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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 11 Issue 4 (October 2022)

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This article addresses the impact of accelerated technological development on the world of work, the main characteristics of the new expected generation of workers (Generation Z), and the unique demands placed on educational systems. The educational systems must adapt to society's expectations in the 21st century to remain relevant in a world with uncertainty regarding the labor market. Throughout the article, we present findings from the research literature on the new requirements of learners in the 21st century, highlight the main characteristics of the new generation of workers (Generation Z), and outline the importance of the education system in training and acquiring necessary skills. These requirements include skills for integrating learners into society and employment due to the new demands of the labor market.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1911
Pages: 1911-1921
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This paper analyzes the key determinants of the quality of preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Based on the analysis of recent data, the paper indicates the status and development trends in this regard in the last decade. Although preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina has a long tradition, it is facing a number of challenges, mostly arising from the arrangement of the state system and post-war transition processes which have significantly impoverished this level of education. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to point out the recent public policy efforts made in the attempt to ensure the quality of preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the effects that are being achieved in this regard. Since quality can be approached from the aspects of structure and process, the elementary structural and process dimensions of preschool education will be taken as units of this analysis. Conceptualizing the results of this analysis, the status and quality of preschool education in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be positioned through an orientation towards the European framework for the quality and development trends of preschool education in Europe.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1923
Pages: 1923-1936
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COVID-19 has substantially affected the majority of work capabilities. Higher education is responsible for preparing graduates for employment and well-rounded individuals with varied talents. This study determined the acquired attributes of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT) graduates and whether it is anchored to the required attributes by the industry. Descriptive and comparative research designs of the quantitative research method were used in this study. This study had two sets of participants. Data on acquired attributes were gathered from the BSIT graduates from 2017-2020 of the Private Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Santiago City, Philippines, who are presently employed. At the same time, required graduate attributes were provided by the representatives from the industry partners of the Private HEI. A total of 45 BSIT graduates and 26 companies participated in the study. Data were collected using a modified questionnaire through online surveys and drop and collect method. Through confirmatory factor analysis, mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA, rankings, findings revealed the six-factor result, which tallies the latent variables used for this study. BSIT graduates confirmed that they acquired the necessary attributes to be competitive in the IT industry according to the prescribed attributes for BSIT graduates. The Graduates and the Industry agreed that Modern tool usage and resiliency are essential in these challenging times in the workplace. According to the findings, graduates' university-acquired skills and competencies considerably increased their opportunities in national and global markets and sectors, making them timely and relevant during COVID-19 and beyond.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1937
Pages: 1937-1946
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A socio-scientific issue is one of the learning techniques used today, which uses various scientific sources to make students think scientifically to conduct a dialogue and discuss solving a problem. Various problems in socio-scientific are controversial, requiring reasoning, and ethical evaluation in the decision-making process. A conflict between chemical reason and students' social point of view will cause students' different assessments and attitudes towards the socio-scientific issue. This study is a research and development (R&D) that focuses on the instrument's validity with the factor analysis technique to assess attitudes towards the socio-scientific issue in chemistry learning. CFA and EFA analysis found five factors in the tool: anxiety, interests, likes, benefits, confidence, validity, and reliability. The total reliability coefficient is .853. Of the eight instrument feasibility analysis requirements, seven instruments were declared fit to meet construct validity.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1947
Pages: 1947-1958
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The primary goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Quizizz in enhancing students' motivation, interest, and achievement in physics. This study was conducted at the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology (NEUST) – Gabaldon campus during the second semester of the academic year 2021-2022. This study used both a descriptive and a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design. The descriptive design was used to describe the student's motivation and interest in learning waves and optics before and after the intervention of Quizizz. The quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used to determine the effectiveness of Quizizz in increasing students' motivation, interest, and achievement in physics. The study included 20 students pursuing a bachelor's degree in secondary education with a major in science. According to the findings, before the intervention of Quizizz, students agreed that they are motivated and interested in learning physics, and their performance was average. Following the intervention, students unanimously agreed that they are more motivated and interested in learning physics, and their scores in a specific unit increased. According to the t-test, the intervention of Quizizz significantly increases student motivation, interest, and achievement in physics. It demonstrates that using Quizizz in physics instruction improved students' motivation, interest, and achievement in physics.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1959
Pages: 1959-1967
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The Effect of Project Based Assessment with Value Clarification Technique in Improving Students’ Civics Learning Outcomes by Controlling the Family Environment

family environment project based assessment learning outcomes vct learning

I Wayan Widiana , I Wayan Kertih , Maria Goreti Rini Kristiantari , Desak Putu Parmiti , Made Aryawan Adijaya


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The decline in student character is the result of low student learning outcomes. The common student learning outcomes are influenced by several factors, and one of them is teacher-centered, monotonous learning model. For this reason, it is deemed necessary to conduct research that aims to determine the effect of project-based assessment on values clarification technique (VCT) learning on improving students’ learning outcomes by controlling the family environment. This study uses a 2x2 factorial experimental design. The sample was selected through multistage random sampling with 120 students. The two-way ANCOVA data analysis technique was used to analyze the data. The findings obtained after controlling the family environment are: 1) civics learning outcomes from the group of students who used value clarification techniques are higher than those using conventional learning models and 2) civics learning outcomes from the group of students who were given project-based assessments are higher than the group who are given conventional assessments. Thus, it can be recommended that civics education teachers used appropriate VCT and project-based assessments to improve learning outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1969
Pages: 1969-1979
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Kosovo's education system has two different vocational education and training schools: professional schools and centres of competence. The local authorities-municipal directorates of education manage the professional schools, while the centres of competence are managed at the national level by agency for vocational education and training and adult education (AVETAE), operating under the Ministry of Education. This paper compares the collaboration between public schools, centres of competence, and private businesses. For this research, we used the mixed research methodology by interviewing coordinators of career centres from two professional schools and two centres of competence, and four managers of different firms. The research included a questionnaire filled by teachers from both institutions, prepared using the Likert scale. We analysed the data from this research to identify the differences in how those institutions develop partnerships with private businesses to secure better internship opportunities for their students. The study will provide data about the sustainability of cooperation between these two institutions in the creation of employment opportunities for their graduates. The outcomes will help professional schools and centres of competence to improve their cooperation with the labour market. It will help the career centre coordinators and business owners to create new job opportunities for development.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1981
Pages: 1981-1995
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538
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Computational Thinking Development: Benefiting from Educational Robotics in STEM Teaching

computational thinking educational robotics hands-on activities stem learning cycle

