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'metacognition' Search Results



Exploring the Classroom: Teaching Science in Early Childhood*

inquiry preschool science stem-education

Peter J. N. Dejonckheere , Nele de Wit , Kristof van de Keere , Stephanie Vervaet


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This study tested and integrated the effects of an inquiry-based didactic method for preschool science in a real practical classroom setting. Four preschool classrooms participated in the experiment (N = 57) and the children were 4–6 years old. In order to assess children’s attention for causal events and their understanding at the level of scientific reasoning skills, we designed a simple task in which a need for information gain was created. Compared to controls, children in the post-test showed significant learning gains in the development of the so-called control of variables strategy. Indeed, they executed more informative and less uninformative explorations during their spontaneous play. Furthermore, the importance of such programmes was discussed in the field of STEM education.

* Note: This paper was published as an inadvertent duplicate publication with an another journal.

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10.12973/eu-jer.5.3.149
Pages: 149-164
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20

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Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a model that explains how teachers use technology more effectively in the context of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Teachers' TPACK competencies play great importance in this regard. Lesson study has also been playing significant roles in the development of teachers' professional trainings. When the researches on TPACK and lesson study have been analyzed, the research is expected to provide significant contributions to the literature. This study aims to present reflections from a lesson study practice that carried out to urge techno-pedagogical competencies of the secondary school mathematics teachers and to reveal the development of teachers’ progress. The study used case study method, and it was conducted with three in-service teachers. The research data were collected through semi-structured interviews, voice recorder, and observation notes. To analyze the collected data, descriptive analysis method was used. The results have revealed that teachers have made much more progress in designing, implementing, and problem solving in terms of TPACK competencies. It has also been determined that teachers’ development of openness to the innovations was limited. This limitation appeared to emerge as a result of teachers’ time anxiety and insufficient knowledge regarding the use of technology.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.41
Pages: 41-50
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761
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1604
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10

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In order to reflect the integration of the teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and technology usage skills to the class context and to provide the expected outputs for the program's purposes, it is needed to be revealed the different dimensions of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). In this study, it was aimed to investigate the teacher training programmes related to pre-service science teachers’ TPACK. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. In the 2015-2016 academic year, a total of 269 pre-service teachers (73 of them from 1st grade, 73 of them from 2nd grade, 87 of them from 3rd and 36 of them from 4th grade students) attending Science Education Department participated in this study. As a data collection tool, 7 subscales of “Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale of Pre-Service Teachers”; namely, technology knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, technological pedagogical knowledge, technological content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and technological pedagogical content knowledge were used. According to the results, as the class level of pre-service teacher increases, their level of technological pedagogical content knowledge increases as well. Moreover, there is a significant difference on behalf of pre-service teachers at the 1st grade in all dimensions of technological pedagogical content knowledge scale.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.1.51
Pages: 51-57
cloud_download 837
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837
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1365
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3

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This study was aimed at investigating whether or not there is an interaction between learning approach and social intelligence towards response fluency. A number of 126 eighth grade students (M = 13.9; SD = 0.5 years) in Bojonegoro, Indonesia were randomly selected to participate in this study. This research used 2x3 factorial quasi-experiment with the matching static comparison design. The statistical Analysis Of Covariance (ANCOVA) ware implemented for analysis of data in the study. The results show that: there is a significant difference in response to fluency between students who learn with a scientific approach and direct learning approach; there are significant differences in response to fluency between students who have high, medium, and low social intelligence, both in scientific and direct learning approaches, the students with high social intelligence levels have better response to fluency than those with moderate social intelligence or low, and the students with moderate social intelligence have better response to fluency than those with low social intelligence, in all levels of social intelligence, the students who were taught by using scientific approach have better response to fluency than those who were taught by using direct learning approach.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.801
Pages: 801-808
cloud_download 489
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489
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856
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7

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11

Psychometric Assessment and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Grit-S Scale among Omani and American Universities’ Students

grit psychometric properties achievement goal orientations cross-cultural study

Amal Alhadabi , Said Aldhafri , Hussain Alkharusi , Ibrahim Al-Harthy , Hafidha AlBarashdi , Marwa Alrajhi


