(According to APA Manual 7th edition)
Referencing an idea
The leading medical cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease. Other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning (Anderson, 1999; Saggers & Gray, 1999; Thomson, 1995).
(order authors alphabetically in parentheses)
Anderson (1999), Thomson (1995), and Saggers and Gray (1999) all state that the leading cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease, and that other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning.
Referencing a quotation
Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).
If the quotation is over 40 words, you must indent the entire quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required. Cite the quoted source after the final punctuation mark.
Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous province of all three Canadian Prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Hern, 1996, p. 22)
Citing a source within a source
Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:
(Halliday, as cited in Unsworth, 2004, p. 15)
Only Unsworth will appear in the reference list at the end of your manuscript.
Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication.
De Vaus, D. A. (2014). Surveys in social research. Allen & Unwin.
McKenzie, H., Boughton, M., Hayes, L., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley & M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Rodopi.
Note: The publisher location is no longer included in the reference of the book and the book chapter.
Bartoszeck, A. B., & Bartoszeck, F. K. (2017). Brazilian primary and secondary school pupils´ perception of science and scientists. European Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 29-40. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.29
If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not necessary.
Note: DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary.
Considine, M. (1986). Australian insurance politics in the 1970s: Two case studies [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/ Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Melbourne.
Fron a database
Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin–Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive. https://digitalarchive.wm.edu/bitstream/handle/10288/16594/HutchesonVirginia2012.pdf
Webpage with an author
Welch, N. (2000, February 21). Toward an understanding of the determinants of rural health. Rural Health. http://www.ruralhealth.org.au/welch.htm
Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.
Blakey, N., Guinea, S., & Saghafi, F. (2017). Transforming undergraduate nursing curriculum by aligning models of clinical reasoning through simulation. In R. Walker, & S. Bedford (Eds.), HERDSA 2017 Conference: Research and Development in Higher Education: Curriculum Transformation (pp. 25-37). Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Herdsa. http://www.herdsa.org.au/research-and-development-higher-education-vol-40-25
Published in book:
Armstrong, D. B., Fogarty, G. J., & Dingsdag, D. (2007). Scales measuring characteristics of small business information systems. In W-G. Tan (Ed.), Proceedings of Research, Relevance and Rigour: Coming of age: 18th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (pp. 163-171). University of Southern Queensland.
Green, D. B. & DeSilva, A. (2015, June 10-12). The toxicity levels of household chemicals [Paper presentation]. National Symposium on Air Pollution, University of Southern California, CA, United States.
Bagnall, D. (1998, January 27-28). Private schools: Why they are out in front. The Bulletin, pp. 12-15.
The Health Targets and Implementation (Health for All) Committee. (1988). Health for all Australians. Government Publishing Service.
Company and Industry Reports
Magner, L. (2016). IBISWorld Industry Report OD5381. Coffee Shops in Australia. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
In order to distinguish between works by the same author with the same publication date, use the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year. The first resource would be (1995a), the second resource would be (1995b), etc. This format must also be used in the corresponding reference in the references list.
Cheever, J. (1995a). The enormous radio. In R. V. Cassill (Ed.), The Norton anthology of short fiction (5th ed., pp. 182–191). Norton. (Original work published 1947)
Cheever, J. (1995b). The five-forty-eight. In R. V. Cassill (Ed.), The Norton anthology of short fiction (5th ed., pp. 191–202). Norton. (Original work published 1954)
Arrange works by the same author by year of publication with the earliest year first.
The lecturer's understanding of teaching has an effect on the quality of student learning (Ramsden, 1992, 1994). …
Reference list entry:
Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. Routledge.
Ramsden, P. (1994). Using research on student learning to enhance educational quality. Griffith Institute for Higher Education.
Proper use of et al. in APA style
(Miller & Romine, 2020)
Miller and Romine (2020)
Three or more authors
(Sasson et al., 2020)
Sasson et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviation- First citation
|(American Psychological Association [APA], 2020)||American Psychological Association (APA, 2020)|
Note: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”.
Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.
Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).
Citing translated sources in APA style
Here’s how you would cite the original French edition of a work by Piaget (note that an English translation of the title is included in brackets):
Piaget, J. (1966). La psychologie de l’enfant [The psychology of the child]. Presses Universitaires de France.
Here’s another example, from a German journal. Again, brackets contain an English translation of the work’s title (the article, not the journal).
Janzen, G., & Hawlik, M. (2005). Orientierung im Raum: Befunde zu Entscheidungspunkten [Orientation in space: Findings about decision points]. Journal of Psychology/Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 213(4), 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1026/0044-3409.213.4.179
If you read an English translation of a foreign work, by including translator:
Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). Basic Books.
Your reference list should be in English. Do not use non-English titles and non-English characters. If a source is not available in English, that is, if it does not have an English title, write the original title then add its English translation in square brackets.
Grangeat, M. (2011) (Ed.). Les demarches d’investigation dans l’enseignement scientifique Pratiques de classe, travail collectif enseignant, acquisitions des eleves. Ecole Normale Supérieure.
should be written as,
Grangeat, M. (2011) (Ed.). Les démarches d’investigation dans l’enseignement scientifique Pratiques de classe, travail collectif enseignant, acquisitions des élèves [Investigative approaches in science teaching class practices, collective teacher work, student acquisitions]. Ecole Normale Supérieure.
Here is an example of an article in a journal.
Bussieres, E.-L., St-Germain, A., Dube, M., & Richard, M.-C. (2017). Efficacite et efficience des programmes de transition a la vie adulte: Une revue systematique [Effectiveness and efficiency of adult transition programs: A systematic review]. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 58(1), 354–365. https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000104