Cucuk Wawan Budiyanto , Kristof Fenyvesi , Afra Lathifah , Rosihan Ari Yuana


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The delivery of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning to improve an individual’s competence and future career interests has become a critical scientific undertaking for teachers and researchers alike. A plethora of research has proposed various hands-on robotics activities built on constructivist theories, thereby facilitating the development of knowledge based on reality for scientific and non-scientific stakeholders. Robotics may become an essential focus point within technology provision, which is an essential underlying characteristic for the seminal development of computational thinking (CT). However, despite the potential benefit of CT in developing an individual’s problem-solving skills, strategies for improving this ability through hands-on robotics activities largely remain underexplored. This paper highlights the constructs drawn from hands-on robotics activities in a STEM workshop designed for pre-service teacher students. The qualitative research design involved eight participants to investigate the responses of pre-service teachers to a hands-on robotics activity intended to provide STEM material. The research findings emphasise the correlations between the CT principles and STEM learning phases and underscore the roles played by educational robotics to enhance previous literature on learning experience.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.1997
Pages: 1997-2012
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6

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The aim of this article is to highlight the history of social work in Kosovo, regarding the major political climate from 1945 to the present. Unfavorable political developments that have existed in Kosovo for a long historical period have made it impossible to develop the social work profession compared to the countries of the region. Although the Former Yugoslav Federation claimed to be a socialist country, the social differences between states and provinces within this were large. The findings of the paper show that social work did not develop in Kosovo as a profession until specific structures, such as the emergence of the University of Pristina as a legal structure of education for Kosovo Albanians, which has been offering a degree program in social work for almost a decade now. The political orientation and organizational infrastructure are highly relevant for the execution and education of social work. Literature review is the methodological framework of this paper. Education and social work have been shown to be an extraordinary opportunity for the transformation of society.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2013
Pages: 2013-2022
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The Effect of Embedding Phonological Awareness Training on Adult EFL Learners’ Phonological Awareness Skill

efl learners embedded phonological awareness training phonological awareness skill

Daning Hentasmaka , Bambang Yudi Cahyono , Yazid Basthomi , Yunita Puspitasari


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Phonological awareness relates closely to listening and speaking skills. It also has an important role in learning to read in an alphabetic writing system. In the context of learning a new language, it is essential to figure out an appropriate strategy in accelerating the phonological awareness skill. The present study aims at investigating the effect of embedding phonological awareness training in adult English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ phonological awareness skill. It involved 63 EFL students who were divided into two groups: Experimental and control. The data were taken by using a phonological awareness test and analyzed by using independent samples t-test. The overall comparison showed that the experimental group who received an embedded phonological awareness training for 4.5 hours (45 minutes of six meetings) surpassed the control group who joined a regular vocabulary class without phonological awareness training (p = .017). Thus, phonological awareness training effectively accelerates adult EFL learners’ phonological awareness skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2023
Pages: 2023-2030
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High school teachers are mentors and facilitators that must be concerned about their students' formal thinking abilities. Students may not take a conservation task seriously because they perform operations without consulting. This necessitates modifying the learning process to increase student motivation. Therefore, this study aimed to examine students' mathematical spatial literacy through project-based blended learning with the cognitive conflict strategy. The study sample comprised 129 students, including 66 and 63 in the experimental and control classes, respectively, divided into the low, medium, and high levels. The findings showed that the experimental class students using project-based blended learning with the cognitive conflict strategy had higher mathematical spatial literacy than those in the control class using problem-based learning. Project-based blended learning with the cognitive conflict strategy and problem-based learning students at the high and moderate levels differed in their ability to increase their mathematical spatial literacy. However, low-level students are comparable in their ability to increase their mathematical spatial literacy.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2031
Pages: 2031-2041
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578
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1

