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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 11 Issue 3 (July 2022)

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This research investigated the correlations among problem-solving, coping styles, and stress levels of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and typical development. We used a correlational survey model design and collected the data with the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI), the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), and the Parent Stress Scale (PSS). The study group consisted of 350 parents. The research findings revealed that stress levels were negatively correlated with functional coping strategies and problem-solving. We found no significant difference between parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and typical development in terms of problem-solving approaches. Considering the relationships between the parents in terms of WCQ scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the subscales of self-confidence approach, submissiveness, optimistic approach, and seeking social support. Only the subscale of helplessness differed statistically based on the disability. Regarding the correlations between the groups in terms of stress levels, we found that the typical developmental group had lower PSS scores than the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder groups. We believe that preventive support programs for stress management can make significant contributions to efficient coping methods and problem-solving.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1231
Pages: 1231-1243
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This study investigated student teachers’ teaching self-efficacy level and factors that predict it (using five-factor mentoring model). Two hundred and ten third and fourth-year student teachers (N=100/N=110; 93.8% females) were involved in the study and asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. The “Mentoring for Effective Primary Teaching” instrument and “Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale” were used to collect the data. Findings indicated that higher levels of student teachers' self-efficacy are positively associated with the level of mentoring experience during the teaching practicum. The results found that fourth-year students reported significantly higher levels of teaching self-efficacy than third-year students. This study reported that there is a significant mean difference in student teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs in terms of having parents in the teaching profession. A multiple regression found that mentor teachers’ personal attributes are the best predictor of student teachers' teaching self-efficacy beliefs.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1245
Pages: 1245-1257
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This study expounds how the analysis of move and transitivity in the method, result, and discussion sections contributes to the advancement of novice writers’ writing skills by providing a writing pattern applied when composing research articles. To this aim, a qualitative approach with descriptive technique is employed to encapsulate and explain the phenomena being studied. The data are the method, result, and discussion sections of research articles (RAs) drawn from top tier journals categorized as language and linguistics and analyzed based on macro structure (move and steps) and micro structure (transitivity). The results indicate that 11 moves and 38 steps discovered, in detail, these consist of three moves and 15 steps in method, four moves and 10 steps in result, and four moves and 13 steps in discussion. As for the successions of the move steps, few inter-move step shifts observed. This is in contrast with the outer-move step shifts that commonly occurred. Meanwhile, the outcomes of the transitivity analysis suggest that there are six processes revealed including material, relational, verbal, mental, existential, and behavioral consecutively with material dominating and behavioral the fewest. The results of the present study may supplement the teaching materials reside in English for a research purpose.  

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1259
Pages: 1259-1272
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The purpose of the study was to determine whether emphasising the managerial domain of the preservice preschool teachers’ curriculum is capable to improve their management and leadership skills. This study used the mixed-method methodology that combined the exploratory design and the experimental design. It included three basic phases such as feasibility assessment of making changes to the curriculum, intervention, and controlled observation, followed by the analytical phase. It was proved that the university curriculum upgraded the training approach by using the guided interim directorship. This change addressed the Professional Standard requirements for the preschool heads as well as job requirements. The intervention produced a positive shift in students’ skills of micromanagement, long-term planning, communicating vision, emotional control, and mentoring. There was a shift from the basic level of management skills before the intervention to the intermediate level of the skills after the intervention. The number of students with a superior level of skills increased by 11.54% as well. The students’ comments concerning the integration of the managerial component into the curriculum were complimentary. The observers’ reports suggested that they appreciated the students' work which was the outcome of the updated curriculum.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1273
Pages: 1273-1287
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Game-based Learning Sustainability During Social Distance: The Role of Gamification Quality

behaviour intention gamification quality instructor characteristic student satisfaction technology anxiety

Ayatulloh Michael Musyaffi , Wiwit Apit Sulistyowati , Christian Wiradendi Wolor , Aji Ahmadi Sasmi


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Online learning is an obligation in teaching and learning activities during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Game-based learning is a solution in improving student learning outcomes. This research aims to determine the level of acceptance of gamification in terms of Gamification quality (GQ), instructor characteristic (IC), and technology anxiety (TA). The target respondents were students taking information systems courses based on enterprises resources planning (ERP) Gamification. The sample used is a census. That is, the entire population is taken as a sample. A total of 93 students filled out the online questionnaire. Then, data analysis using Structural Equation Model - Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS). Student satisfaction (SS) and perceived ease of use (PEOUG) are the most influences. PEOUG is also the construct that has the most significant relationship impact, especially with the perceived usefulness (PUG). Meanwhile, two constructs do not significantly impact TA on PUG and PUG on Intention to use gamification (INTG). The obligation of students requires students to ignore the impact and function of gamification. The results of this research also show that technology acceptance model (TAM), the constructs IC, TA, and GQ have a positive effect on PEOUG. Then PUG and PEOUG can positively affect SS.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1289
Pages: 1289-1302
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7

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The increase of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States of America (USA) public school classrooms and the diversification of the global education landscape urges initial teacher preparation programs to equip mainstream teachers with appropriate skills, knowledge, and dispositions to teach ELLs. This paper reports findings from a focus group study on elementary teacher candidates' (TCs') field experiences with ELLs. Based on interviews with four groups of TCs who completed their two practicums with ELLs, the study illustrates how mainstream TCs perceive their field experiences as future teachers of ELLs. The findings suggest that TCs recognize dissonances and develop care toward ELLs through their engagements in ELL-specific field experiences. The study also demonstrates how the recognition of dissonances led to changes in TCs' beliefs and values, which was observed through their imagination. Informed by their field experiences with ELLs, TCs began forming professional agency as future teachers by imagining specific teaching strategies, methods, and approaches they would like to implement with ELLs. Implications and future directions of teacher education programs are also discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1303
Pages: 1303-1314
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The embodiment of teacher leadership has currently shifted onto the practice of teacher collaboration due to its potential to solve students’ problems such as low critical thinking skills. Accordingly, this study quantitatively aimed to examine the effect of teacher collaboration on educational management students’ critical thinking skills as well as their critical thinking retention. Subsequently, it qualitatively investigated the students’ perspectives on teacher collaboration. 60 students selected randomly took part in the experimentation, in which 30 students were taught with teacher collaboration, and other 30 students were taught with individual lecturing. 10 students taught with teacher collaboration were further selected purposively to be interviewed for the qualitative investigation. Descriptive statistics alongside paired and independent t-tests were deployed to analyze the experiment results, and an interactive model was adopted to analyze the qualitative findings. The experiment showed that teacher collaboration had a more positive and significant effect on students’ critical thinking skills than its counterpart did. The students taught with teacher collaboration enjoyed good retention of critical thinking skills as well. The students perceived that teacher collaboration improved their collaborative skills, awareness, and metacognitive skills in learning. Implication, limitation, and recommendation are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1315
Pages: 1315-1326
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6

