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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS

'pandemic' Search Results



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For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires’ disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The study showed that the age of the participant was a major factor in enhancing awareness of LD, whereas education was a minor factor at best. Differences in responses among the age groups were strongly significant for general LD awareness, knowledge of its causes and prevalence, as well as body systems affected, prevention and treatment. Interest among the participants in learning more about LD (68%) was higher than in attending a university seminar on the topic (54%). This study provided many educational opportunities to the students to enhance and apply their data analysis skills and to intensify several aspects of their knowledge acquisition and communication skills. Fostering the active involvement of students in an educational activity that can set the stage for an innovative university-community partnership on enhancing awareness of the preventable environmental disease LD is of benefit to all stakeholders.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.3.271
Pages: 271-282
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699
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1324
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2

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As we have seen from the current COVID-19 pandemic, misconceptions concerning viruses can lead to disease spread and panic. Therefore, it is imperative to determine misconceptions held concerning epidemics and pandemics. One virus that warrants study of misconceptions, albeit given limited attention in the West, is the Ebola virus. An assessment of college students’ knowledge and misconceptions about the Ebola virus was created and validated using data from 203 non-science majors at a Midwestern United States university. The data were analyzed using both classical and Rasch measurement methods to make a case for the validity of the assessment and to explore students’ misconceptions. The assessment was shown to be a valid and useful measure for students’ knowledge and misconceptions concerning Ebola. Integrating a confidence scale into students’ responses made the scale more reliable and assisted in identifying students’ tenacious misconceptions. Students displayed multiple misconceptions about viruses, including confusion between the characteristics of viruses and prokaryotes.  Students also displayed misconceptions about Ebola itself, including the overestimation of the number of Ebola strains and the number of patients who experience massive blood loss, misunderstandings about the incubation period, and overestimation of the mortality in comparison to other diseases like Influenza and Anthrax. This assessment can be used as a starting point in future studies to determine what misconceptions people have about Ebola and which types of educational and behavioral interventions need to be undertaken.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.579
Pages: 579-602
cloud_download 452
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452
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874
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2

Scopus
2

The Effectiveness of Online Counseling for University Students in Turkey: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

online counseling face-to-face counseling subjective well-being life satisfaction positive and negative affect

Serife Gonca Zeren , Seher Merve Erus , Yagmur Amanvermez , Arzu Buyruk-Genc , Mihriban Betul Yilmaz , Baki Duy


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Online counseling is a mental health intervention between the counselee and the counselor using digital technologies computers or smartphones. A growing number of counselors have been providing counseling via the Internet. However, there are mixed findings regarding the effectiveness of online counseling when compared traditional face-to-face counseling and other modalities. Thus, the main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of online individual counseling compared to face-to-face counseling, and a control group regarding subjective well-being. To that end, a total of 60 college students were assigned to one of the three groups (21 online, 24 face-to-face, and 15 control). The instruments of the study were the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. In order to examine the effectiveness of online counseling comparing to face-to-face counseling and control group, Mixed design (split-plot) ANOVA was employed. The findings of mixed ANOVA revealed that there was no significant interaction effect for the subjective well-being of the participants in different groups indicating that the three groups did not differ regarding subjective well-being scores measured over three times (pre-test, post-test, and follow-up). Nevertheless, the main effect for the group was significant indicating that the scores of the participants in the face-to-face counseling group regarding positive and negative affect changed significantly. Findings and implications were discussed regarding the relevant literature and some suggestions were offered.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.825
Pages: 825-834
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2333
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1511
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12