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Translanguaging enables students to communicate in multiple languages in an English-dominant classroom. It has received considerable attention from scholars in content and language integrated learning (CLIL). Its implementation in primary schools in European countries has been adopted in Asian countries, including Indonesia. This study employed a narrative inquiry investigating a teacher who taught first graders both content matter and English during the COVID-19 forced-remote learning. Furthermore, data were gathered using semi-structured interviews to guide the participant in narrating CLIL science teaching experiences. Virtual observations were carried out eight times to obtain evidence of translanguaging practiced. Due to forced-remote learning, the results indicated that the teacher had to find the most convenient ways to instruct the young students without adding to their burden. Furthermore, it was reported that scaffolding by translanguaging was planned systematically by valuing the students’ L1 and alternating it with English as the target language. The findings also discussed the practical implications of this study to maintain young learners' (YLs) engagement through translanguaging strategies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2043
Pages: 2043-2055
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735
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The loss of direct experiences with nature among today's children is of concern as it affects their conservation willingness (CW). While little is known about the influence of live experiences on CW, much less is known about how these events are related. This study aimed to examine the serial mediating effects of biodiversity knowledge (BK) and affective attitudes (AA) on the relationship between live experiences with species and CW. An online questionnaire was administered to 429 school children (11-12 years) in the Maldives. A two-serial mediation analysis revealed that live experiences exerted significant negative direct and positive indirect effects on CW. Thus, although a predictive sequential pathway from live experiences to BK to AA to CW was confirmed, partial mediation involving other mediators or moderators is likely. The direct effects of live experiences on BK and AA and of BK on AA suggest that experiential learning that stimulates AA is necessary to achieve overall positive impacts on CW. Therefore, educators and policymakers are critical in providing first-hand experiences to instill positive biodiversity conservation traits in children, enabling successful education for sustainable development and long-term biodiversity conservation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2057
Pages: 2057-2067
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The main objective of this research was to study the effects of instructional management models and nominal variables on the development of students’ creative thinking. The researchers used the research synthesis of 400 studies on the development of students' creative thinking by a meta-analysis of research according to Cohen. The meta-analysis results revealed that the average effect size of the instructional management model (d = 3.43; [3.10, 3.17]) was positive and had a very high effect size with statistical significance. The most significant influence on the creative thinking development model was creative development theory (d = 4.217; [3.32, 5.11]). In addition, effect sizes varied with the attribute variables of the research, particularly the attribute variable of the research on instruction with the highest effect consisted of research with the focus on language, at the primary level, applied Torrance's creativity theory, designed between one to six lesson plans. Moreover, there was less than one hour per plan, the instructional period including the experiment conducted more than 31 hours and there were four weeks of instruction. In addition, there were six steps for instruction, there had quiz as an assessment tool, number of exams varied between 30 and 39 questions, and knowledge sheets were used as instructional materials. In the context of the meta-analysis, the findings indicated that the teachers should apply creative development theory in developing the students’ creative thinking for more effective instructional management.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2069
Pages: 2069-2085
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491
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530
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2

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1

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COVID-19 pandemic forces training for principals to be conducted online. This study aims to evaluate the context, input, process, response, study, behavior, and outcome to determine the effectiveness and make recommendations for training. The approach used in this study was a mixed method with a concurrent embedded design and a qualitative method as the main method. The subjects of this study were the principals, committees, and instructors. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and questionnaires and analyzed using Miles and Huberman's model, descriptive analysis, and a t-test. The results show that e-training is effective in context, input, and process. Response, learning, and attitude assessments prove that knowledge, skills, and attitude have improved. Participants will be able to implement the experience gained and impact school quality improvement. This study contributes to the combination of the two evaluation models proven to produce a complete result. The study for the e-training recommends needed assessment before the training, the activity before the training to acquire the skills in using the learning management system, and the monitoring and evaluation after the training.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2087
Pages: 2087-2100
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522
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641
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0

Teacher-Student Performance Criteria During Online Classes due to COVID-19: Self-Report by Postgraduate Students in Education

didactic pandemic performance school lockdown teaching

Aldo Bazán-Ramírez , Rolando Quispe-Morales , Carlos De La Cruz-Valdiviano , Carmela Henostroza-Mota


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During didactic interactions, teachers and students employ competencies and skills that correspond functionally to one another, and several models propose to typify didactic performances in higher education. For this study, we chose the didactic performance interbehavioral model as the substantive theory to identify six pairs of didactic performance criteria through self-evaluations from graduate students. These included: Competency exploration–precurrent learning behaviors, Criteria explicitness–Criteria identification, Illustration–Participation, Practice supervision–Relevant practice, Feedback–Improvement, and Evaluation–Application.309 Peruvian students from an in-person postgraduate course in Education Sciences filled out two scales (via Google Forms) to assess teacher-student performance criteria during online classes. Convergent and divergent validity were obtained separately for six teacher/student performance constructs through a confirmatory analysis using LISREL 8. Moreover, differences according to sex were only significant for the Illustration teacher criterion (favoring men) and the Application student criterion (favoring women). Students rated Explicitness of criteria and Illustration as the teacher performance criteria most frequently seen during online classes. On the other hand, Criteria identification ranked the highest in terms of the students’ performance criteria, followed by Feedback–Improvement. Another conclusion was that the didactic performance interbehavioral model could be empirically supported by the two self-assessment questionnaires, which yielded good convergent and divergent validity of constructs.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2101
Pages: 2101-2114
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377
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2

The Practicum in Teacher Training: Conditions for Integral Training

curricular innovations initial teacher education practicum secondary education training process

Ana Martín-Romera , Estefanía Martínez-Valdivia , Lina Higueras-Rodríguez


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The practicum is an essential component in the initial training of Secondary Education teachers, as it is the first approach to educational practice that future teachers have. This is a fundamental element for improving the quality of education, as it is one of the objectives of the different educational reforms. This research aims to find out the educational value of the practicum for this group, as well as its advantages and limitations. For this purpose, qualitative research was carried out, using as an instrument an interview with 13 Secondary Education teachers, 2 managers of the master’s degree in Secondary Education Teaching at the University of Granada, 144 students of this master’s degree, and 5 specialists in the subject at a national level. The data obtained were analysed by means of content analysis, using the Nvivo12 program. The most relevant results include the importance of the alternating and interdisciplinary models and development of the activities to be developed by the students during their stay in the schools. Respecting the current model, actions to create the necessary synergies and resources (tutors, supervisors, schools and planning) that promote the training model that is intended are particularly relevant.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2115
Pages: 2115-2126
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361
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420
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1