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This study examined the relationship between Japanese language (JL) anxiety, beliefs about JL learning, and the amount of JL used in JL classes. The participants in this study were 670 undergraduate students studying JL at the Institute of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand, as compulsory subjects. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and a stepwise multiple regression analysis found that the amount of JL used by learners had a negative relationship with JL anxiety and a positive relationship with beliefs about JL learning and the amount of JL used by both native Thai and Japanese teachers. In addition, JL anxiety interacted with the amount of JL used by native Japanese teachers and beliefs about JL learning. JL teachers, especially native Japanese teachers, should attempt to reduce their learners' JL anxiety in order to maximize the effect of teachers’ JL use and learners’ beliefs and to support them in using JL more in classes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1327
Pages: 1327-1336
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Learning by teaching is a technique where students teach an actual class to facilitate active learning. This paper reports ongoing research involving undergraduate students at an established university in Indonesia. The objective of this quantitative study was to find out the effect of this teaching technique in improving students’ 21st century skills. The sample was selected using a cluster sampling technique, where 25 students who were English as a Foreign Language pre-service teachers were assigned to an experimental group, and the other 23 students were treated as a control group. The students in the experimental group were asked to conduct a workshop in groups to students from the same department at a different university. Each group selected one of the topics in their course syllabus. A pre-test measuring the students’ soft skills was conducted before the course started and after it finished. The results show that soft skills, which include accountability, communication, innovation, problem-solving, teamwork, professional working, and networking skills, improved significantly among students in the experimental group, but the improvement was not evident in the control group. Therefore, learning by teaching should be embraced as an alternative teaching technique when soft-skill development becomes a target of instruction.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1337
Pages: 1337-1348
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How Scaffolding Integrated With Problem Based Learning Can Improve Creative Thinking in Chemistry?

biochemistry creative thinking problem based-learning scaffolding

M. Dwi Wiwik Ernawati , Sudarmin , Asrial , Muhammad Damris , Haryanto , Eko Nevriansyah , Riska Fitriani , Wita Ardina Putri


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This study aimed to describe the differences in students' creative thinking skills in a problem-based learning model with scaffolding in the biochemistry course. This study was designed using a quantitative explanatory research design with a sample of 113 students of the Jambi University Chemistry Education Study Program. In this study, the researcher used the experimental class and control class. The sampling technique used is total sampling and purposive sampling. The research data was taken by observation, test, and interview methods. The quantitative data analysis used was the ANOVA test and continued with the Post-Hoc Scheffe’s test. The findings of this study indicate that the results of the ANOVA test indicate a significant difference in the average creative thinking results in terms of psychomotor aspects with the acquisition of significance scores of 0.000. In addition, the results of this study indicate that class A students have higher creative thinking skills than class B and class C. This is because class A students use a problem-based learning model integrated with scaffolding in their learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1349
Pages: 1349-1361
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6

Learning Management System in Developing Countries: A Bibliometric Analysis Between 2005 and 2020

bibliometrics developing countries learning management system scopus

Phuong-Tam Pham , Do Thi Hong Lien , Hoang Cong Kien , Ngo Hai Chi , Phan Thi Tinh , Tung Do , Linh Chi Nguyen , Tien-Trung Nguyen


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The learning management system (LMS) is a crucial component of the e-learning transformation which is becoming more urgent amid the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. The issue of adopting LMS is even more decisive in developing countries, where lots of efforts have been put out to broaden educational opportunities. However, there has not yet been any comprehensive analysis of how LMS-related issues are examined in these countries. To address this gap, this study uses the bibliometric method to construct an overview of research on this topic. The results unveil the distribution of the literature, prominent actors, and dominant themes in the literature of LMS in developing countries. In summary, the topic is a robustly potential research matter. Future researchers can use this study as a starter when investigating relevant subjects.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1363
Pages: 1363-1377
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8

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This study aimed to determine the effect of cognitive and affective factors on the performance of prospective mathematics teachers. Cognitive factors include cognitive independence level and working memory capacity, while affective factor include math anxiety. Mathematical performance was then assessed as basic math skills, advanced math skills and problem-solving ability. This research combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. In order to determine the effects of cognitive independence, working memory capacity, and math anxiety on math performance, multiple regression tests were used. To then see the effects of these three factors on problem-solving ability, a qualitative approach was used. Eighty-seven prospective math teachers participated in this study. Based on the results of the multiple regression, it was found that the level of cognitive independence affects basic math skills but has no effect on advanced math skills. Working memory capacity was seen to positively affect math performance (basic and advanced math skills, problem-solving skills), while mathematics anxiety demonstrated negative effects on advanced math skills and problem-solving skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1379
Pages: 1379-1391
cloud_download 653
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723
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5

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Visual representations and the process of visualisation have an important role in geometry learning. The optimal use of visual representations in complex multimedia environments has been an important research topic since the end of the last century. For the purpose of the study presented in this paper, we designed a model of learning geometry with the use of digital learning resources like dynamic geometry programmes and applets, which foster visualisation. Students explore geometric concepts through the manipulation of interactive virtual representations. This study aims to explore whether learning of geometry with digital resources is reflected in higher student achievements in solving geometric problems. This study also aims to explore the role of graphical representations (GRs) in solving geometric problems. The results of the survey show a positive impact of the model of teaching on student achievement. In the post-test, students in the experimental group (EG) performed significantly better than students in the control group (CG) in the overall number of points, in solving tasks without GR, in calculating the area and the perimeter of triangles and quadrilaterals than the CG students, in all cases with small size effect. The authors therefore argue for the use of digital technologies and resources in geometry learning, because interactive manipulatives support the transition between representations at the concrete, pictorial and symbolic (abstract) levels and are therefore important for understanding mathematical concepts, as well as for exploring relationships, making precise graphical representations (GRs), formulating and proving assumptions, and applying different problem-solving strategies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1393
Pages: 1393-1411
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6

