathematical logical intelligence. However, there was no improvement in students' mathematical logical intelligence in rural schools. Therefore, this study showed that using mathematics comics in different school conditions yield different results in logical-mathematical intelligence. The findings suggest that other learning innovations are required to improve students' logical-mathematical intelligence in rural areas.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1015
Pages: 1015-1027
cloud_download 281
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281
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346
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Design Thinking as a Co-Creation Methodology in Higher Education. A Perspective on the Development of Teamwork and Skill Cultivation

co-creation design thinking methodology skills teamwork university students

Eirini Vardakosta , Georgios Priniotakis , Michail Papoutsidakis , Marisa Sigala , Antonios Tsikritsis , Dimitrios Nikolopoulos


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Graduates of higher education need, in addition to knowledge, skills such as cooperation, communication, and problem-solving to cope with their working life. Collaborative learning environments like co-creation, are gaining attention for their ability to cultivate these essential skills. This study aims to investigate the understanding and efficacy of co-creation from the perspective of 145 undergraduate students enrolled in a physics course, using a questionnaire. Design thinking, using the double-diamond model, is applied as the co-creation methodology. The study examines the effects of co-creation and design thinking on teamwork and the development of skills. The study also discusses the differences in co-creation, design thinking, teamwork, and skill development among various demographics, previous co-creation experiences, and teaching methods. The findings demonstrate that the majority of students understand the concepts of co-creation and design thinking, and that their co-creation teams functioned satisfactorily, leading to the development of necessary skills. However, increasing age seems to be an inhibiting factor. Finally, the study shows that students who prefer co-creation as a teaching method or have previous co-creation experiences are more receptive to this approach.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1029
Pages: 1029-1044
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280
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370
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The study aims to point out direct and indirect correlations between others' roles on career self-efficacy, and career self-management. This research uses a multifactor correlational model, samples were 342 students. The research instruments are Career Self-Management Self-Efficacy Scale (CEDLE-Scale), Career Decision Self-Efficacy (CDSE Short-Form), and Role Model Influence Career Decisions Scale (RIMICDS). Data were analyzed using path analysis with AMOS 23. The findings show that 1) the variable of others' role directly influences career self-efficacy; 2) career self-management directly influences the career self-efficacy on career self-efficacy; 3) others' influence on career decision directly influences the career self-management, and 4) others' role on the career decision indirectly influences self-efficacy moderated by career self-management. Support, guidance, and inspiration from others will ease someone in deciding on a career. Guidance for managing a career will improve career self-efficacy. It will then positively contribute to the self-confidence to pursue the career.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1045
Pages: 1045-1057
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412
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437
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A virtual-based disaster learning model was created to enhance understanding of COVID-19 disaster mitigation following the characteristics of elementary school students because the high number of child deaths brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic served as the driving force behind this research. The virtual-based disaster learning model had been deemed valid, but more study is required to ascertain its impact on primary school pupils' comprehension of COVID-19 disaster mitigation. This study sought to determine how the virtual disaster learning model affected elementary school pupils' understanding of COVID-19 disaster mitigation. This study was a quasi-experimental investigation. Non-equivalent control group design was the type of experimental design employed. The t-test showed that students who studied using virtual-based disaster learning models and those who used conventional learning had different average levels of understanding of COVID-19 disaster mitigation. According to the findings, primary school children who learned using virtual disaster learning models had higher scores than students who used conventional methods. This finding revealed that virtual disaster learning models could improve understanding of COVID-19 disaster mitigation. The results of this study's implications can be applied as a different approach to enhancing elementary school kids' comprehension of emergency planning for COVID-19.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1059
Pages: 1059-1069
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270
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Relationship Between Knowledge and Affection for the Environment: A Meta-Analysis

affection conservation environment knowledge meta-analysis

Trias Hernanda , Absori , Aidul Fitriciada Azhari , Kelik Wardiono , Janu Arlinwibowo