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The current study aimed to adopt and assess the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of Grit-S among Omani and American students (N = 487) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The scale’s construct validity was estimated by investigating its associations with achievement goal orientations (AGOs). EFA results suggested that a two-factor solution (i.e., perseverance of effort [G_PE] and consistency of interest [G_CI]) was the best factorial structure, explaining 47.74% and 51.02% of the variance in the Omani and American samples, respectively. The factors had good reliability coefficients in the two samples. Related to the intercultural differences, G_PE explained more variance among Omanis (31.02%) relative to American sample, whereas G_CI explained a larger proportion of variance among Americans (36.86%) compared with Omani sample. The first level of measurement invariance, configural invariance, was not supported, necessitating the investigation of the other levels of measurement invariance using a new sample. Grit correlated positively with mastery and performance-approach goals (r = .29 and .12, respectively) and negatively with avoidance goals (r = -.25), supporting the scale’s construct validity. These findings showed that Grit-S scale can be used as valid and reliable assessment tool to assess student interest and perseverance in the academic context in Arabic/Omani and American cultures.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1175
Pages: 1175-1191
cloud_download 393
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393
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768
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6

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6

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The empowerment of metacognitive skills has an important role in increasing the capacity of critical thinking and active control of students' cognitive processes in learning. Metacognitive skills can be enhanced through the implementation of learning strategies involving higher-order thinking. The RQA, ADI, RQA integrated with ADI are constructivistic learning strategies that can accommodate these skills. The researches specifically examining the correlation between metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills at the implementation of RQA, ADI, and RQA integrated with ADI learning strategies are still rarely found. This research is a correlational research, aiming at revealing the correlation between metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills. The data of metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills are collected by using a valid and reliable essay test. The samples of this research are the fourth semester (IV) biology education students programming Animal Physiology course in the 2016/2017 academic year consisting of 109 students. The results of this research show that (1) there was a significant correlation between metacognitive skills and critical thinking skills at the implementation of the four learning strategies, (2) the regression equations analyzed using Anova obtain regression lines (not coincide), and non parallel regression lines (intersected); meaning that there is a difference in the increase rate and magnitude of the critical thinking skills influenced by the four learning strategies. It is expected that the teachers and the lecturers always strive to improve the quality of the learning process through the implementation of active and constructive learning strategies.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.143
Pages: 143-163
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1911
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2082
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28

Scopus
35

Psychometric and Structural Evaluation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory Instrument

psychometric evaluation physics metacognition inventory problem solving

Haeruddin Haeruddin , Zuhdan Kun Prasetyo , Supahar Supahar , Elisa Sesa , Gazali Lembah


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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric and structural instruments of the Physics Metacognition Inventory (PMI) developed by Taasoobshirazi, Bailey, and Farley (2015). The PMI consists of 26 items in six factors. The English and Indonesian versions were tested on an English course (N = 37) in the Geophysics study program at Tadulako University. The trials were conducted separately within a two-week interval. The data collected from 364 students of the Physics Education Department, University of Tadulako were analyzed using the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Later, data were collected from 351 students of some Indonesian universities which have physics education study programs, and the data were analyzed using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The EFA result reveals six factors based on the rotation result with the maximum loading factor. The CFA result shows the RMSEA values of .018, 2 (284) = 316.32 (χ2 / df = 1,11), GFI = .93, CFI = .99, AGFI = .92 and NFI = .93 which meet the cut-off statistic value, and therefore, the model is considered fit, with the Construct Reliability Estimation (CR) of .93, Composite Reliability of  = .95, and maximum reliability of Ω = .96. The results obtained reveal that the PMI scale has good, valid and reliable psychometric properties. Therefore, PMI can be used to measure the level of metacognition of students when solving physics problems. Future studies using PMI are also discussed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.215
Pages: 215-225
cloud_download 657
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657
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826
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6

Scopus
7

The Development of Computerized Economics Item Banking for Classroom and School-Based Assessment

item banking cbt assessment economics

Friyatmi , Djemari Mardapi , Haryanto , Elvi Rahmi


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The advancement of information and technology resulted in the change in conventional test methods. The weaknesses of the paper-based test can be minimized using the computer-based test (CBT). The development of a CBT desperately needs a computerized item bank. This study aimed to develop a computerized item bank for classroom and school-based assessments. A research and development method is used in this study, which consisted of four phases, i.e., planning, item development, system development, and field testing. Data is collected through documentation, expert judgment, and field testing. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and item response theory. The sample of this study was teachers and high school students in West Sumatera province selected using purposive random sampling techniques. The results of the study are as follows. 1) The computerized item bank has excellent quality based on expert validation. 2) There are 120 items inputted into the item bank system that has a moderate difficulty and good discriminant index based on item response theory. 3) The field testing indicated the computerized economics item banking has high effectiveness of usability, usefulness for the teachers, and feasible for classroom and school-based assessment.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.293
Pages: 293-303
cloud_download 589
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589
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734
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2