Design and Psychometric Properties of the Strategies for Meaningful Learnings Scale

factor analysis learning strategies meaningful learning reliability validity

Luz Marina Méndez Hinojosa , María Leticia Segura Arévalo


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In higher education, it is essential that students apply what they have learned to solve problems in their community. Meaningful learning is the main means to increase the accumulation of knowledge and achieve the transfer of learning, which is why the present study aimed to: design and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale that measures the application of learning strategies that promote meaningful learning. The participants were 890 university students from Northeast Mexico, with an average age of 20.35 years (SD = 3.94). The sample was randomly divided into two: an exploratory factor analysis was carried out with the first sample and a confirmatory factor analysis was made in the second sample. The results obtained confirm the eight-dimensional structure, which showed an adequate fit to the data (χ2 / gl = 3.57, GFI = .96, AGFI = .95, NFI = .94, RMSEA = .08 and SRMR = .07), high parsimony (RP = .93), in addition to good internal consistency (ω ≥ .80) and convergent validity (AVE ≥ .40). In conclusion, the scale presents adequate psychometric properties to measure the frequency of use of strategies that promote meaningful learning in Mexican university students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1413
Pages: 1413-1425
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0

How Does Working Memory Capacity Affect Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving?

mathematical ability problem solving working memory capacity

Deka Anjariyah , Dwi Juniati , Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono


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Problem-solving process requires information processing, and the information processing is related to working memory capacity (WMC). This study aims to determine the effect of WMC on students' mathematical abilities and to describe the ability of the students with high and low WMC in solving mathematical problems. This research used mixed method with Sequential Explanatory Design. The quantitative data were collected through the provision of OSPAN tasks and math tests to 58 students aged 15-17 years, while the qualitative data were collected through interviews based on mathematical problem-solving tasks. The results showed that WMC had a significant effect on students' mathematical abilities (R=0.536; p=0.000). Researchers found differences in students' mathematical problem-solving abilities with high and low WMC. Students with high WMC can remember and manage information well which supports the determination of more advanced problem-solving strategies and have better attention control so that they find varied appropriate solutions. Students with low WMC experienced decreased attention control as the complexity of the tasks increased, missed important information in problem solving strategies, and did not recheck their work, leading to wrong solution/answer. The mathematical performance of students with high WMC outperformed the mathematical performance of students with low WMC.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1427
Pages: 1427-1439
cloud_download 802
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599
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5

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3

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This research is a developmental research aiming at developing a good mathematical test instrument using polytomous responses based on classical and modern theories. This research design uses the Plomp model, which consists of five stages, (1) preliminary investigation, (2) design, (3) realization/construction, (4) revision, and (5) implementation (testing). The study was conducted in three vocational schools in Lampung Province, Indonesia. The study involved 413 students, consisting of 191 male and 222 female students. The data were collected through questionnaire and test. The questionnaire was used to identify the assessment instruments currently employed by teachers and to be validated by the experts of mathematics and educational evaluation. The test used an open polytomous response test numbering of 40 items. The data were analyzed using both classical and modern theories. The results show that (1) the open polytomous response test has a good category according to classical and modern theory. However, the discrimination power of test items in classical theory needs several revisions, (2) the assessment instrument using the polytomous response of open multiple choice can guarantee information on the actual competence of students. This is proven by the fact that there is a harmony between the analysis result obtained from classical and modern theory from the students' arguments when giving reasons for their choices. Therefore, the open polytomous response test can be used as an alternative to learning assessment.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1441
Pages: 1441-1462
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Does Teacher’s Willingness to Change Enhance Professional Competence?

high school instructional leadership professional competence self-efficacy teacher’s willingness to change

Reni Herawati , Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono , Ika Nurul Qamari , Sri Handari Wahyuningsih


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This study investigates the contribution of teachers’ willingness to their professional competence in adapting to digital learning transformation during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its relationship to instructional leadership and self-efficacy. Data were collected by distributing online questionnaires consisting of 4 constructs, namely instructional leadership, self-efficacy, teacher’s willingness to change, and professional competence, and distributed to 221 Indonesian High School teachers. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for analysis using Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 23.0 to examine the hypotheses. The results showed that instructional leadership significantly influences teachers’ willingness to change with a positive impact on their professional competence. Furthermore, there is a significant effect on teachers’ willingness to change their professional competence, insignificant on self-efficacy with substantial impacts on their willingness to change. The analysis results through the Sobel test showed that the teachers’ willingness to change is an excellent mediating variable for self-efficacy in influencing professional competence. Conversely, it is not an excellent mediating variable for instructional leadership towards professional competence. The importance of teachers’ willingness to improve their professional competence is a new finding that significantly contributes to their professional development.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1463
Pages: 1463-1474
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512
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2