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This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrolling in the creative teaching module in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education from high school students’ perspectives. This study applied a case study and qualitative research approach involving 26 Grade 11 students and 31 Grade 8 students. The creative teaching-STEM (CT-STEM) module, which comprised various activities related to energy literacy in real-world situations for the community’s well-being, involved outdoor STEM education activities with the assistance of two science teachers. The CT-STEM module was developed based on the directed creative process model by applying four creative teaching strategies: (i) constructivism learning, (ii) discovery inquiry, (iii) problem-based learning, and (iv) project-based learning. The theme of these out-of-classroom activities is sustainability education, focusing on energy sustainability. The results showed that the planned approaches could positively impact and build students’ creativity and create an exciting learning experience. Furthermore, the findings from the open-ended questionnaire instrument, observations, and analysis of the worksheets have shown enhancements in five themes: the development of problem-solving skills with an emphasis on the element of sustainability education, high-level thinking skills, active learning skills, communication skills, and humanity skills. The students also showed an increased interest in STEM as they learned using the CT-STEM module.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2127
Pages: 2127-2137
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673
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660
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2

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3

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Nowadays, Peruvian physicians commonly give oral medical reports to a patient´s family in English. For this reason, this research seeks to demonstrate the effectiveness of an Intervention Program for improving oral skills through role-playing activities, one hand, and, on the other, it aims to discover the kind of motivation, both goals in 40 students belonging to the Medicine Faculty of Universidad Nacional de Piura. This study has two parts, in the first quantitative phase, it measured the level of oral skills in these students, through an oral pre-test. After that, the students participated in an intervention program consisting of role-playing activities where the doctors usually use radiography to explain a medical condition. Then, the students were evaluated on their oral skills using an imaginary hospital situation similar to the pre-test. In the second part, the qualitative phase measured the Motivation of these students using the Attitude Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) in addition, a semi-structured interview could support the findings obtained in the aforementioned survey. The main findings were the improvement of oral skills and both Integrative and instrumental motivation in these students thanks to role-playing activities application.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2139
Pages: 2139-2151
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This study aims to explain the success factors of e-learning. The participants were 427 students in public universities in Indonesia. To demonstrate the success of this e-learning, we developed a more comprehensive e-learning evaluation model that considers the system's characteristics, students, and instructors. The results show that higher student performance is associated with higher student satisfaction. However, the increase in performance is not due to the use of e-learning. Social and cultural factors influence the use of e-learning. Culture and social environment influence students' use of e-learning. The instructor's ability to implement e-learning has been shown to influence student satisfaction. The difference in the implementation of e-learning compared to classroom learning requires different teaching methods that affect student performance. In addition, e-learning is used in all courses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2153
Pages: 2153-2166
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386
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3

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The role of preschool teachers in supporting children’s language development is unquestionably substantial. To ensure the quality of preschool teachers’ performance in this specific task, various assessing instruments have been developed and justified in recent years. This study joins such efforts by investigating a new scale based on the “Framework for assessing preschool teacher competence in promoting children’s language development” proposed by a previous research. The scale’s psychometric properties are examined with a sample of 685 Vietnamese preschool teachers. The results supported the four-factor model suggested by the original authors and confirmed its reliability and validity. Finally, further usages of the scale are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2167
Pages: 2167-2179
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The pandemic case has shifted away from face-to-face teaching to online blended learning. This phenomenon certainly causes various problems in the world of education. The online blended learning is good when applied with good internet connections and complete facilities. However, it differs from Indonesian coastal students who do not have supporting facilities. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the experience and readiness of Indonesian coastal students. It determines the facilities of the process using qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 25 students living in coastal areas in Aceh, Indonesia. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were used to obtain instruments and techniques for data collection, observations, field notes, and audio-visuals. Data analysis was carried out qualitatively by reducing, displaying, drawing conclusions, and verifying data. The data processing was conducted using NVivo 12 plus software. The kappa coefficient is used to check the accuracy of the data since there was no bias during coding. The analysis results show that Indonesian coastal students are not ready to conduct the online blended learning process. Furthermore, it is recommended that future research focus on coastal students’ development. A Hypothetical Learning Trajectory design should be created to assist in independent learning and lessen their readiness.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2181
Pages: 2181-2194
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The purpose of the study is to identify how the coverage of topics of the Code of Conduct for Research in Education in Ukraine is consistent with the ones from the United States of America (USA) and Europe. Furthermore, the study attempts to explore coherences in the documents so that these could be reviewed and addressed. The study used the methodology for mixed-methods systematic reviews to respond to the first research question and the survey research methodology to respond to the second one. It was identified that the research integrity and ethics terms were not sufficiently covered by the Codes of education and research organisations from Ukraine compared to the Codes from the USA and European Union (EU). It was found that there was a shift from emphasising the role of the researcher (contributor) in the Codes from the USA and EU to drawing the importance of regulatory and legal instruments for the maintenance of research integrity and ethics in Ukraine. The prescriptive wording in the Codes of professional organisations in the USA and EU was given much greater attention than in the Codes of educational and research institutions in Ukraine. The Codes of the educational and research institutions from Ukraine were considered to be tentatively consistent with the relevant ones from the database from the USA, and Europe.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2195
Pages: 2195-2207
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The main goal of this study is to examine the differences between school-aged children with different chronotypes who are only children or have a sibling in the household, regarding their sleeping habits and performance in intelligence tasks. The main measures used were Chronotype Questionnaire for Children and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. This study analysed 46 Portuguese children (Mean=8.67; SD=1.034, range 7-11 years of age) without sleep or educational/psychological disturbances, attending the first grade. The differences regarding chronotype and whether they were only children or not were examined. Then the performance of the sample in the Raven’s Progressive Matrices tests was evaluated.  The Mann-Whitney U test showed that ‘only’ children had higher fluid intelligence scores only in the afternoon. The chronotype did not differentiate this population and it is concluded that the type of household is the main moderator: Not being an only child was, in general, the best predictor in the test. Results suggest that different sleeping times (e.g., bedtime and wake-up time) and different chronotypes did not have different effects. However, having siblings proved to be an advantage regarding the child’s performance. Re-education of sleeping practices, especially examining the influence of co-sleeping in families, is essential for the intellectual development of children.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2209
Pages: 2209-2218
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Development of a Survey to Assess Conceptual Understanding of Quantum Mechanics among Moroccan Undergraduates

conceptual understanding learning difficulties quantum mechanics teaching/learning

