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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 13 Issue 4 (October 2024) - In Progress

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Mathematics test items in International Large-Scale Assessments (ILSAs) such as the Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) are nested in contexts defined in their assessment framework (e.g., the Personal, Occupational, Societal, and Scientific contexts in PISA). This study followed the item-writing activities of four tertiary mathematics instructors in the Philippines as they constructed context-based mathematics items. They were tasked to write four items each, following a set of specifications for PISA content and context categories. The data consisted of transcripts from the focus-group discussion which was conducted days after the task. The transcripts were then analyzed using thematic analysis. The results of this study showed that the phenomenon of item-writing in the context of writing PISA-like mathematics items had two themes: the phases of item-writing and the dimensions of item-writing. Findings showed that the respondents struggled to find realistic contexts and that they engaged in a problem-solving task likened to solving a puzzle as they attempted to satisfy the content, context, and process categories in the table of specifications (TOS). This study contributes to filling in the research gap on item-writing activities, particularly those of mathematics teachers in the Philippines- a country whose recent mathematical performance in the PISA 2018, TIMSS 2019, and PISA 2022 was nothing short of dismal.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1443
Pages: 1441-1453
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This study is an attempt to develop a grounded theory on how adult education in higher education (AEHE hereafter) programs in the Philippines are created and maintained. The grounded theory illustrates the interrelation of factors that stimulate or serve as the drivers of AEHE in higher education institutions in the Philippines as well as the management and maintenance of AEHE at the operational and strategic levels, hence illustrating the bigger picture of adult education in higher education in the Philippines. Funded by the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd) of the Philippines, this study was part of a larger research project that investigated adult education in Philippine higher education institutions, that is, State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) and Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs). The data were derived from focus group discussions (FGD) with 43 participants from eight SUCs and nine private HEIs that have adult education programs that are regularly offered every academic year. The grounded theory drawn from the study pointed to the contextual – personal and institutional – factors, strategic and operational levels of management as well as the critical role of academic policy for the implementation and maintenance of AEHE programs, collaboration, and a compelling vision to ensure that adult education in higher education in the Philippines is prioritized in the country with involvement of relevant government agencies that will draw definite agendas and priorities to attain the goals of AEHE through a structure and management to carry out its functions and realize its compelling objective of creating a cadre of AEHE educators and specialists and adults suited for the demands of a knowledge-driven economy.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1455
Pages: 1455-1475
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This article investigates artificial intelligence (AI) implementation in higher education (HE) from experts' perspectives. It emphasises the view of AI's involvement in administrative activities in higher education, experts' opinions concerning the influence of the incorporation of AI on learning and teaching, and experts' views on applying AI specifically to assessment, academic integrity, and ethical considerations. The study used a qualitative method based on an unstructured qualitative interview with open-ended questions. The participants were thirteen individuals currently involved with higher education institutions and had various talents related to AI and education. Findings stress that implementing AI technology in administrative roles within higher education institutions is essential since it cuts costs, addresses problems efficiently and effectively, and saves time. The findings also revealed that AI plays a vital role in learning and teaching by speeding up the learning process, engaging learners and tutors, and personalising learning depending on the learner's needs within an entirely intelligent environment. AI can produce an accurate, objective, and suitable level of assessment. AI aids students in developing a stronger sense of integrity in their academic work by guiding them through AI-powered applications. AI must adhere to ethical laws and policies, ensuring its potential negative aspects are not overlooked or left unchecked.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1477
Pages: 1477-1492
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Students’ mastery goal orientation tends to decline over the course of compulsory school, especially after the transition to lower secondary school. According to stage-environment fit theory, secondary school is less accommodating to students' needs, interests, and abilities than primary school. In consequence, the perceived person-environment fit declines as well. It is assumed that a strong sense of classroom community in primary school can counteract a potential decline in both of these important individual aspects. Using data from the Swiss longitudinal research project WiSel (“Wirkungen der Selektion”; “Effects of Tracking”), we conducted a latent growth curve model (LGCM) to examine the correlation between the development of students' mastery goal orientation and the development of their person-environment fit during the transition from primary school to lower secondary school. Perceived classroom community was assumed to benefit from these developments. The results show that both mastery goal orientation and person-environment fit decrease during the transition to lower secondary school. A strong sense of classroom community in fifth grade leads to a smaller decline in both constructs. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1493
Pages: 1493-1506
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Scientific Information and Validation Criteria in Kindergarten Teachers: An Exploratory Study in Chile

early childhood educators early childhood education evaluation criteria sources of information