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This study investigates the inspiring leadership values in building an excellent inclusive higher education, including proactiveness, high-spiritedness, visionary, and humanist mindset. This was a case study where data were collected through in-depth interviews, direct observation, document analysis, and audiovisual material observation. The analysis was carried out by making data transcription, notes, video recordings, and documents; generating ideas, codifying data, designing themes, and interpreting data. Results show that inspiring leadership with a proactive mindset in policymaking can create original ideas, realize them actively and innovatively as well as solve problems creatively. High motivation leadership is seen through its activeness in asking the academic community to work together in building an inclusive higher education such as by attending activities related to special needs students. Visionary leadership is seen from its ability to build clear and measurable vision, mission, and organizational goals. In addition, it is also capable to see opportunities related to inclusive higher education's future development by generating appropriate policies and finding job opportunities for special needs students. Humanist leadership is an ability to manage challenges, conflicts, and resistance often arising during the process to build an inclusive higher education. Regarding the results, this study implies that inspiring leadership serves as one of the key factors to build an excellent inclusive higher education. However, due to limitations of this study, it is required further studies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1475
Pages: 1475-1485
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Cell Phone Notifications Harm Attention: An Exploration of the Factors that Contribute to Distraction

attention cell phone distraction task switching

Althea Kaminske , Adam Brown , Anna Aylward , Mckenzie Haller


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Recent research has found that the presence of cell phones impairs attention during learning. The present experiment sought to better understand this phenomenon by measuring the effects of cell phone presence, cell phone notifications, and cell phone ownership (participant's or others) on attention. Attention was measured using a Stroop task in a within-subjects design, wherein participants (n = 105) were exposed to five experimental conditions. Cell phone notifications caused distractions, regardless of phone ownership and task difficulty, increasing the amount of time required to complete the task. However, unlike the noted literature above, the researchers did not find that the mere presence of a cell phone contributed to distraction. These results help us better understand which factors actually contribute to distraction and inattention.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1487
Pages: 1487-1494
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3

Computational Thinking Process of Prospective Mathematics Teacher in Solving Diophantine Linear Equation Problems

apos computational thinking mathematical problem

Neneng Aminah , Yohanes Leonardus Sukestiyarno , Wardono Wardono , Adi Nur Cahyono


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Prospective teachers facing the 21st century are expected to have the ability to solve problems with a computer mindset. Problems in learning mathematics also require the concept of computational thinking (CT). However, many still find it challenging to solve this problem. The subjects in this study were twenty-one prospective mathematics teachers who took number theory courses, and then two research samples were selected using the purposive sampling technique. This study uses a qualitative descriptive method to describe the thinking process of prospective teachers in solving Diophantine linear equation problems. The results showed that the first subject's thought process was started by turning the problem into a mathematical symbol, looking for the Largest Common Factor (LCF) with the Euclidean algorithm, decomposition process, and evaluation. The second subject does not turn the problem into symbols and does not step back in the algorithm. The researcher found that teacher candidates who found solutions correctly in their thinking process solved mathematical problem used CT components, including reflective abstraction thinking, algorithmic thinking, decomposition, and evaluation. Further research is needed to develop the CT components from the findings of this study on other materials through learning with a CT approach.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1495
Pages: 1495-1507
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3

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Vietnam has a reputation for being a successful nation in preventing the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in 2020, with a lower number of illnesses than other ASEAN countries. However, to ensure that students are safe and informed about the coronavirus outbreak, Vietnamese higher education has developed online learning (OL). During the COVID-19 epidemic, this paper explores the relationship between elements such as learning readiness, learning strategies, and learning performance in the Vietnamese OL setting. Four hundred undergraduate students were randomly selected from Hong Duc universities, and Saigon University participated in this study in different zones. Analyzed data has applied structural equation modeling (SEM) using partial least squares (SmartPLS-SEM). The findings found that Vietnamese students were much more likely to believe in interaction in OL, to feel comfortable using a computer with their computer efficacy, and to have confidence in communicating in the digital environment, all of which were important variables in assuring the success of using OL. The factors of “motivation” and “test preparation” show a poor relationship with learning performance. Therefore, the OL process in Vietnamese, on the other hand, needs to be more inventive, with a greater focus on lecturers' awareness and practice of online teaching pedagogies such as motivation, techniques, and test arrangement. During OL, students' readiness in terms of learning control, self-directed learning, and engagement must be considered and supported.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1509
Pages: 1509-1522
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1

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Competent instructors need to have the skills, abilities, and competencies to perform tasks effectively, which will affect student learning achievement. This study is guided by the theory of Boyatzis developed by Spencer and Spencer. The Iceberg Competency Model was used as a guideline to identify the competency elements of educators from the agricultural stream in vocational colleges (KV). This research study aims to explore and identify the existing competency elements of agricultural educators in KV. This study used a study population comprising 243 respondents of agricultural educators in KV. To answer the research question, the data analysis was done by Partial Least Squares - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). This study is a study built to observe the relationship between the latent constructs studied. These constructs consisted of exogenous and endogenous constructs. In this study, exogenous constructs comprised value constructs, social roles, self-image, motives, traits and constraints. At the same time, endogenous constructs involved constructs of skills and knowledge. To ensure that the construct of this study gives meaning to the reflective measurement model, it was evaluated based on internal consistency reliability and validity. Regarding the framework, some indicators that did not qualify were dropped based on factor loading and average variance extracted (AVE). From the analysis conducted, 16 indicators were dropped since they did not meet PLS-SEM requirements. The total number of items retained was 71 indicators. At the final stage of this study, the evaluation model was implemented to form a framework involving the evaluation of the constructs linked to each other.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1523
Pages: 1523-1534
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1

A Systematic Review on Geometric Thinking: A Review Research Between 2017-2021

geometric thinking pre-service teachers technology based-media

Trimurtini , S. B. Waluya , Y. L. Sukestiyarno , Iqbal Kharisudin


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Geometric thinking affects success in learning geometry. Geometry is studied from elementary school to university level. Therefore, in higher education and basic education, it is necessary to carry out a systematic review in order to obtain tips for improving geometric thinking skills. A systematic review of geometric thinking was done in this study. In this study from 2017 to 2021, geometric thinking was investigated in the form of a synthesis review of the effect size of the given treatment. This is a comprehensive discussion of theories, models, and frameworks on the topic of geometric thinking from 36 articles. The research findings revealed that the interventions used were predominantly effective, with effect sizes ranging from "small" to "very large," with the "very large" effect obtained in the intervention of van Hiele's learning phase and various technology-based-media and concrete manipulative media. The research trend was reflected through twelve clusters of interrelated keywords. The results of this literature review suggested that it is necessary to carry out a specific study on how to achieve the highest level of geometric thinking, a more detailed form of scaffolding, and concrete manipulative media and technology that can be explored for a certain level of the participants’ geometric thinking.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1535
Pages: 1535-1552
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912
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1033
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3