Khalid Ait bentaleb , Saddik Dachraoui , Taoufik Hassouni , El mehdi Alibrahmi , Elmahjoub Chakir , Aimad Belboukhari


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We developed a Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Understanding Survey (QMCUS) in this study. The survey was conducted using a quantitative methodology. A multiple-choice survey of 35 questions was administered to 338 undergraduate students. Three experienced quantum mechanics instructors examined the validity of the survey. The reliability of our survey was measured using Cronbach's alpha, the Fergusson delta index, the discrimination index, and the point biserial correlation coefficient. These indices showed that the developed survey is reliable. The statistical analysis of the students' results using SPSS shows that the scores obtained by the students have a normal distribution, around the score of 7.14. The results of the t-test show that the students' scores are below the required threshold, which means that it is still difficult for the students to understand the concepts of quantum mechanics. The obtained results allow us to draw some conclusions. The students' difficulties in understanding the quantum concepts are due to the nature of these concepts; they are abstract and counterintuitive. In addition, the learners did not have frequent contact with the subatomic world, which led them to adopt misconceptions. Moreover, students find it difficult to imagine and conceptualize quantum concepts. Therefore, subatomic phenomena are still explained with classical paradigms. Another difficulty is the lack of prerequisites and the difficulties in using the mathematical formalism and its translation into Dirac notation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2219
Pages: 2219-2243
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1

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The present research aimed to test an Amharic version of the multi-dimensional Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers (WTMST), which measures the five pillars of university instructors’ motivation toward teaching and student evaluation tasks based on self-determination theory (SDT). Therefore, the WTMST offers the first instrument to measure all five motivational elements, and today it is one of the most applicable instruments to assess teachers’ motivation. An Amharic version of the WTMST for teaching and student evaluation tasks was adopted and assessed in large-scale data (N=1,117). Our findings demonstrate excellent reliability and construct validity (convergent, discriminant, divergent and factorial). Besides, the results of the model comparisons provided that out of the four theoretically competing models (single-order factor, correlated factor, higher-order factor and bi-factor models), the bi-factor model was the most-fitted one used for measurement invariance across various groups. Results also suggest that the factor structure of the WTMST for both teaching and student evaluation tasks demonstrate consistency across gender (men, women), university types (research, applied, and general university), age and experience in teaching. Therefore, the WTMST for teaching and student evaluation tasks may be valid in Ethiopian higher education settings.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2243
Pages: 2243-2263
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The article deals with financial education. The data were collected as part of the Slovenian project “NA-MA POTI” (NAroslovje, MAtematika, Pismenost, Opolnomočenje, Tehnologija, Interaktivnost- Science, Mathematics, Literacy, Empowerment, Technology, Interactivity), which aims, among other things, to promote financial literacy at the national level. The aim of the survey presented here is to determine teachers’ attitudes towards financial literacy and their teaching strategies in teaching topics related to financial literacy. A total of 158 teachers participated in the survey. The results show that most teachers agree that financial literacy is important. Those teachers who agreed that financial literacy is important were also statistically significantly more likely to use group work, approaches and work methods that require the development of critical thinking and authentic tasks, which provides a good foundation for knowledge transfer in everyday life.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2265
Pages: 2265-2273
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1

Academic Failure and Dropout: Untangling Two Realities

academic failure bibliometric analysis dropouts keyword analysis systematic review

Belén Gutiérrez-de-Rozas , Elvira Carpintero Molina , Esther López-Martín


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Academic failure and school dropout, or early school leaving, are two of the situations that most concern countries and educational institutions worldwide, because of their prevalence and also their economic and social implications. Despite this prominent role that academic failure and school dropout have in societies, there seems to be no consensus on the literature on their conceptualization, definition, and relationship. Moreover, it is frequent to observe how both concepts are confused or overlap in the scientific literature and how many authors avoid defining these constructs, using them indistinctly. Therefore, this work analyses whether educational research considers them as two different concepts or if they are used indistinctly. For this purpose, 2,051 keywords from 450 articles were subjected to a systematic review and classified into the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) thesaurus´ descriptors. The results reveal statistically significant differences in the descriptors according to the type of paper to which they correspond (academic failure or dropout). Thus, academic failure is associated with sociocultural, personal, and academic factors, while dropout is linked to employment and educational trajectories. These differences evidence that, although academic failure and school dropout refer to closely related educational problems, there are remarkable differences between them and between the treatment given to each of them in the scientific literature. Therefore, they should be considered as two different concepts. For all this, keyword analysis has proved to be a relevant element for the study of the structure of knowledge, allowing to clearly establish the differences between the two closely related concepts.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2275
Pages: 2275-2289
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998
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The purpose of the current research is to identify the correlations between moral intelligence and both academic entitlement and academic performance; in addition to identify the mediating role of academic entitlement between moral intelligence and academic performance. Four hundred and forty-four students from (Yemen, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Jordan) participated in the research. The moral intelligence scale and the academic entitlement scale were applied to the participants and data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and path analysis. The results revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation between moral intelligence and academic entitlement and a significant positive correlation between moral intelligence and academic performance. Besides, results demonstrated the mediating role of academic entitlement between moral intelligence and academic performance. The results of this research can be employed in building programs and setting plans for developing moral intelligence and eliminating academic entitlement behaviors and beliefs to encounter the problems of secondary school students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2291
Pages: 2291-2301
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591
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544
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1