Scopus
10

HOTSEP: Revised Anderson’s Taxonomy in Environmental Learning of COVID-19

covid-19 environmental learning hotsep

Ilmi Zajuli Ichsan , Henita Rahmayanti


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Environmental learning in the 21st century requires a high level of thinking ability, especially to solve environmental problems when COVID-19 pandemic. This was to develop a new level of thinking, namely Higher Order Thinking Skills of Environmental Problem (HOTSEP) which is a revision of Anderson's Taxonomy. The purpose of this study was to measure students HOTSEP in the context of environmental problems related to COVID-19. The research method used in this research was descriptive. The sample used 277 university students from several cities in Indonesia. The instrument used HOTSEP which has 3 categories of thinking level start from develop innovation about environment (C6), solve environmental problem (C5), criticize environmental problem (C4). The results showed that students HOTSEP were still in the very low category (33.64). This study concludes that the HOTSEP of students was still low and needs to be improved to the understanding of COVID-19 concept in environmental learning. Suggestion for further research was HOTSEP need to implement in school or university for several environmental learning topics in many subjects/courses start from Natural Science, Social Science, Engineering, and others relevant subject. HOTSEP can be measured not only in school or university, HOTSEP can be implement in community and public.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1257
Pages: 1257-1265
cloud_download 1408
visibility 1009
16
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1408
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1009
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16

Scopus
21

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Because of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, most universities were forced to choose Online Distance Learning (ODL). The study aimed to examine the response of university students to the new situation. A questionnaire was sent to the entire university student population. Based on responses from 606 students, it was revealed that use of all applications in ODL increased. However, only the use of MS Teams increased significantly, while the use of the other applications (email, Moodle, e-textbooks) increased in a range of low to medium in terms of effect sizes, and even nonsignificant for applications such as Padlet and Kahoot. Based on the replies of 414 respondents, a Model of Forced Distance Online Learning Preferences (MoFDOLP) based on Structural Equation Modeling was developed. With a chosen combination of predictors, we succeeded in predicting 95% of variance for Satisfaction, more than 50% for Continuance Preferences variance in MS Teams applications, and nearly 20% in the case of e-materials. Among hypothesized constructs, only Attitudes are a strong predictor of Satisfaction, while Organizational Support, Perceived Ease of Use and Learner Attitude toward Online Learning are not. Satisfaction is a good predictor of Continuance Preferences to use Information Technology after the lockdown ended.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.393
Pages: 393-411
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26
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1811
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1467
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26

Scopus
29

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Recently, Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) has caused a considerable interest in the school community due to the wide-scale lockdown brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The curriculum's alteration necessitated a call to explore mechanisms for effective remote instruction delivery—including parental involvement. This research determined the psychometric properties of the "Strategies for Parental Involvement during Emergency Remote Teaching - Scale (SPIERT-S). The tool assesses the strategies used by teachers to facilitate parental involvement during ERT. Through a thorough literature review, 22 items about home and school collaboration and ERT were initially developed. Evidence related to content validity was established through two-round expert consultation, while data related to construct validity were gathered through factor analyses. The content validity analysis resulted in the deletion of four (4) items; hence, 18 items were retained. A three-factor structure was yielded from Exploratory Factor Analysis (parents as facilitators of learning, parents as sources of information, and parents as collaborators), and a total of 15 items were retained. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable level of the goodness-of-fit indices measured. The internal consistency of the factors and the whole scale showed excellent reliability. The results suggest that the SPIERT-S has good, valid, and reliable psychometric qualities and can be used to examine the strategies for parental involvement that teachers utilize during emergency remote teaching. Recommendations and limitations of the study are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.427
Pages: 427-439
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596
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705
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6

Scopus
5

Smart Automated Language Teaching Through the Smart Sender Platform

higher education foreign language teaching smart technology automated delivery smart sender platform

Mariia Lychuk , Nataliya Bilous , Svitlana Isaienko , Lesya Gritsyak , Oleg Nozhovnik