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1

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The government has imposed social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting the education sector, including the early childhood school. Distance education offers different methods from the conventional methods, as the students are expected to gain the same skills, including critical thinking skills. Therefore, teachers must provide distance learning innovations using relevant learning media, such as multimedia-based learning. This research aims to assess the efficacy of multimedia learning in early childhood distance learning. This research is a quantitative model with a quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design. The data collection technique utilized questionnaires given to 30 samples of early childhood children. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. The results confirmed that multimedia-based learning for distance learning could develop critical thinking skills in early childhood children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study offer exploration of learning strategies to improve children’s critical thinking.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1555
Pages: 1553-1568
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1208
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733
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3

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3

The Effects of Online Supervisory Feedback on Student-Supervisor Communications during the COVID-19

communication esl supervisory feedback online feedback performance

Ushba Rasool , Muhammad Zammad Aslam , Jiancheng Qian , Sami Hussein Hakeem Barzani


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This study focuses on online supervisory written feedback on PhD supervisees’ performance, given explicitly through online communication, particularly during the first wave of COVID-19. This unusual situation has brought many different effects on students’ academic lives. This scenario has influenced both students’ and teachers’ mutual communication. A directed qualitative content analysis (DQCA) approach was adapted from previous research and modified for the present context. The current study planned to bring forth the supervisee and supervisors’ perception of the communication and feedback process, considering that online feedback and communication has been a new experience for most students. According to the findings, teachers/supervisors give feedback on students’ production, whereas teacher-student communication also seemed crucial for the performance improvising of learners. The result brought forth a wide range of social, educational, and surprisingly psychological issues both supervisees and supervisors faced during online communication during COVID-19.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1569
Pages: 1569-1579
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608
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577
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5

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8

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The research aimed to examine students' attitudes towards learning and teaching processes in an online course, investigating whether there was a difference between Jewish and Arab students' attitudes towards this course. The study combined mixed methods. Data were drawn from a questionnaire (including mostly closed-ended questions) completed by 195 graduate students and eight semi- structured interviews. Additionally, the students' grades for their course assignments were analyzed. Findings indicated that all course participants perceived the teaching and learning processes positively, but Jewish students held stronger positive attitudes concerning the learning processes' effectiveness than did Arab students. Jewish course participants' achievements were higher than those of Arab participants. The variable `sector` had a moderating effect on perceptions of the course structure's clarity and success in the course, strong clarity led to Arab students' success on the course but not for Jewish students. Arab students shared their difficulty adapting to a learning style necessitating autonomous learning processes. These findings are explained by Arab society's unique cultural dimensions, characterised by high-power distance and strong avoidance of uncertainty. The findings can inform designers of multicultural online courses that optimal teaching practices necessitate culture sensitivity, and this constitutes an issue for future studies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1581
Pages: 1581-1594
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295
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461
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2

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1

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The current study investigated the mediation effect of emotional reactivity and cutoff between attachment styles and interpersonal problems. The gender differences were also determined. A sample of (N = 200) students living in hostels of two universities of Lahore was used. There were (N = 100) female in the sample. The average age of the participants was 22.3 (SD = 1.46). The results of the study showed a significant relationship between close attachment style, emotional reactivity and cut-off, and with subscales of interpersonal problems like too much aggressive, too much caring, too much dependent, socially inhibited, hard to be involved, and hard to be supportive. Similarly, anxious and dependent attachment style showed significant relationship with emotional reactivity and cut-off and with subscales of interpersonal problems of hard to be sociable, hard to be assertive, hard to be supportive, hard to be involved, too aggressive, much caring, too open and too much dependent. The mediation analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) revealed that emotional reactivity and cut-off showed partially significant mediation between attachment styles and interpersonal problems. Women showed more interpersonal problems as too open and too much caring compared to men living in hostels. The findings of the study have significant implications in the social structure of relationships in hostels, particularly in South Asian cultural context.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1595
Pages: 1595-1605
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679
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524
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1

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This review explores research into the effects of collaborative learning interventions on critical thinking, creative thinking, and metacognitive skill ability on biological learning. The search was conducted from 2000 to 2021. We found 36 critical thinking studies, 18 creative thinking studies, and 14 metacognitive skill studies that met the criteria. The results showed that collaborative learning influences large categories (ES=4.23) on critical thinking, influences large categories (ES= 7.84) on creative thinking, and influences large categories (ES= 8.70) on metacognitive skill. The study's findings show that collaborative learning interventions have the highest impact on metacognitive abilities. Based on these findings, we provide insights for education research and practitioners on collaborative learning interventions that seem to benefit the empowerment of high levels of thinking at various levels of education to be combined with various other interventions in the future. The type of intervention, level of education, materials used, and study quality criteria were included in the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1607
Pages: 1607-1628
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737
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854
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6

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6

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Students' academic self-concept is a concerning concept in educational research. The purpose of this research is to examine the simultaneous influence and relationship of learning motivation, democratic parenting, and peer relations with academic self-concept in students. This is a correlational research with a cluster random sampling method used to collect data from 962 students. The result showed that learning motivation, democratic parenting, and peer relations had a partial and simultaneous relationship with students' academic self-concept. Furthermore, support from guidance and counselors, homeroom teachers, and parents is essential for students to actualize and develop their character optimally and effectively.  