Soft Skills Through the Prism of Primary School Teachers

common referential primary school soft skills teachers teaching practices

Laila Ouchen , Lahcen Tifroute , Khadija El Hariri


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COVID-19 and the expansion of distance learning pose new challenges to the educational system. Soft skills are imperative in this context, for children's effective and adaptive learning. The following study aims to discover teachers' representations by identifying their common conceptual framework of soft skills in primary school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers. The teachers' comments helped identify and define a framework of soft skills that would help children learn effectively. The results illustrate that the lack of practice of soft skills activities depends on the teachers' perceptions of the importance of their role in transmitting disciplinary knowledge. The study concluded that the lack of a clear and shared vision of soft skills influences the representations and practice of teachers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2303
Pages: 2303-2313
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589
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553
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2

Stuck in a Lockdown: Filipino Students' Odyssey of Resilience

lockdown pandemic phenomenology resilience stranded

Derren N. Gaylo , Lora E. Aňar , Cecille Marie T. Improgo , Ritchelee B. Alugar


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The COVID-19 outbreak in the Philippines forced schools to close. Many Filipino students were stranded in their dormitories and boarding houses due to government-imposed lockdowns. As the study's impetus, the researchers explored the phenomenon of stranded students during a pandemic. A transcendental phenomenological inquiry was conducted in Northern Mindanao, Philippines, to disclose the experiences of six stranded students. Stranded students' lifeworld throughout the lockdown was documented through phenomenological interviews. The phenomenological reduction technique was used to transcribe and analyze the data. Provisional codes were used to classify critical statements into themes for the initial analysis of the interview data. The research revealed the themes of (a) groping in the dark, (b) journeying towards the light, and (c) welcoming the breaking dawn. The various stages of reality in the life of the stranded students are shown in these topics. They relate the story of how their confinement experience taught them to be resilient, which covers resilience as a process. The paper discusses numerous pedagogical implications of the phenomenon.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2315
Pages: 2315-2329
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This mixed method case study examined potential influences of social agents or immediate environments on individuals’ metacognition. Via quantitative methodologies, 122 pre-service teachers’ metacognition was measured by the Turkish Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, and metacognitive components did not show any variations across majors, locations of previous studies, the highest degree of education in the family, frequently communicated friends, and regions. Regression analyses revealed that friends were a significant predictor for metacognition. Also, focus group interviews were analyzed thematically via deductive codes regarding the theory of metacognition. Findings confirmed that friends may support individual metacognition at all levels, metacognitive knowledge, regulation, and experiences through cooperation, modeling, reflections, discussions, feedback, and peer evaluation. Pre-service teachers’ engagement on the social media may also support their regulatory strategies due to models’ task performances or by their reflecting upon those performances. Teachers and family may support metacognitive knowledge, specifically career goals via expectations, anecdotes, and experiences. On the other hand, schools and the Turkish culture may impose some limitations on the youth, and they may engage in reflection and self-questioning to manoeuvre negative experiences or conflicts. Thereby, cross-national and longitudinal studies are highly suggested to explicate the social foundations of metacognition.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2331
Pages: 2331-2344
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316
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358
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0

Challenges of Online Education for Teachers and Parents in the Emirati School System

challenges and concerns online education teachers and parents

Ahmed Khaled , Wafa’ A. Hazaymeh , Maude Evelyn Montierre


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This study examined the challenges and issues faced by teachers and parents related to the transition from face-to-face instruction to online instruction. During the COVID-19 pandemic, ten teachers and ten parents from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) school system were interviewed to reveal their challenges in managing online teaching and learning. According to the findings, both teachers and parents encountered several problems. Teachers faced challenges such as the need to adapt their teaching strategies and techniques to the new situation, the need for technical support to facilitate the teaching-learning process, the lack of students’ in-class participation and genuine motivation, and the nature and format of the teaching platform, and the fact that they need to have a high level of experience in using technology to serve their students well and engage them in interactive classroom activities. Parents reported several challenges, including lack of experience with the online learning platform, unwillingness to work with teachers to use the online learning platform effectively, lack of experience in properly preparing their children to participate in active online instruction, and multiple children attending different classes at the same time. These challenges place a great burden on parents who must support their children in the younger grades.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2345
Pages: 2345-2355
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398
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3

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In this study we modeled the environmental literacy of Vietnamese preschool teachers. 324 in-service preschool teachers from Ha Noi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam contributed to the study via an online survey. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses of the relationships between environmental knowledge (KN), environmental awareness (AS), decision attitude (DA), personal behavior (PB) and environmental teaching activities (ACT) of these teachers. The results showed that the level of environmental literacy of preschool teachers in Vietnam was moderate with mean score for AS, DA, PB, and ACT ranged from 3.18 to 4.32 on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The results also indicate that the preschool teacher’s KN had a positive impact on AS and DA; PB was influenced by AS, but not by KN or DA. In addition, a correlation analysis showed AS and PB had a positive impact on ACT, while DA had a negative influence on ACT. These findings imply that preschool teachers with certain desirable environmental literacy had more tendencies to implement ACT. Based on the findings, recommendations and implications are provided for policy makers, preschool teachers, and researchers in Vietnam and other countries.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2357
Pages: 2357-2371
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512
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1

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School placement plays a critical and complex role in student teacher development as well as in their professional dispositions and career attitudes. It is where theory and practice meet, teaching skills are developed, professional relationships formed and future careers envisioned. This mixed methods study explores student teachers’ experiences with and perspectives about new models of extended school placements developed in Ireland following significant policy and programme reform. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires with one of the first cohorts to experience a reconceptualised initial teacher education programme, including extended school placement periods in a variety of school settings. This paper will explore student teachers’ perspectives regarding the value of the extended placement and factors influencing their professional learning, agency and sense of belonging. Overall, our findings confirm the pedagogical benefits of the extended placement in two different school settings for student teachers’ professional learning. However, they also highlight how a number of factors, including the existence (or absence) of school support structures, school culture, peer networks, paid or unpaid additional workload and financial pressures impacted on student teachers’ capabilities to develop their skills and professional agency, their sense of belonging and, in some cases, their physical and mental health.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2373
Pages: 2373-2386
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326
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453
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4