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The purpose of the research was to identify whether the English language e-classes that are automated and delivered through the Smart Sender platform influence the students’ attendance and procrastination rates, their motivation, time management skills, cognitive processing speed, and satisfaction. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods to monitor students’ attendance and procrastination rates, motivation and engagement, time management skills, thinking speed, and satisfaction. The questionnaire on learning motivation, engagement, and competence, the time management skills test, the mental speed test, and the course satisfaction questionnaire were used to collect data. The focus group discussion questionnaire was used to obtain verbal feedback for the participants. The Smart Sender platform proved effective as an instructional tool for teaching the English Language to students majoring in Philology, International Business, and Law. The automated delivery of the English language e-classes was effective in addressing the issues of dropouts and procrastination in distance learning through automation of the lesson delivery based on the ‘push’ factor. It increased students’ motivation, improves time management skills, and satisfaction. The quantitative findings showed that the students experienced a positive change in attendance, motivation and learning engagement, time management skills, and thinking speed due to the intervention. The students perceived the automated delivery-based approach to language teaching positively. They reported that the delivery approach content met the participants’ expectations and needs. Focus group discussion revealed that the intervention changed their learning behaviour and strategies which were considered the improvements of the quality learning outcomes.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.841
Pages: 841-854
cloud_download 491
visibility 859
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491
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859
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7

Scopus
5

Do Coronavirus Confinement Measures Cause Anxiety, Stress and Depression in University Students?

anxiety confinement coronavirus depression stress

Milka Elena Escalera-Chávez , Josefina C. Santana , Arturo García-Santillán


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Though Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is not a disease that directly affects people's minds, the confinement measures intended to prevent its spread have been taking a toll on mental health. The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of anxiety, stress and depression in university students of the Middle Zone Multidisciplinary Academic Unit of the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí during the confinement caused by the presence of COVID 19 and to evaluate if these levels are different in men and women. The sample consisted of 180 university students enrolled in the semester between January and May 2020. The short version of the 21-item DASS questionnaire was used. The results give evidence that the level of depression, anxiety and stress in these university students is not high and there is not enough evidence to say that there is a difference between the level of depression, anxiety and stress in women and men.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.855
Pages: 855-864
cloud_download 773
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773
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803
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2

Scopus
1

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People have needed mental health services more and more during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to the contagious nature of the COVID-19 virus, online counseling has been preferred more during the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who need such mental health services might take actions to seek help by demanding psychological assistance from psychological counselors or mental health institutions. However, these people might avoid seeking and receiving such help when they think that they have a weak personality or they somehow will be criticized by the society or experience social stigma because they seek psychological help. This study aims to examine the mediating role of self-disclosure between attitudes towards online counselling and perception of social stigma due to receiving psychological help. Participants of the study consist of 519 adults who live in Turkey and are older than 18 years old.  The data for the study were collected through “Distress Disclosure Index”, “Online Counseling Attitudes Scale (OCAS)”, “Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH)” and “Personal Information Form”. The hypothetical model developed in order to determine whether self-disclosure mediates in the relationship between perception of social stigma due to receiving psychological help and online psychological counselling attitudes was tested through SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The results of the study revealed that self-disclosure play partial mediating role between perception of social stigma and value of online counselling and discomfort with online counselling.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.2.919
Pages: 919-932
cloud_download 611
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611
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806
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3

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2

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The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which affected the whole world and caused millions to be locked at their homes, brought many difficulties in domestic life. Especially, women are the leading group that has been affected the most negatively due to the workload during the days staying at home and experiencing the constraints of traditional roles. In this study, in which descriptive phenomenology analysis was used, the aim was to reveal how mothers working as psychological counselors in schools experienced motherhood during the days staying at home during the epidemic, and how their professional skills reflected on their role as mothers. In this study, in which the criterion sampling was used, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mothers who are school psychological counselors and could not continue their work since schools shut down during the pandemic. The data were analyzed by Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological method. Analysis results revealed six main themes that define the experiences of the participants: adaptation to the new order, parenting codes, introspection during the pandemic, distribution of parenting roles, professional reflections in motherhood, and complex motherhood experiences. It is believed that the results obtained from this study conducted with psychological counselor mothers will contribute to parenting practices and to the content of in service trainings for school psychological counselors.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1039
Pages: 1039-1050
cloud_download 548
visibility 1070
0
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548
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1070
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0