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1

Measurement of Metacognition: Adaptation of Metacognitive State Inventory in Spanish to Mexican University Students

metacognition self-regulation metacognitive state inventory inventory

Luz Marina Mendez-Hinojosa , Magaly Cardenas-Rodriguez , Cesar Alejandro Ortiz-Paez


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Some of the most important skills of university students is to develop the capacity to resolve problems posed by their communities, which implies that students become independent, autonomous and self-regulated. Also they need to be capable of monitor, asses and modify their learning through their own process of metacognition, this way they can develop the required knowledge and improve their learning. To analyze it, the objective of this research is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Metacognitive State Inventory in Mexican university students. For this reason, the Metacognitive State Inventory was applied to 908 students. To confirm a second order hierarchy model with four first order factors, confirmatory factor analysis was used (CFA).Four items were eliminated to obtain a better model fit. Internal consistency was accessed through McDonald's omega coefficient. In this way, evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the instrument was provided. The Inventory of the Metacognitive State was correlated with the CEVEAPEU Questionnaire, obtaining significant positive correlations between both instruments, thus providing certainty of convergent validity.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.413
Pages: 413-421
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382
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802
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3

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7

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This research aims to find out: (1) the more effective learning model on students' divergent-thinking skills; (2) the better adversity quotient on students' divergent-thinking skills; (3) the better adversity quotient to improve students' divergent-thinking skills in each learning model; and (4) the better learning model to improve students' divergent-thinking skills in each adversity quotient. This research uses a quantitative approach with a quasi-experimental type. The fifth-grade students were selected as the research subjects. This research was carried out at the public elementary schools in Laweyan District, Surakarta, Indonesia. Test and questionnaire techniques were used to collect data. The data analysis was performed with the analysis prerequisite, hypothesis, and multiple-comparison tests. The results showed that the learning model and adversity quotient have an influence on divergent-thinking skills; for each adversity quotient, the thinking actively in a social context learning model is better than the creative problem solving and direct instruction learning model; the creative problem solving learning model is better than the direct instruction learning model; and adversity quotient of the climbers is better than that of the campers and the adversity quotient of the campers is better than that of the quitters in each learning model.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.537
Pages: 537-568
cloud_download 999
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999
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1575
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10

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14

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This study aims to investigate the impact of using a LEGO Education program, specifically the “MoreToMath” kit, on the achievement of Deferent Levels of Elementary Students. The quantitative research design was used in this research study, and the participants were comprised of 120 elementary school students in the 2nd grade, in Amman, Jordan. A quasi-experimental research method and the MANCOVA were used, and a study tool to measure achievement was developed by the researcher for which the validity and reliability of achievement were verified. The results of the study show that there was a statistically significant improvement (α ≤0.05) in the achievement of the experimental study group, that studied using LEGO education, over the control group. There is also a statistically significant difference (α ≤ 0.05) between the arithmetic means of the three sub-groups of students’ previous achievement levels— high, middle, and low— and by using the Least Significant Differences (LSD) test we notice that there are significant differences between the high and low sub-groups, as well as between the middle and low. However, that there are no significant differences between the high and middle level sub-groups; and there is also no statistically significant interaction between the groups (experimental, control) and the levels of pre-achievement seen in the post-achievement levels. The study results indicate that the use of new technological tools, like the “MoreToMath” kit, may be beneficial in teaching mathematics as they tend to motivate students, and can lead to higher achievement for elementary students of different mathematics aptitude levels.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.603
Pages: 603-610
cloud_download 896
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896
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1193
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4

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3

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Developing Indonesian English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ structural knowledge presents a number of complexities especially in the bilingual context. This study aimed to determine how the structural knowledge patterns of Indonesian EFL students is, and it specifically explored various aspects that make structural knowledge representation difficult. The research also aimed to formulate an accommodative assessment model for the development of students' structural knowledge. Using a case study design, this study involved 120 English literature students (N=120) taking the Psycholinguistics class at one of the tertiary institutions in Malang, Indonesia. The research instruments included essay tests and questionnaires. The research findings showed that students in bilingual contexts have certain diversity and patterns in their structural knowledge. Second, students’ structural knowledge could be influenced by a number of aspects such as topic mastery and the flow of thought. Furthermore, students’ structural knowledge can be accommodated in an adequate evaluation model that measures structural knowledge and critical thinking skills. Further research in the area of content and language assessment will complete the study of the significance of structural knowledge in a bilingual context.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.629
Pages: 629-638
cloud_download 431
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431
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706
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2