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1629
Pages: 1629-1641
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497
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502
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2

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0

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The paramount objective of English language teaching and learning is to achieve language competence in communicative purposes with the minimal learners’ errors. To attain that goal, corrective feedback plays an important role due to its efficiency in developing learners’ English capacity. However, the correlation between language students’ and teachers’ views on the issues of corrective feedback including its types, methods and timing has received inadequate attention from educational scholars. This study, therefore, aimed to examine teachers’ and learners’ perceptions of corrective feedback at a higher education institution. The research employed the mixed method with the participation of 425 law-majored sophomores. Specifically, the statistics involved the survey questionnaires, follow-up interviews with students as well as the interview with thirteen teachers of English. The results indicated overall matches between learners’ and teachers’ high remarks on the necessity of oral corrective feedback in the students’ English acquisition. Notably, they both highly valued the use of metalinguistic feedback, prompt feedback for grammatical and lexical errors while explicit correction and recast were preferred for phonological errors. In terms of feedback timing, students were perceived not to be negatively affected by immediate correction, yet expressed their preferences for the delayed corrective feedback, which was compatible with teachers’ views. Such findings set practical pedagogical implications for language educators in the language teaching and learning process.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1643
Pages: 1643-1655
cloud_download 752
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752
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666
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0

Related Factors in Undergraduate Students' Motivation towards Social Entrepreneurship in Malaysia

entrepreneurship education motivation toward social entrepreneurship self-efficacy social support undergraduate students

Norsamsinar Samsudin , Mohamad Rohieszan Ramdan , Ahmad Zainal Abidin Abd Razak , Norhidayah Mohamad , Kamarul Bahari Yaakub , Nurul Ashykin Abd Aziz , Mohd Hizam Hanafiah


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Education based on social entrepreneurship (SE) practices is of importance at this time to shape the personality of students who are more responsible towards the surrounding environment. This SE requires high motivation from students to ensure success in education based on social entrepreneurship can be achieved. However, the factors that support the motivation for social entrepreneurship are still poorly identified, particularly in the setting of undergraduate students in Malaysia. Data were collected from 15 selected Malaysian universities involving undergraduate students who are actively involved in the Enactus program. A set of questionnaires was administered to 294 respondents online. The data analysis involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to measure the construct validity of the measurement model, and covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) to establish the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables. The results revealed self-efficacy and entrepreneurship education provide a relationship in motivation toward social entrepreneurship by undergraduate students. However, social support does not relate to motivation toward social entrepreneurship. Overall, this study adds to the notion of factors that influence social entrepreneurship motivation by supplementing the literature in the areas of educational management and entrepreneurship. In practice, this study contributes significantly to the formation of government policies to further strengthen the motivation of social entrepreneurship that can enhance the community economy and local communities.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1657
Pages: 1657-1668
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344
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504
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6

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7

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In the last decade, vocational education in Indonesia has experienced problems in making career decisions for students, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this research aims to examine the role of self-efficacy and mediate digital literacy, social environment, and counselling guidance in influencing career decision-making. This is an ex-post-facto research design with data collected from a sample of 566 vocational education students in Indonesia through a questionnaire method distributed online using Google Form. The collected data was then analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM) with path analysis and bootstrap methods. The results revealed that self-efficacy plays a vital role in mediating digital literacy and guiding students in career decision-making. On the other hand, digital literacy, guidance, and counselling have a significant direct effect on self-efficacy and career decision-making. Meanwhile, the social environment only has a significant direct effect on students’ career decision-making. The real role of all elements of vocational education in strengthening self-efficacy, growing digital literacy, monitoring social environment interactions, and providing counselling guidance to students is needed to increase optimism and the quality of career decision-making in vocational education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1669
Pages: 1669-1682
cloud_download 665
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665
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456
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7

Scopus
11

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Mathematics anxiety has always been an interesting topic to study and discuss in the world of education. This study aimed to (1) investigate the impact of teacher roles, mathematics content, and mathematics anxiety on learning motivation, and (2) explore how students manage mathematics anxiety as a stimulus in learning motivation. This research used mixed methods with embedded concurrent design. The research sample was 100 respondents. The questionnaire instrument was arranged based on a Likert scale with 5 answer choices. This study used a structural equation model and confirmatory factor analysis as data analysis methods. The research findings indicated that: (1) a significant direct impact emerged between mathematics anxiety and students' learning motivation, and there was an indirect impact between the teacher's role and mathematics content on learning motivation; (2) students could manage mathematics anxiety when they were in optimal anxiety or positive anxiety so that they could overcome mathematics anxiety as a stimulus for achievement and deconstruct anxiety into motivation according to experience and personal resources. Results of this study confirmed that the statements about mathematics anxiety which always has a negative impact on motivation and learning achievement is not universal, because mathematics anxiety does not always have a negative impact on motivation and learning achievement if this anxiety is managed effectively.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1683
Pages: 1683-1697
cloud_download 430
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430
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513
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2

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1

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Character education is urgent in passing down the ethical and moral values in the cultured community life. The local cultural values are a source of ethics and moral education for elementary school students. The school keeps taking an essential role in cultivating the local values through online character education during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to analyze the effect of implementing online integrated character education and parental engagement in local cultural values cultivation outcome. The method of this study used an exploratory sequential mixed method design. Collect qualitative data using interview forms, observation, documentation, and quantitative data using questionnaires and portfolios. Qualitative data interpretation used content analysis, and inferential analysis used multiple linear regression. Results revealed that parental engagement, teachers’ performance, and online learning obstacles affect local cultural values cultivation outcome in character education partially and simultaneously for sixth-grade students in Padang City. We suggested teachers improve character education management based on local cultural values by building good synergy and collaboration between them and parents to cultivate noble character behavior among students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1699
Pages: 1699-1714
cloud_download 386
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386
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670
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2

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3

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Mathematics anxiety in initial teacher education is a growing issue that reflects on teacher quality and their student’s maths anxiety and abilities. Previous studies have presented a range of different perspectives to mathematics anxiety. We aimed to explore further the reasons of mathematics anxiety in preservice teachers and suggest some intervention strategies in reducing maths anxiety for initial teacher education systems. We used a mixed methodology in this research analysing both qualitative data along with some quantified data derived from qualitative data sources. The findings provide insights to causes of maths and test anxiety along with some intervention strategies that teacher educators can use in their future teaching.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1715
Pages: 1715-1728
cloud_download 363
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363
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517
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2

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1

Analysis of Requirements for the Digital Competence of a Future Teacher

assessment of digital competence content of digital competencies digital competence digital competence of a future teacher education structure

Elvira Z. Galimullina , Еlena M. Ljubimova , Dinara R. Mukhametshina , Elena A. Sozontova