Scopus
0

The Place and Effects of Technology in the Visual Arts Course

education material qualitative research secondary school instruction methods

Ismail Tetikci , Gonca Erim , Busra Bozlak Halaclar


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Individuals’ levels of access to contemporary education affect the development level of the societies they live in. Changes and developments in the field of education are important in this sense. Technological advancements experienced in the general field of education have also affected visual arts education, and different points of view have emerged in this field. In this study, it is aimed to determine the interaction of art education in parallel to the dynamism of the age with technology according to the opinions of visual arts course teachers. For this purpose, the study uses the qualitative research method of case study. The participants of the study consist of a total of 8 visual arts teachers including 5 female and 3 teachers actively working at secondary schools in the academic year of 2019-2020. Observation and semi-structured interview forms are used in the data collection process. By analyzing the obtained findings with the thematic analysis method, the findings are collected under the themes of reflections and usage methods. In line with the results of the study obtained from the data, positive and negative results of using technology as a material in art education are reached. As in all areas of education, the use of technology in the visual arts course is important for its positive effects such as providing ease of learning for the student. While the study has been completed before the COVID-19 pandemic period, the compulsory nature of technology use today has increased the significance of the study.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1089
Pages: 1089-1100
cloud_download 445
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445
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559
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2

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2

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This study aimed to analyze the critical thinking skills of students in learning of environmental change material using e-learning madrasah. This study used explanatory sequential design by mixed-methods experiment. The data were collected by interviewing, observing, and essay testing that have indicators modified from critical thinking skills by Watson-Glaser, Facione, and Ennis. There were 67 participants in this study as 7th grade student at a junior high school in Sleman district. Quantitative data analyzed by determining average score and standard deviations and, qualitative data analyzed from interviews and observation. Quantitative analysis showed that there were 3 levels of student’s critical thinking skills which were 14 students (20.90%) in the high category, 38 students (56.72%) in the middle category, and 15 students (22.38%) in the low category. Qualitative analysis indicated learning model made students to learn actively, independently, and enthusiastically looking for several sources. This study provided information about student critical thinking skills in junior high school, especially in the environmental change matter which are still low. Thus, the alternative learning strategies to improve students critical thinking skills are very needed. Besides, information on the application of the discovery learning model with e-learning Islamic school was obtained in the COVID-19 pandemic.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1123
Pages: 1123-1135
cloud_download 756
visibility 1339
9
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756
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1339
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9

Scopus
10

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The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence of the influence of perceived usefulness, convenience, experience, gender, and age on the intention to use e-learning after the government's school closure policy due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Our sample is junior high school teachers in Indonesia and the data are analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). We show that perceived usefulness has a positive influence on e-learning intentions. The perceived convenience is not the reason for the teachers to use e-learning because they have no other alternative in carrying out their duties apart from e-learning. Besides, we have also found that gender and experience influence e-learning intentions. The teachers with different genders and experiences continue to implement e-learning as their way of teaching during the pandemic. The younger teachers have a higher intention of using e-learning. They have adequate digital abilities and are more confident in using e-learning, so they have a great intention in implementing e-learning for the delivery of the materials. Experienced teachers will find it easier to find the use and convenience of e-learning. Apart from experience, male teachers also report that it is easier to grasp the ease of e-learning. However, older teachers show more concern about their perception of system usability as a reason for using e-learning than system convenience.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1171
Pages: 1171-1180
cloud_download 893
visibility 968
5
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893
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968
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5

Scopus
6

Digital Andragogical Competences of Ecuadorian Higher Education Teachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic

higher education technology teaching competences virtual education andragogy

Derling Jose Mendoza Velazco , Mercedes Navarro Cejas , Magda Francisca Cejas Martinez , Paola Gabriela Vinueza Naranjo , Vladimir Vega Falcón