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2

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Multiculturalism in the school environment is challenging for all educational systems. This study examines the effect of multicultural school leadership on multicultural teacher culture and determines mediating effects of multicultural inspiration, personality, and attitude. A quantitative research approach using a cross-sectional survey was used for this study. The population and sample of this study were school principals and high school teachers in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The participants were a total of 357 individuals. Data analysis was done by structural equation modeling (SEM) using the software AMOS 24. The results show that multicultural school leadership directly influences multicultural teacher culture. This study also highlights multicultural inspiration, multicultural personality, and multicultural attitude as factors that mediate the effect of multicultural school leadership on multicultural teacher culture. This study makes a practical and theoretical contribution, especially by providing data to support the improvement of multicultural teacher culture and the importance of multicultural leadership of school leaders in influencing these factors through multicultural inspiration, personality, and attitude.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2387
Pages: 2387-2399
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542
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526
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4

Early Literacy Assessment among Kindergarten Teachers in Indonesia: A Phenomenological Study

early literacy assessment kindergarten teachers phenomenology

Martha Christianti , Trie Hartiti Retnowati , Sri Wening , Aminuddin Hasan , Heri Ratnawati


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The study aims to identify how kindergarten teachers perform early literacy assessments in the classroom and the challenges these teachers have in performing such assessments. During the study, the data were gathered through an in-depth interview in the form of a forum group discussion (FGD). Then, the phenomenological data were attained from 30 public and private Kindergarten teachers. The researchers could illustrate how these kindergarten teachers assessed their children's early literacy through these data. Furthermore, the study results show that the teachers' literacy knowledge has been sufficient and that the literacy programs for the children have been variously designed in each school. The teachers' techniques in performing the early literacy assessment are observation and documentation (portfolio), and the measurement of literacy skills itself refers to the scope of literacy. Concerning the findings, numerous obstacles and expectations that kindergarten teachers have are also discussed within the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2401
Pages: 2401-2411
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344
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396
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1

Multivariate Analysis of Co-creation Activities in University Education

co-creation factor analysis multivariate analysis questionnaire university students

Eirini Vardakosta , Georgios Priniotakis , Michail Papoutsidakis , Marisa Sigala , Dimitrios Nikolopoulos


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This paper investigates the viewpoints and perspectives of 179 undergraduate students engaged in a co-creation project regarding their anticipated progress, exploring, simultaneously, the affecting factors. The students attended the physics course in the Department of Industrial Design and Production Engineering at the University of West Attica, Greece. The investigation is implemented through a questionnaire that appraises the students' co-creation expectations in association with collected demographic data via twenty-two close-ended questions (Q1-Q22). Several statistical data sets are presented, including descriptive and correlation statistics and principal component and exploratory factor analyses. The majority of the replies are provided by male participants in their first year of study, with an average age of between 18 and 19. The correlation coefficient between the questions ranges from -.04 to.73, with the maximum occurring between the questions Q19 and Q20. Factor analysis justified by KMO (.862) and Bartlett’s sphericity (1749.843, p= .000) tests indicates five principal components within the following factors determining the undergraduate co-creation activities: responsible behaviour, feedback, helping, tolerance, and personal interaction. The above findings may contribute to the implementation of students’ co-creation as they are valuable tools for the design and pre-requisites for a successful implementation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2413
Pages: 2413-2428
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231
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246
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2

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The research emphasized three main objectives: 1) to analyze the propensity score of the research effect size for developing students’ creative thinking, 2) to study the attribute variables effect of the research on the effect size of creative thinking before and after the propensity score adjustments, and 3) to compare the effect size between instructional methods to develop creative thinking before and after the propensity score adjustments. The data were obtained from 400 research studies on creative thinking development in Thailand. The research instrument for data collection included the research attribute record form. They were analyzed by calculating effect size, propensity score matching analysis, and fixed effect and random effect meta-regression analysis. The results indicated two research groups with propensity scores that develop students' creative thinking: the low effect size group of 256 research ( =1.345) and the high effect size group of 144 research ( =7.284) using 26 attribute variables of creative thinking development research. Moreover, the instructional methods with the creative activities had the highest effect size ( =3.88). After the analysis of propensity score matching, the effect of 12 research attribute variables was eliminated as follows: manufacturing research institutions, year of publication, educational institutions, curriculum, creative thinking indicators, instructional materials, types of research, research objectives, research groups, research protocols, statistics used in research, quality of research and it was found that integrated instructional model of knowledge using media and technology had the highest effect size ( =0.41).

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2429
Pages: 2429-2444
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210
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271
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1

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The longitudinal changes of the average grades in four study semesters before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and distance learning are presented in the current study. 11th grade students’ (n=586; age M=17.38, SD=0.53) average grades were assessed, as well as their verbal and non-verbal reasoning abilities, and self-evaluations of problem-solving and self-management skills. The main findings of the study are: 1) There is a general pattern for the grades to increase during the four semesters from the autumn 2019 to the spring 2021; 2) The general tendency of changes in the grades is similar to various students’ groups based on their level of skills; 3) Higher level of students’ skills and cognitive abilities determined that students’ grades were higher and were more likely to increase during the “second wave of the pandemic”, compared to the middle and low-level skill groups. Results of the current study show a tendency for the average grades to increase during the pandemic and distance learning, however, there are group differences in the findings, relating the grade level to the individual level of students’ skills and abilities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2445
Pages: 2445-2458
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269
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282
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2