Sergio Sepúlveda-Vallejos , Alejandro Almonacid-Fierro , María Isabel Cifo , Andrew Philominraj


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Teaching is a demanding and complex exercise, exposed to the direct or immediate resolution of multiple problematic situations, whether pedagogical, relational, or socio-affective. The teacher's personal resources are often insufficient to cope with the profession's demands. The research reports that there is a gap between research and educational practice. Hence, the objective of this research was to analyze the criteria used by early childhood educators to attribute validity to the written sources of information that guide their pedagogical decisions. The present study follows a qualitative research methodology. The sample for this study was non-probabilistic and consisted of 18 early childhood educators who participated through semi-structured interviews and discussion groups. The data obtained were analyzed by inductive categorization using NVivo 14. The findings revealed that the validity criteria assigned by the educators about the sources of information related to theoretical aspects is mainly attributed to the texts and authors they know, while those referring to practical aspects are attributed to their own experiences or the other educators at the same level. The results showed that specific information and obtaining it in the shortest possible time were the criteria that determined the use of information sources.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1507
Pages: 1507-1518
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This qualitative study investigates the strategies employed by Vietnamese tertiary-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers to promote learner autonomy (LA) and enhance cultural awareness. This research provides a deeper understanding of EFL teaching practices in this setting, conducted in the context of Vietnam’s evolving educational landscape, where English proficiency and cultural competence are increasingly prioritized. The study utilized semi-structured interviews with nine EFL teachers from two different Vietnamese tertiary institutions, representing various career stages: novice, mid-career, and near-end career. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data, revealing a range of strategies encompassing collaborative learning, technology integration, personalized feedback, real-life scenarios and role-play, reflective learning practices, local culture incorporation, contextualized language instruction, critical thinking, and cultural analysis, student-centered environments, interdisciplinary approaches, language skills for intercultural communication, and authentic material use. Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of language teaching, emphasizing not just linguistic competence but also cultural understanding and LA. These strategies are crucial in a globalized world where intercultural communication is a key skill. The study suggests the need for continuous professional development and policy support for diverse and holistic teaching practices. It offers practical insights for EFL educators, particularly in similar socio-cultural contexts, on integrating various strategies to enhance language skills and cultural awareness.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1519
Pages: 1519-1534
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Analytical thinking is crucial for developing problem-solving, decision-making, and higher-order thinking skills. Many researchers have consistently developed learning management models to enhance students' analytical thinking, resulting in extensive knowledge but lacking clear systematic summaries. This study aims to: (a) explore the effect sizes and research characteristics influencing students' analytical thinking, and (b) compare the effect sizes of learning management models after adjusting for propensity score matching. In exploring 131 graduate research papers published between 2002 and 2021, the research utilized forms for recording research characteristics and questionnaires for assessing research quality for data collection. Effect sizes were calculated using Glass's method, while data analysis employed random effects, fixed effects, and regression meta-analysis methods. The findings indicate that (a) research on learning management models significantly impacts students' analytical thinking at a high level (d̅ = 1.428). Seven research characteristics, including year of publication, field of research, level, duration per plan, learning management process, measurement and evaluation, and research quality, statistically influence students' analytical thinking, and (b) after propensity score matching, learning through techniques such as KWL, KWL-plus, Six Thinking Hats, 4MAT, and Mind Mapping had the highest influence on students' analytical thinking. Recommendations for developing students' analytical thinking involve creating a learning management process that fosters understanding, systematic practical training, expanding thinking through collaborative exchanges, and assessments using learning materials and tests to stimulate increased analytical thinking.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1535
Pages: 1535-1553
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eTwinning in Science Learning: The Perspectives of Pre-service Primary School Teachers