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The article discusses the topical issue of a model of digital competencies for a future teacher. The analysis of the composition and structure of the most relevant models of digital competencies of a citizen and a modern teacher is carried out. In addition, the article reveals approaches to the formation of the content of digital competence, and provides the results of an empirical study, which consists in analyzing the results of a survey of practicing teachers and teacher-training students in order to identify the most demanded digital competencies of a future teacher. The article substantiates the authors’ content of the competence of a future teacher, a university student. The purpose of this article is to develop a theoretical model of digital competence of a future teacher, taking into account the dynamic technologisation of the modern world and the peculiarities of Russian education, based on an analysis of approaches to determining the content of its digital competencies. According to the analysis of studies, the issue of teachers’ digital competence is not sufficiently disclosed. Numerous studies on digital competencies of a person, teacher, etc. do not fully solve the problem of assessing the digital competence of future teachers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1729
Pages: 1729-1745
cloud_download 486
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486
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551
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4

Scopus
4

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This research aims to determine second-year university students’ understanding in interpreting and representing fractions. A set of fraction tests was given to students through two direct learning interventions. An unstructured interview was used as an instrument to obtain explanations and confirmations from the purposive participants. A total of 112 student teachers of primary teacher education program at two private universities in Indonesia were involved in this research. A qualitative method with a holistic type case study design was used in this research. The results indicate that a significant percentage of the participants could not correctly interpret and represent fractions. In terms of interpretation, it is found how language could obscure the misunderstanding of fractions. Then, the idea of a fraction as part of a whole is the most widely used in giving meaning to a fraction compared to the other four interpretations, but with limited understanding. Regarding data representation, many participants failed to provide a meaningful illustration showing the improper fraction and mix number compared to the proper fraction. Improvement of fraction teaching at universities - particularly in primary teacher education programs - is needed so that students get the opportunity to develop and improve their knowledge profoundly. We discuss implications for teaching fractions.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1747
Pages: 1747-1762
cloud_download 355
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355
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492
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2

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0

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This study was conducted following the initial stage of the transition to distance education necessitated by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and meeting the various challenges that came with it. At this point, countries and teachers have gained experience in preparing and delivering online education. Therefore, the study aimed to identify the beliefs of primary school mathematics teachers about teaching in synchronous virtual classrooms. It adopted a mixed methods approach, following a convergent parallel design. The overall study sample comprised 410 male and female teachers. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data across three dimensions (teaching efficiency, employing the philosophy of active learning, mathematical achievement). There were 31 items (verified for validity and reliability) comprising statements measured using a five-point Likert scale, together with open-ended options for further elaboration. In total, 130 teachers completed the questionnaire. Interviews were conducted with 10 teachers to collect qualitative data. The results show means in the range 3–5.75 for agreement with statements concerning the beliefs of mathematics teachers about teaching in virtual classrooms in the following order of importance: teaching competence; mathematical achievement; employing the philosophy of active learning. The study also found no statistically significant differences attributable to the variables of gender, qualification, or teaching experience, and also that many factors are considered to affect teaching in synchronous virtual classrooms related to the teacher, the family, and the student.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1763
Pages: 1763-1780
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522
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442
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0

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Algebraic knowledge transfer is considered an important skill in problem-solving. Using algebraic knowledge transfer, students can connect concepts using common procedural similarities. This quasi-experimental study investigates the influence of algebraic knowledge in solving problems in a chemistry context by using analogical transformations. The impact of structured steps that students need to take during the process of solving stoichiometric problems was explicitly analyzed. A total of 108 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Of the overall number of students, half of them were included in the experimental classes, whereas the other half were part of the control classes. Before and after the intervention, contextual problems were administered twice to all the student participants. The study results indicate that the students of the experimental classes exposed to structured steps in solving algebraic problems and the procedural transformations scored better results in solving problems in mathematics for chemistry compared to their peers who did not receive such instruction. Nevertheless, the result shows that although the intervention was carried out in mathematics classes, its effect was more significant on students' achievements in chemistry. The findings and their practical implications are discussed at the end of the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1781
Pages: 1781-1796
cloud_download 299
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299
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461
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0

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Misconceptions are one of the biggest obstacles in learning mathematics. This study aimed to investigate students’ common errors and misunderstandings they cause when defining the angle and the triangle. In addition, we investigated the metacognition/ drawing/ writing/ intervention (MDWI) strategy to change students’ understanding of the wrong concepts to the correct ones. A research design was used to achieve this goal. It identified and solved the errors in the definition of angle and triangle among first-year students in the Department of Mathematics Education at an excellent private college in Mataram, Indonesia. The steps were as follows: A test instrument with open-ended questions and in-depth interviews were used to identify the errors, causes, and reasons for the students’ misconceptions. Then, the MDWI approach was used to identify a way to correct these errors. It was found that students generally failed in interpreting the concept images, reasoning, and knowledge connection needed to define angles and triangles. The MDWI approach eliminated the misconceptions in generalization, errors in concept images, and incompetence in linking geometry features.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1797
Pages: 1797-1811
cloud_download 760
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760
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614
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2

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0

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In all years of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in primary mathematics education, Finland ranked in the lower places (44-61) in the dispersion index (the difference in scores between the 95th percentile and the 5th percentile), while Israel ranked in the upper places (1-3) in the same index. In the last PISA test, Israel ranked first (among the 78 participating countries) in grade differences, while Finland ranked 61st. The score for dispersion in Israel is 356 points, the highest among the countries and economic entities of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Based on these results, this comparative study between Israel and Finland was conducted to investigate the most important sociological factor in the Pisa test that influences most student achievements in mathematics in Finland and Israel, as well as the reasons for the differences in achievement between mathematics scores. The results of this study show that the differences in achievement in Israel are due to students' socio-economic status and the sector. In contrast, Finland's first sociological factor influencing student performance is socio-economic status. Nevertheless, it has a more negligible influence than in Israel. The second factor is student motivation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1813
Pages: 1813-1824
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413
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510
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0