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The changes brought about in higher education by the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic require effective action. Teachers must be trained to work on university platforms. The study allows us to analyse the current educational problems, which are found in many countries, not only in Ecuador. The research aimed to determine the virtual andragogical competencies of Ecuadorian university education during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed research approach was used. A quantitative analysis was applied first, followed by a qualitative analysis. The sample selection was participatory and non-probabilistic. The sample consisted of 1003 active higher education teachers in Ecuador. A questionnaire of 106 questions divided into four variables was applied. A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed. The analyses demonstrated the need to apply four integral competencies. First the teacher must "Know how to be", through continuous ICT training. After the teacher has been trained, he/she must "Know". This process involves mastering educational technology. After updating knowledge, they must "Know how to live together". Develop critical and constructive communication. Then "Know how to do" by applying an effective guiding methodology. Teacher training under the competency-based approach is seen as a viable alternative.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1341
Pages: 1341-1358
cloud_download 657
visibility 934
6
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657
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934
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6

Scopus
12

Student Perceptions of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: A Study of Phenomenology

online learning covid-19 pandemic perceptions phenomenology

Purwadi , Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra , Amien Wahyudi , Agus Supriyanto , Siti Muyana , Prima Suci Rohmadheny , Restu Dwi Ariyanto , Shopyan Jepri Kurniawan


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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic impacted various lines in the international world, including Indonesia. Pandemic COVID-19 in Indonesia has also changed multiple performances in multiple sectors, one of which is education. The concept of learning from home changes lecturers' paradigm as educators in tertiary institutions applying online learning. This study aims to identify students' perceptions of the implementation of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study uses a qualitative research approach with the type of phenomenology. The subject of this study was 22 students in Indonesia who experienced the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This research instrument uses semi-structured interview guidelines. Students perceive online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic as (1) ineffective learning activities; (2) unpleasant learning activities; (3) limit self-actualization in education; (4) helping to become an independent person in learning; and (5) fun learning activities. Higher Education should create innovative and creative online learning strategies. Thus, students have a high enthusiasm for online learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1515
Pages: 1515-1528
cloud_download 5087
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18
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5087
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2858
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18

Scopus
18

Mathematics Teachers’ Practices of STEM Education: A Systematic Literature Review

instructional approaches mathematics stem education

Noor Anita Rahman , Roslinda Rosli , Azmin Sham Rambely , Lilia Halim


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Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education is regarded as one of the formulas to embracing many of our imminent challenges. STEM education benefits the learners by encouraging interest in STEM disciplines. This daunting task needs everyone’s concerted efforts in creating and innovating mathematics teachers’ classroom practices Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to identify best practices for STEM education following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) by Moher et al. (2015). The reviewed articles were published from 2016 to 2020 and accessed using the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases. Three themes for best practices were identified namely (a) core competencies encompassing 21st-century teaching skills; (b) instructional designs; and (c) requisite STEM execution. Results of PRISMA determined the dominant STEM practices were critical thinking, communication, collaboration, problem-solving, research-based pedagogy, problem-based learning and project-based learning, technological integration, accessibility, professional development and learning support, evidence of effectiveness, access to materials and practitioner support, and scalability. Mathematics teachers should determine the best STEM practices to employ even though there is a lack of studies on integrated STEM domains. When more students are interested in venturing and exploring into the field of STEM, the high demand for STEM related careers could be met by the younger generation.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1541
Pages: 1541-1559
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1139
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1144
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14

Scopus
19

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The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak in the Indonesians nowadays, the public education department established the policy of the online education system to all education levels. Most educators employ an online flipped learning method to support the policy. Research aimed to measure the effect of online based-flipped classroom learning between using Microsoft Team and WhatsApp and student engagement on reading comprehension skills. The research approach was a quasi-experimental model with a 2 x 3 factorial pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group design. The sample of this investigation was early period undergraduates of the management economics study program. Data analysis employed a two-way ANOVA test. The result confirmed that the online flipped learning scheme using Microsoft Team was better than WhatsApp in improving student engagement and reading comprehension skills. We advise English lecturers to apply better online media services, pay attention to the completeness of the learning features and train their competence in implementing distance learning to use compatible synchronous flipped classroom teaching based on internet technologies.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1613
Pages: 1613-1624
cloud_download 12116
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12
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12116
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4411
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12