collaborative research etwinning ite initiative teacher training

María Napal-Fraile , María Isabel Zudaire , Svava Pétursdóttir , Jerneja Pavlin


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eTwinning is a community of European schools that promotes networking and transnational collaboration projects. Therefore, as part of the Initial Teacher Education (ITE) initiative, we decided to explore how the research projects on scientific topics familiarize pre-service primary school teachers with eTwinning. 251 pre-service primary school teachers from Spain, Iceland, and Slovenia designed and carried out joint research projects on scientific topics. The aim was to gain insight into their self-assessment of their knowledge of the platform, the limitations of working with it, and their responses. An electronic questionnaire was used as the main instrument for data collection. It turned out that the pre-service teachers enjoyed this international collaboration, but also found it challenging. By the end of the projects, they were familiar with the eTwinning platform, although the least engaged prospective teachers recognized that they needed strong support and considered the platform a non-intuitive environment. Overall, they were willing to use the platform with pupils in the future, which is in line with the aim of the ITE initiative.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1555
Pages: 1555-1572
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Since psychological satisfaction is influenced by the interaction between individuals and their environment, it is necessary to create a cooperative climate at the organizational level and strengthen collective innovativeness at the individual level to improve teachers' job satisfaction. Therefore, the study investigated whether collective innovativeness can be mediated by the school climate to enhance teacher job satisfaction. This study extensively examined survey data with a sample of 3,976 teachers in Shanghai through Structural Equation Modeling, obtained from Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS). The findings revealed that teachers' collective innovativeness served as a significant mediator between school climate and job satisfaction. Furthermore, higher levels of collective innovativeness among teachers amplified the influence of school climate on their job satisfaction. These findings show that schools should strive to foster a collaborative school climate and provide support for teachers in implementing innovative and collaborative teaching activities with the aim of enhancing their job satisfaction. Above all, efforts are needed to support teachers' active and cooperative practice capabilities in building teacher-student relationships.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1573
Pages: 1573-1585
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Factors Influencing Special Education Career Choices: Interplay of Personality Traits and Identity Statuses