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2

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Problem-solving and mathematical communication are essential skills needed by students in learning mathematics. However, empirical evidence reports that students’ skills are less satisfying. Thus, this study aims to improve students’ problem-solving and mathematical communication skills using a Metacognitive-Based Contextual Learning (MBCL) model. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used in this study. The participants were 204 fifth-grade students; consisting of experimental (n = 102) and control (n = 102) groups selected using convenience sampling. This study was conducted in four Indonesian elementary schools in the first semester of the academic year 2019/2020. The Problem-Solving Skills Test (PSST) and Mathematical Communication Skills Test (MCST) were used as pre- and post-tests. In order to analyze the data, one-way ANOVA was used at the 0.05 significance level. The results showed that students in the experimental group had higher post-test scores than the control group in terms of problem-solving and mathematical communication skills. It can be concluded that the MBCL effectively promotes fifth-grade students’ problem-solving and mathematical communication skills. Therefore, it is suggested that MBCL should be used more frequently in primary school mathematics to further improve students’ problem-solving and mathematical communication skills.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.753
Pages: 753-764
cloud_download 3523
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3523
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2044
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14

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11

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Self-efficacy and critical thinking represent two vital components for university graduates in the 21st century learning. However, several studies reported that these two important outcome predictors were unsatisfactory. This study aimed at investigating the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy and critical thinking. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design was utilized. A total of 44 pre-service elementary school teachers (aged 19-22) at a private university in Indonesia were assigned as experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 22) groups. The experimental group learning received PBL, while the control group learning with traditional college instruction. The Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) and the Critical Thinking Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered before and after the intervention in both groups. Independent and paired samples t-tests were employed to analyze the pretests and posttests data. The results indicated that PBL was more effective in increasing self-efficacy and critical thinking of pre-service elementary teachers than traditional teaching. It is suggested that PBL should be used more frequently in science learning to further enhance students’ self-efficacy and critical thinking skills in higher education.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.765
Pages: 765-773
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1203
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1540
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21

Scopus
24

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Learning models that can improve critical thinking, skills collaborate, communicate, and creative thinking are needed in the 21st-century education era. Critical and creative thinking are the two essential competencies of the four skills required in the 21st century. However, both are still difficult to achieve well by students due to a lack of thinking skills during mathematics learning. This study was conducted to determine the model of learning that is appropriate to develop students' critical and creative thinking skills. The study used three-class samples from eighth grade. The first class is given the problem-posing lesson; the second class is given contextual learning and third class as a control class. The results of the study indicate that improving students' critical and creative thinking skills are included in the moderate category for types using contextual learning and problem-posing. Also, it is found that contextual learning is more effective for improving critical thinking skills when compared with learning problem posing and expository learning. Meanwhile, learning problem posing is more useful to enhance creative thinking skills compared with contextual and expository learning.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.877
Pages: 877-887
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1333
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1548
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20

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13

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Covid-19 has accelerated the speed of technocratic transformation in teaching and learning. Previous researches on whether technology enhances students’ motivation towards learning or burdens them with additional layer of anxiety in learning the nitty gritty of technology itself have mixed results. The purpose of this study was to explore early undergraduate students’ beliefs about learning mathematics with technology. These research participants were first-year female undergraduate students in a public university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study comprised of phase one with qualitative task-based interviews with four female first-year undergraduate students. Phase two included a quantitative belief survey with a sample of 62 students from the same institution. I constructed four major belief categories from the iterative process of interview data analysis– technology for computing and graphing, technology for speed and accuracy, technology for a short-cut but not for meaning, and affective aspects of beliefs. The quantitative survey result demonstrated that a majority of participants (about 75.8%) were found to be using some kinds of technological tools while learning mathematics. About 90% of them reported using a calculator while learning mathematics. A majority of participants (54.9%) believed that technology helps them in learning mathematics, and about 50% of them also believed that the use of technology improves their learning of mathematics.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1235
Pages: 1235-1255
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428
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677
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4

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2

Prospective Teachers' Expectations of Students' Mathematical Thinking Processes in Solving Problems

prospective teachers' expectations mathematical thinking processes polya models mason theory

Mohammad Tohir , Maswar Maswar , Moh. Atikurrahman , Saiful Saiful , Diyah Ayu Rizki Pradita