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Environmental damage must be taken seriously. Strengthening human attitudes to preserve the environment is the keyword, and strengthening the aspects of knowledge about the environment must be pursued. However, a scientific basis is needed that shows that it is true that strengthening the aspects of knowledge about the environment can improve a person’s attitude toward preserving the environment. The purpose of this research is to find the relationship between a person’s knowledge and their behavior in preserving the environment. By defining the general picture of the relationship between knowledge and attitudes, future accurate educational policies can be taken in the context of environmental protection. This research is a meta-analysis of correlation types. The inclusion criteria for selecting the data are as follows: studies published from 1999 to 2022 in English, analyzed by correlation analysis, have descriptions of many samples and correlation indices, and published in Google Scholar-indexed journals. Based on this inclusion criteria, 23 studies were selected containing 36 relevant sets of research data. The results showed that there was a correlation between knowledge and a person’s attitude toward the environment (.37). Assuming a 95% confidence level, the real score ranges from 0.26 to 0.48. The publication bias test using the trim and fill method showed that none of the data contained biased publications, so the meta-analysis results could be declared valid. Now, there is an urgency to expand environmental education to encourage the development of good attitudes by the community toward the environment.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1069
Pages: 1071-1084
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330
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390
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2

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The significance of speaking English has been emphasized in Malaysia education. However, speaking problems such as lack of enthusiasm and poor speaking performance emerge among ESL pupils. To resolve this, an online board game “Flippity” is implemented in online speaking lessons. This paper aims to explore the usefulness of the online board game “Flippity” to improve speaking skills among elementary pupils who are in Year 5 as well as to investigate pupils’ perceptions towards the use of the online board game “Flippity”. The study employed a quasi-experimental mixed method design to collect data from thirty Year 5 pupils from a Chinese primary school. Data was collected through speaking pre-test and post-test, semi-structured interview and questionnaire. The results indicated a significant improvement in pupils’ speaking skills in terms of accuracy, fluency, range, interaction and coherence. Pupils also displayed preferences and positive attitude in learning to speak while playing “Flippity”. Further studies are recommended to be done on how “Flippity” could be exploited when learning other language skills such as listening, reading, writing and grammar.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1085
Pages: 1085-1096
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333
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489
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Study Item Parameters of Classical and Modern Theory of Differential Aptitude Test: Is it Comparable?

classical test theory differential aptitude test item parameter modern test theory

Farida Agus Setiawati , Rizki Nor Amelia , Bambang Sumintono , Edi Purwanta


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This study aimed to find the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Modern Test Theory (MTT) item parameters of the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and examined their comparability of them. The item parameters being studied are difficulty level and discrimination index. 5.024 data of the result sub-test DAT were documented by the Department of Psychology and Guidance and Counselling bureau. The parameter of classical and modern test items was estimated and correlated by examining the comparability between parameters. The results show that there is a significant correlation between item parameter estimates. The Rasch and IRT 1-PL models have the highest correlation toward CTT regarding the item difficulty level. In contrast, model 2-PL has the highest correlation toward CTT in the item discrimination index. Overall, the study concluded that CTT and MTT were comparable in estimating item parameters of DAT and thus could be used independently or complementary in developing DAT.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1097
Pages: 1097-1107
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305
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392
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1

The Factors Influencing Digital Literacy Practice in Vocational Education: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

digital literacy practice pls-sem teacher readiness vocational education

Dwi Jatmoko , Suyitno Suyitno , Mohamad Sattar Rasul , Muhammad Nurtanto , Nur Kholifah , Alias Masek , Hamid Ramadhan Nur


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In the future, vocational students will face all changes and developments in technology and information. In this context, students' digital literacy skills need to be trained to adapt to the demands of the world of work. This article aims to present the results of a study on factors that can improve the digital literacy practice for vocational students as a roadmap for digital learning in the current era. The sampling technique used purposive random sampling of 8 Vocational Schools in East Java Province, Indonesia. The number of respondents in this study amounted to 355 second-year students. The study has found that online learning, motivation, and technology introduction are influenced by students' digital literacy practices, while teacher readiness and infrastructure must be mediated by online learning. The findings in this study indicate that collaboration from various parties is needed from teachers, school administrators, and policymakers in planning learning that focuses on students' digital abilities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1109
Pages: 1109-1121
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616
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569
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1