career choice identity personality traits special education teachers

Athena Daniilidou , Marianna Kyriakidou-Rasidaki , Katerina Nerantzaki


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Recent research has identified factors influencing the choice of a special education career; however, it has not thoroughly examined their connection with personality traits and identity status. Thus, the present study was designed to explore how different personality traits and identity statuses correlate with the motives and perceptions associated with the choice to teach in special education. The study involved 209 pre-service special education teachers. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory was used to measure the Big 5 personality traits. The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire assessed identity commitment and exploration. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice Scale was used to evaluate motivations and perceptions about teaching. Regarding the factors that influenced the decision to pursue a career in special education, intrinsic value, shaping children’s future, social equity, making social contributions, working with children, task demands, and job satisfaction were highly rated. Additionally, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and identity statuses were identified as positive predictors for certain factors influencing the choice of a teaching career in special education. Finally, the study identified two distinct groups of students: "Identity Achievers" characterized by high positive personality traits, and identity commitment, and "Identity Explorers" characterized by lower positive personality traits and higher identity exploration. Differences were observed between the groups in their motives and perceptions concerning teaching in special education. In conclusion, this study highlights the relationships between personality, identity status, and career decision factors, offering insights into the factors that influence this critical career decision among future special educators. Directions for future research are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1587
Pages: 1587-1605
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This comprehensive systematic review delves into the increasing prevalence of integrating chatbots into language education. The general objective is to assess the current landscape of knowledge regarding chatbot utilisation and its influence on three crucial elements: students' skills, attitudes, and emotions. Additionally, the review seeks to scrutinise the advantages linked to incorporating chatbots in foreign language teaching, exploring their potential benefits while considering limitations and potential negative impacts on specific skills or user experiences. Consequently, this research offers valuable insights into the application of chatbots in foreign language education, shedding light on their potential advantages and areas that warrant further exploration and enhancement. The integration of chatbots in language learning, despite certain limitations, generally yields positive outcomes and enhances educational results in students' skills. Its characteristics can also influence a language learner's attitude, impacting factors such as motivation, interest, autonomy in learning, and engagement or even their sense of fun. Additionally, chatbots prove to be helpful in creating emotionally positive learning environments and can contribute to boosting students' self-esteem and self-confidence.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1607
Pages: 1607-1625
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In the realm of education, particularly in the domain of second language acquisition, understanding the intricate interplay between emotions and learning processes is a challenging endeavor. This research aims to explore the importance of studying anxiety-related emotions in the learning and teaching of English as a foreign language by conducting a study based on a quantitative methodology. To that end, a 33-item instrument was given to a total of 231 (n=231) university students who learn and use English in class in diverse degrees in the social and health sciences. The results obtained shed light on the negative emotions that students report during their English classes, such as fear, shame, nervousness, or feelings of judgement. However, not all the emotions are negative, since students also feel relaxed and interested. This study offers a new perspective on this topic since it compares different disciplines, underscoring the need to detect trends in different areas and therefore tailor pedagogy to different student profiles and degree programs.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1627
Pages: 1627-1645
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Research in higher education has revealed a significant connection between executive functions (EF) and study success. Previous investigations have typically assessed EF using either neuropsychological tasks, which provide direct and objective measures of core EF such as inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, or self-report questionnaires, which offer indirect and subjective assessments. However, studies rarely utilize both assessment methods simultaneously despite their potential to offer complementary insights into EF. This study aims to evaluate the predictive capabilities of performance-based and self-reported EF measures on study success. Employing a retrospective cohort design, 748 first-year Applied Psychology students completed performance-based and self-report questionnaires to assess EF. Maximum likelihood correlations were computed for 474 students, with data from 562-586 first-year students subsequently subjected to hierarchical regression analysis, accommodating pairwise missing values. Our results demonstrate minimal overlap between performance-based and self-reported EF measures. Additionally, the model incorporating self-reported EF accounted for 13% of the variance in study success after one year, with the inclusion of performance-based EF raising this proportion to 16%. Self-reported EF assessments modestly predict study success. However, monitoring levels of self-reported EF could offer valuable insights for students and educational institutions, given that EF play a crucial role in learning. Additionally, one in five students reports experiencing significant EF difficulties, highlighting the importance of addressing EF concerns for learning and study success.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1647
Pages: 1647-1663
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Students’ Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension