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This research aims to describe the expectations of prospective teachers for students' mathematical thinking processes in solving problem-based on the Polya model. This model is perceived by the theory of mathematical thought processes proposed by Mason. A descriptive method with a qualitative approach was used in this research. The research subjects were 25 students from the Department of Mathematics Education, Ibrahimy University. The test was given to collect data related to mathematical thinking processes expected by prospective teachers to students. Collected data including observations, tests, and interviews were tested in the aspect of their validity by triangulation. The qualitative descriptive was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that: (1) The average GPA (Grade Point Average) of the high, medium, and low group prospective teachers' were 93.25; 89.89; and 83.63 with a standard deviation of 1.754 each; 1.054; and 5.370, respectively (2) The prospective teachers expected that the students' mathematical thinking processes were able to carry out all of four mathematical thinking processes based on Mason Theory; (3) The prospective teachers expected that students were able to use Mason Theory on every stage of the Polya model problem solving; and (4) The expectation of prospective teachers were specializing (89%), generalizing (75%), conjecturing (62%), and convincing (59%). The results suggest for following up in a teachers or lecturer’s meeting in order to find out the expectations of their students' mathematical thinking processes, both in mathematics or other disciplines.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1735
Pages: 1735-1748
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3308
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3351
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12

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16

Motivation and Learning Strategies: Student Motivation Affects Student Learning Strategies

learning strategies metacognition motivation self-regulated learning student

Hasan Hariri , Dedy Hermanto Karwan , Een Yayah Haenilah , Riswanti Rini , Ujang Suparman


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Despite being a popular research subject internationally, self-regulated learning is relatively under-investigated in the Indonesian context. This article examined student learning motivation and its use as an indicator to predict student learning strategies in an Indonesian school context. This article applied quantitative research design, with Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) used to collect the data. This questionnaire was completed by 408 public high secondary students randomly selected from the population in Lampung Province schools, and multiple regression was used to analyze the obtained data. Results show that student motivation and learning strategies were positively and significantly correlated; three predictor variables of student motivation could significantly predict learning strategies; and value components of student motivation best predicted learning strategies. In conclusion, these findings indicate that, when teachers apply learning strategies, such variables as motivation including value, expectancy, and affective components should be strongly considered to be in place. It is hoped finally that the students will be self-regulated learners for their success.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.39
Pages: 39-49
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9421
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6258
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16

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13

Primary Science Teachers’ Perspectives about Metacognition in Science Teaching

metacognition primary science reflection primary teachers

Tajularipin Sulaiman , Suzieleez Syrene Abdul-Rahim , Wong Kai Yan , Punnithann Subramaniam


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Metacognition in science teaching involves processes that include self-awareness and self-regulation. Metacognition enables the teachers to facilitate student learning and to reflect on their teaching in order to enable themselves to improve or to make any changes to their teaching. In particular, teaching activities, especially in the 21st century, do not merely involve the transfer of knowledge and then applying that knowledge into daily life, but teachers need to reflect, plan and evaluate learning outcomes to enhance further in teaching. This study attempts to gain the perspective and implementation of metacognition skills in teaching science in the primary school classroom. The data was collected through a qualitative research method based on interviews with six science teachers in primary school using semi-structured interview protocol. The interview data were analysed for emerging themes, guided by the research questions. Teachers have a similar perspective of the understanding of metacognition in science teaching. Further discussion focuses on the implementation of metacognition in science teaching. This discussion is divided into three aspects, which are constraints faced, overcoming the constraints, and efforts made to implement metacognition in science teaching. Hence, the understanding of science teachers in regards to metacognition in science teaching is important and gives a positive impact towards teaching and learning in primary science teaching.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.75
Pages: 75-84
cloud_download 989
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989
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917
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5

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4

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A Descriptive-correlational study was sought to investigate the influence of metacognition on the academic achievement and learning style of undergraduate students. Using the survey method, data was collected from a sample of 150 undergraduate students selected through a stratified random sampling technique which includes 50 students each from the three schools namely School of Humanities and Social sciences (HSS), School of Engineering (SOE), and School of Sciences (SOS) of Tezpur University. The tools used are five-point Likert-type Metacognitive skills scale and five-point Likert-type Learning Style Inventory. Academic Achievement of the students was measured based on the semester grade point average SGPA obtained in the semester examination. The data were analyzed using percentage, simple regression, multiple regression and one-way ANOVA. The result showed that only 34-36% of the undergraduate students have above-average metacognitive skills. The undergraduate students have equal preferences in all the five learning styles rather than focusing on one learning style. There is a significant difference between metacognition levels and academic achievement of the undergraduate students of SOS, HSS and SOE. The metacognitive skill explicates only 43% variability of academic achievement of the undergraduate students which implies that the undergraduate student’s metacognitive skills influence and determines their academic achievement to some extent. However, the undergraduate student’s learning style doesn’t account for variation in metacognitive skills. Thus, it is suggested that metacognitive skills should be integrated into curricular components and learning strategy which will help the students to monitor and regulate their own learning to meet the challenges of academic society.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.381
Pages: 381-391
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1513
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1377
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4

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6

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