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The Think-Pair-Share (TPS) strategy makes the learning environment interactive, lively, collaborative and democratic. It allows students to interact; accept information; develop collaborative discussion skills; refine their thinking; and participate effectively in the classroom. In this study, the researchers investigated the effect of the collaborative discussion strategy (think-pair-share) on developing students' skills in solving engineering mathematical problems. Once we had confirmed the validity and reliability of the tools, we used the quasi-experimental approach. The study sample consisted of 66 students divided into two groups: Namely, an experimental group, which comprised 33 students who studied mathematics using the (think-pair-share) strategy; and a control group, which comprised 33 students who studied in the traditional way. Both groups sat for a pretest and post-test in mathematics. The test results showed that the use of the TPS strategy had a positive effect on developing problem-solving skills compared to the traditional method. In light of these results, the study recommended the use of TPS strategy to improve the skills of students in solving engineering mathematical problems.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1123
Pages: 1123-1135
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436
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381
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1

Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education: Critical Thinking

elementary school hots motivation active learning physical education

Cucu Hidayat , Anggi Setia Lengkana , Aang Rohyana , Didik Purwanto , Razali , Mia Rosalina


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Motivation is essential in shaping how much a student is interested in learning and also affects how much students will learn from a learning activity or how much students' ability to capture the information presented by the teacher. Well-motivated students will produce a vibrant learning atmosphere and a better success rate. This research aims to determine whether the motivating active learning in physical education (MALP) model can help kids in elementary school develop their capacity for critical thinking. The design used is experimental. The research subjects were grade 6 elementary school students representing five sub-districts in the Tasikmalaya district. One elementary school was taken from each sub-district through a probability sampling technique using the cluster random sampling approach. The total sample taken was 137 people. The results of the study prove that applying the MALP model can greatly influence improving the critical thinking skills of elementary school students. The result of the study is proven by the significance test using the paired sample t-test; the results obtained from sig. (2-tailed) of .001< .05. So applying motivating active learning in the physical education model influences increasing elementary school students’ critical thinking skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1137
Pages: 1137-1151
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427
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469
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3

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1

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The quality of higher education is vital for a country’s future, not only in terms of transferring knowledge to younger generation but also for supporting economic development. This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the relative efficiency of 38 academic departments at Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya, Indonesia. The input factors are the number of lecturers, the number of staff and budget allocations, whereas the output is the performance achievement level. The empirical analysis incorporates two traditional DEA models: the Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) and the Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BCC) models with input orientation. The results indicate that the CCR model considers five departments efficient while the BCC model considers ten departments efficient, five of which are those considered efficient by the CCR model. It may seem counterintuitive that a department with an output performance achievement below 100% is deemed efficient, and vice versa. However, the underlying principle of efficiency under input-oriented DEA model is resource utilization. Finally, we provide recommendations for the departments with low efficiency scores to improve their performance.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1153
Pages: 1153-1169
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301
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407
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0

Relations Among Psychological Resilience, Exam Anxiety, and School Satisfaction in a Large Sample of Azerbaijani Adolescents

adolescent exam anxiety psychological resilience school satisfaction

Elnur Rustamov , Matanat Aliyeva , Ulviyya Nahmatova , Fuad Asadov , Gulay Mammadzada


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The purpose of this study was to examine whether exam anxiety played a role as a mediator in the relationship between psychological resilience and school satisfaction in a large sample of adolescents (N = 1819; Mage = 15.16, SD = 0.95) who live in different regions of Azerbaijan. Adolescents’ psychological resilience was positively associated with school satisfaction, whereas their exam anxiety level was negatively associated with school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling results showed that exam anxiety partially mediated the relationships between psychological resilience and school satisfaction. Therefore, the indirect effect of psychological resilience on school satisfaction through exam anxiety was also statistically significant.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1171
Pages: 1171-1178
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581
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416
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3

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1

The Effect of Character Teaching on College Student Social-Emotional Character Development: A Case in Indonesia

character teaching college student socioemotional development

Rianawati , Imron Muttaqin , Saifuddin Herlambang , Wahab , Mawardi


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This study aimed to investigate the effect of character teaching on college student socioemotional character development. The study was conducted at IAIN Pontianak, Universitas Tanjungpura and Universitas Muhammadiyah Pontianak. The sample was 1284 students, 388 male and 896 female. Partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) data analysis using SmartPLS was used. The findings reveal that character teaching has a significant and positive effect on college student honesty, prosociality, respect at home, respect at school, self-control, and self-development. This study suggests that colleges/universities ensure that lecturers supervise student assignments, seriousness and discipline, check students’ attendance strictly, give course assessment samples, and grade their assignments on schedule. At the end of the conclusion, implications and suggestions are given.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.2.1179
Pages: 1179-1193
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466
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467
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