Scopus
16

Technology Anxiety and its Impact on E-Learning System Actual Use in Jordan Public Universities during the Coronavirus Disease Pandemic

anxiety covid-19 e-learning self-efficacy

Maha Ismail Alkhawaja , Mutia Sobihah Abd Halim , Asyraf Afthanorhan


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During the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, universities were obligated to transform from traditional classroom teaching environments to virtual ones. This sudden transformation highlighted the issue of low e-learning system usage amongst instructors of humanity faculties in Jordan's public universities. This study empirically investigated the moderating impact of technology anxiety on the relationship between the instructor's self-efficacy and the e-learning system's actual use to contribute to solving the problem. A survey was distributed to 468 instructors to test the theoretical framework, which yielded 285 valid and complete instruments analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results showed the positive direct effect of self-efficacy on actual use. Furthermore, the level of technology anxiety moderated the relationship. Instructors with low technology anxiety showed a higher level of e-learning system actual usage than those with a high anxiety level. To improve the use of e-learning systems, top management must understand the fundamental role of compulsory training as the Covid-19 pandemic, and the instructor's confidence must be increased by providing training and support.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1639
Pages: 1639-1647
cloud_download 642
visibility 802
6
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642
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802
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6

Scopus
9

The Users’ Experiences in Processing Visual Media for Creative and Online Learning Using Instagram

creative learning creating instagram online learning user experience

Mohammad Salehudin , Muhammad Nasir , Syeh Hawib Hamzah , Rostanti Toba , Noor Hayati , Intan Safiah


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The aims of the recent study were; analyzing the effect of creative and online learning using Instagram on the ability to create new products in the technology and learning media course, and determining the level of users’ experience in processing visual media through the Canva application on android. Quantitative approach with this research was carried out through a quasi-experimental research model because it measured the post-test was applied to 58 students as the respondents in two experimental and control classes. This study used two instruments; the cognitive learning outcome questionnaire according to the subject to get the students’ ability to create new products, and the second instrument was taken from ueq-online.org in the Indonesian version to know the users' experience in processing visual media. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, mean and standard deviation assisted by IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0. The results demonstrated that the effect of creative and online learning using Instagram on the ability to create new products in The Technology and Learning Media course was found significant at 0.028 <0.05 which meant it could be applied well. Meanwhile, the level of users' experience in processing the visual media application Canva on Android had the highest score on the Stimulation scale at 1.59, categorized "Very Good" and the lowest score was on the Novelty scale at 0.93, categorized "Above Average". With the strong creative encouragement to create new products, the students were able to process their own visual media which were tailored to the agreed digital visual designs and were published on Instagram.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1669
Pages: 1669-1682
cloud_download 921
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921
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1044
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5

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11

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The article mentions the impact of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on online learning in Vietnamese higher education in 2020. This is a qualitative case study, by using in-depth interviews to explore the changes in the perception, methods, and orientation of online learning of students and lecturers at a key pedagogical university when experiencing the three COVID-19 outbreaks in Vietnam. The findings show that the COVID-19 pandemic has a positive impact on the developmental orientation of online learning at the Vietnamese higher education level. Even though at the time of an outbreak, opposition and dissatisfaction with online learning occurred; but through the three outbreaks, together with the efforts of lecturers and students, online learning in Vietnam has recorded remarkable achievements. This is a prerequisite for the development of online education and the innovation of digital technology in education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1683
Pages: 1683-1695
cloud_download 2649
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2649
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1485
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9

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12

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