communicative competence primary school reading literacy testing

Alenka Rot Vrhovec , Lara Godec Soršak


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The development of communicative competence is a fundamental goal of Slovene language teaching in Slovene primary schools. As part of this goal, reading literacy is also being developed. In the project Reading Literacy and the Development of Slovene–ARLEM (Awareness, Reading, Language, Evaluation, Models), a reading comprehension test for fifth and eighth grade has been developed, consisting of four tests. This article focuses on two of them, the Vocabulary Test and the Reading Comprehension Test for fifth and eighth grade. A study conducted among more than one thousand students showed a correlation between students’ vocabulary comprehension and reading comprehension, and a relationship between these two variables and teachers’ assessment of students’ reading and students’ grades in the school subjects Slovene, math, and social studies / history. The results also show that, on average, boys score lower than girls, that on average, students whose first language is not Slovene score lower than students whose first language is Slovene, and that students who receive additional professional help with reading score lower than students who do not need additional help with reading. The results confirm the importance of developing vocabulary and reading skills randomly and in a planned way in all school subjects. Furthermore, the results show the importance of acquiring reading techniques over time and developing reading motivation. Furthermore, the results show the need for cross-curricular integration, individualization, and differentiation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1665
Pages: 1665-1678
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This article describes a methodology and a didactic innovation in higher education that employs Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) across four universities in the fields of sociology, psychology, social education and economics in order to explore the phenomenon of economic violence. The COIL activities were developed by four teachers in the second semester of 2022. The students explored the social and cultural origins of economic violence and the daily exposure to economic inequality in the domestic sphere, while also studying the prevention and responses offered by anti-violence centers from both organizational and social perspectives. The most novel aspect of COIL projects is the research approach to the topic (gender violence) and the students' participation in extracurricular activities, namely presenting the results of their research developed during their academic subjects after the course, at international events. In this study, we describe the projects and the assessment of this part of the research, analyzing the perceptions of the Italian and Spanish students who participated in the dissemination activity. The students' perceptions were recorded through a semi-structured questionnaire utilizing Likert scales and open-ended questions, which included their self-assessments of their knowledge before and after participating in the project, the impact on their development of competences and skills, and their satisfaction with the whole experience. Students acquired a great deal of knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon being studied through COIL methodology and connected these extracurricular activities to a clear improvement in their transversal skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1679
Pages: 1679-1691
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Faculty members’ beliefs in their ability to conduct research and publish research outputs are expected to impact research productivity directly. Thus, the study described the research self-efficacy and productivity among faculty members, their research self-efficacy influence on productivity, and their challenges in research writing and publication. The study utilized a mixed-method sequential explanatory research design, with 36 and nine faculty member-participants for the quantitative and qualitative study. For the quantitative study, the faculty members’ research self-efficacy was ascertained using a validated questionnaire, and their research productivity was determined through a researcher-made survey instrument. Meanwhile, the qualitative study focused on the faculty members’ research writing and publication challenges, which were gathered through focus group discussions. Results showed average research self-efficacy and low research productivity among faculty members. Research self-efficacy significantly predicted research productivity regarding refereed and indexed publications, paper presentations, and bibliometrics. Further, themed findings showed that the faculty members encountered challenges such as a lack of research exposure, time constraints, lack of institutional support, and publication pressure. The study may serve as an inference for higher education institutions in designing faculty development plans and in-service training programs to capacitate its members.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1693
Pages: 1693-1709
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This study investigates the social attitudes and acceptance levels towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer or Questioning, Intersex, Asexual, and other sexualities and gender identities, collectively referred to as LGBTQIA+, among students within the College of Education at Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology. Employing a descriptive correlational research design, the research utilized surveys and interviews to collect data from a diverse student body, analyzing their perspectives on LGBTQIA+ inclusion and the impact of educational environments on their acceptance levels. Results indicate a generally positive attitude and high acceptance of LGBTQIA+ students, with significant relationships identified between students' acceptance levels and their gender and year level, while no significant correlations were found with their course and religion. The study emphasizes the critical role of educational settings in fostering an inclusive atmosphere that supports LGBTQIA+ students, highlighting the importance of promoting understanding and acceptance to enhance the educational experience for all students. By shedding light on current attitudes and acceptance levels, this research contributes valuable insights into the efforts required to create more inclusive educational environments for LGBTQIA+ individuals. The findings are of particular relevance to educators, policymakers, and educational researchers interested in advancing LGBTQIA+ inclusion within educational settings.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1711
Pages: 1711-1726
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Risks Analysis and Internet Perception Among Spanish University Students

risks analysis technologies structural equation modeling qualitative content analysis university students

Francisco J. Rubio-Hernández , Ana M. Giménez-Gualdo , Adoración Díaz-López , Vanessa Caba Machado


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Digital competence entails the healthy, safe, and responsible use of digital technologies to take engage in society, to learn, work and to interact with. However, the use of digital devices is not exempt of risks. The objectives of this study were to analyze the mediating effect of fear of missing out (FoMO) on phubbing and nomophobia, and to explore the perception of the use of Internet-connected devices among 522 Spanish university students, with an average age of 27.11 years. The 80.8% are women and 68.2% study degrees related with Educational Sciences. A mixed-methods approach was used, combining bivariate correlation with structural equation modelling (SEM), and qualitative content analysis. SEM analysis revealed that FoMO had a significant effect on nomophobia and phubbing. Qualitative content analysis underlined that the time spent, problematic use, and sense of dependence were the main concerns for participants. It is emphasized that the plethora of ICT opportunities exposes individuals to risk contexts, necessitating media education to mitigate psychological and social consequences stemming from Internet risks.

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10.12973/eu-jer.13.4.1727
Pages: 1727-1740
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