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1

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Teacher agency is a set of actions that a teacher takes beyond what is generally expected of them. The concept merits examination, as agency can bolster teachers’ ability to set and achieve professional development goals. To better understand how to study, and use, this relatively new concept in the academic literature, a systematic review of 164 publications written by researchers from 41 countries was conducted in order to document the research approaches used to study teacher agency, the participants whose agency was documented in a school setting, the methodology used and the type of analysis performed. The study found that teacher agency has been documented qualitatively in the form of case studies comprising interviews of a small number of individuals, with no consensus in terms of interview protocol. In most cases, the results are analyzed using emergent coding. The way that agency is documented varies but is most often underpinned by an ecological approach.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2459
Pages: 2459-2476
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676
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669
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0

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This descriptive research study aimed to assess the management of the existing policies, guidelines, and procedures on the implementation of the interdisciplinary approach in performance-based assessment (IAPA) before and during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a basis for proposing improvements for its implementation in the “new normal”. 30 senior high school science teachers and school leaders from 5 private and 5 public schools in Metro Manila, Philippines, participated in this study. The participants assessed the management of existing policies, guidelines, and procedures on the IAPA’s implementation using a survey questionnaire and identified its strengths and weaknesses using an interview guide. The researchers developed the instruments used for data collection but subjected to experts’ validation and reliability test. Results reveal that the management of IAPA was effective and that it benefits students and teachers in many ways. However, it has also weaknesses, which are associated with the role of school leaders in the implementation of the policies, guidelines, and/or procedures, especially during the new normal education setting. The study provides suggestions for improving IAPA implementation in the new normal covering both the face-to-face and online learning modalities

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2475
Pages: 2475-2486
cloud_download 493
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726
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Guided by the analytical framework in the current literature, whereby ten nature of science (NOS) aspects were targeted, this study aims at assessing the extent to which the three physics textbooks for Cycle 4 of Fundamental Schools in Burundi represent the NOS aspects. The quantitative embedded research design which combines the qualitative and quantitative to both the representations of text and images were applied to collect and analyses data. Three physics textbooks used in this study as textbooks I, II and III (grade 7 textbook, grade 8 textbook and grade 9 textbook) were purposively selected. 65 physics lessons were analyzed in three steps including exploring representations of NOS aspects, representations of NOS teaching approaches and accuracy and completeness of NOS aspects. Data were collected using a guide document analysis and a rubric of NOS scoring and were analysed descriptively. The findings found a considerable deficit of NOS aspects in the physics textbooks. The findings also revealed the critical situation where the few lessons poorly represent the NOS aspects and the majority of them do not include the aspects of NOS. Furthermore, this study suggests the in-charge of quality assurance to evaluate and deliberate on the accuracy and completeness of physics textbooks for Cycle 4 of Fundamental Education in Burundi.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2487
Pages: 2487-2496
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333
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450
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4

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Successful teaching requires teachers' reflections and metacognitive awareness. However, few studies have investigated the impacts of reflections on teachers' metacognitive awareness in teaching. This study aimed to examine whether or not reflections can empower Indonesian pre-service English teachers' metacognitive awareness in teaching. Mixed-methods research was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 36 pre-service English teachers (PSETs) in two micro-teaching classes at the Undergraduate Program, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Quantitative data from the pre-semester and post-semester were analyzed descriptively and statistically. Qualitative data from reflections and focus group discussions (FGD) focused on determining key issues related to PSETs' metacognitive awareness in teaching. Data analyses revealed that Indonesian PSETs' perceived metacognitive awareness in teaching increased post-semester. They also admitted the positive contributions of reflections in enhancing their metacognitive awareness in teaching. The increase was primarily attributable to the implementation of explicit reflections of the elements of metacognitive awareness in teaching. This research provides recommendations for teachers, lecturers, and future researchers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2497
Pages: 2497-2512
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471
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331
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1

Challenges in Managing Bilingual Schools: A Solution Through Higher Education for Prospective Leaders

bilingual education management education prospective leader

Siti Muniroh , Yusnita Febrianti , Shirly Rizki Kusumaningrum , Sri Rachmajanti , Ahmad Yusuf Sobri


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This qualitative study is part of a feasibility study conducted by State University of Malang (SUM), Indonesia, to determine stakeholder needs for a study program specializing in managing bilingual education. The study participants included one SUM lecturer who held a managerial position in the division of SUM laboratory schools and twelve teachers/leaders of bilingual schools in some cities in East Java and South Sulawesi. Data were collected using an online questionnaire and in-depth interviews with two selected participants. The results indicate issues related to teachers' English competencies, materials development, and integrating an internationally-oriented curriculum into the national curriculum. Teachers' low English competencies prevented them from conducting teaching and learning bilingually and developing instructional materials in appropriate English. In addition, the combination of national and international curricula was identified as the biggest challenge for bilingual schools. The teachers/leaders were never trained to manage the bilingual program. They learned based on their experiences, and it took years to figure out how to manage bilingual programs successfully. Therefore, the establishment of a new program of study is needed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2513
Pages: 2513-2522
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456
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Recent educational policy initiatives in Ireland have focused on improving outcomes in reading and mathematics among students, particularly those experiencing educational disadvantage. However, science achievement in Irish primary schools has received much less research attention, especially in the context of educational disadvantage. This article examines science achievement and its relationship to school compositional effects in primary schools at the national level, including school-average indicators of the school context, as well as examining factors associated with science achievement in three distinct categories of schools (those with high, moderate, or minor levels of educational disadvantage). The data are drawn from the Fourth grade Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 database for Ireland. Multilevel analyses were implemented in a stepwise manner. Findings suggest the relevance of school contexts with regard to science achievement. Before including school-level contextual variables, students from ‘minor disadvantaged’ schools achieved significantly higher science scores than students from schools with ‘moderate’ or ‘high’ levels of disadvantaged. However, this difference disappears after controlling for predictors at the school level. The findings highlight the importance of the home environment, including early numeracy activities and skills before children start school. Results are discussed with regard to educational policy and educational practice in Ireland.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.4.2523
Pages: 2523-2536
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400
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476
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1

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