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This study aimed at exploring teachers’ perceptions of reflective teaching strategies in their teaching practice and the barriers that hinder the implementation of reflective teaching strategies. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The study took place in the context of high schools in most of the provinces in the Mekong Delta. The respondents involved in this research were fifty English as a foreign language (EFL) high-school teachers. The results revealed that most teachers have positive perceptions of the significance of reflective teaching strategies in their teaching. At the same time, the participants found barriers preventing them from implementing reflective teaching strategies in their language teaching such as lack of awareness of reflective teaching strategies, time or workload limitations as well as some obstacles related to the application of peer observation as a strategy of the reflective process. Finally, accordingly, the findings gained from two types of research tools, some pedagogical implications, and research suggestions on the effectiveness of EFL teachers’ application of self-reflection strategies in the teaching-learning process were proposed in the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1825
Pages: 1825-1837
cloud_download 472
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472
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504
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2

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1

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The purpose of this study was to look into teachers' perceptions of code-switching functions and effects in English as a foreign language classroom. In the study, a descriptive survey design and an interview were used to investigate the functions and effects of code-switching in English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. 46 people responded to the survey questionnaire about code-switching functions and their impact in the classroom. Seven teachers participated in the group interview. The interview findings revealed six functions and four effects of code-switching. According to the survey findings, the majority of teachers supported the use of code-switching in their classrooms because it served a useful purpose in the process of teaching and learning English. The findings also revealed that teachers believed code-switching provided a clear purpose and had a positive impact on instruction and language development in EFL classrooms by creating a sociable environment. It was also demonstrated that code-switching to teachers was effective in EFL classrooms and played an important role in English learning and teaching. The implications of the findings for EFL teachers and language learning settings were discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1839
Pages: 1839-1849
cloud_download 1050
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1050
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852
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0

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1

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In the last decades, the notion of universal design for learning (UDL) has gained prominence in the Greek educational scene (former government plan in education, projects based on UDL). This educational philosophy is essentially a necessary inclusive practice given the new conditions, the extreme heterogeneity of the student population due to socio-political and economic factors, and the exceptional circumstances due to COVID-19 pandemic. The UDL aims to ensure access and equity in learning for all learners despite differentiating characteristics. With our study, we seek to investigate whether teachers in secondary and second chance schools (SCS) are ready to implement UDL, what their expectations are, what obstacles they face, and the results of implementation through their records in reflection journals, a practice that is fully consistent with the context of UDL.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1851
Pages: 1851-1863
cloud_download 477
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477
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442
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2

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1

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This investigation examined English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ perceptions of their self-efficacy in using instructional strategies in the context of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The research was designed as a descriptive research collecting quantitative and qualitative data from a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Forty-six Vietnamese EFL teachers were invited to partake in the study. The results indicated that participants were in general confident in using instructional strategies in their English classes. Specifically, the participants were highly confident in their abilities to use multimedia (M=4.41), assessment techniques (M=4.35), and classroom English (M=4.35). The study also indicated that participants were not confident in evaluating the level of task difficulty (M=3.37), dealing with unmotivated students (M=3.57), and meeting students’ particular needs for support (M=3.62). Pedagogical implications and recommendations were addressed to help manifold stakeholders at the end of this paper.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1865
Pages: 1865-1875
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459
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531
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1

Dance Movement-Based Intervention Reduces Stereotypical Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

autism dance movements physical exercises stereotypical behavior

Ayed H. Ziadat , Abdellatif Khalaf Alramamneh , Obaid Abdelkarim Al-Sabaylehr


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Autistic individuals are commonly characterized by stereotypical behaviors, which affect their daily life, particularly social aspects. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of dance movement-based intervention in reducing stereotypical behavior among autistic children. The study used an experimental-based approach, which recruited 30 autistic children purposively between 9 and 15 years old, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder- level 1 (ASD [1]) or autism spectrum disorder- level 2 (ASD [2]) from one autism center in Jordan. The intervention sessions were fifteen sessions and lasted 60 minutes. The dance movement and music were selected cautiously by professional therapists. The observation was the study tool for collecting data performed by both author and care providers. The results approved the effectiveness of the suggested intervention in reducing stereotypical behavior. The children presenting ASD (1) showed significantly less stereotypical behavior than those presenting ASD (2). The result also showed that the difference was significant and obvious from the first three sessions, but the best reduction was in the fourth session. However, the results refuted any difference in reduction of stereotypical behavior attributed to gender or age group of participants.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1877
Pages: 1877-1885
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378
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425
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0

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Systemic thinking skills are an increasingly important aspect of contemporary life for all students. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between systemic thinking skills, epistemological beliefs, and mathematical beliefs in a sample of 120 secondary school students aged 16-18 years in Saudi Arabia. The second objective was to examine gender differences in these three variables. Participants answered scales measuring the Systemic Thinking Inventory (STI) and the Mathematical Beliefs Scale (MBS) created by the researcher. Additionally, participants answered the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). Results showed a positive correlation between systemic thinking skills, epistemological beliefs, and mathematical beliefs. In addition, significant differences were found in favor of men on the systemic thinking skills on the holistic vision of the system and systemic synthesis skills subscales and females on the systemic analysis subscale. Significant differences were found in epistemological beliefs. A particular difference was innate knowledge and omniscient authority in favor of males, simple knowledge, certain knowledge, and rapid learning in favor of females. In addition, differences were found for mathematics teacher competence and self-efficacy beliefs in favor of males and the usefulness of learning mathematics, difficulty in mathematics, and enjoyment of mathematics in favor of females. The results are discussed in light of the relevant literature, and suggestions are made.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1887
Pages: 1887-1896
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465
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447
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2

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Recent changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have forced higher education institutions worldwide to transition to online courses. The challenges that the pandemic poses for microteaching are very significant, as it is highly application-based and complicates online implementation. The current study aims to examine prospective teachers' experiences with online microteaching. The participants (N = 21) were Greek university undergraduate students. Specifically, their experiences with online microteaching were examined through reflective texts and follow-up interviews. Data were analyzed based on a mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) by two independent reviewers. The findings showed that the main advantage of the specific process is the collaboration with fellow students, while the main challenges concern technical difficulties and anxiety. Qualitative analysis revealed that anxiety overlapped with collaboration, while more detailed aspects of the process (e.g., video rehearsals and retakes) provided a unique framework.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1897
Pages: 1897-1909
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