Research Article
Psychometric Assessment and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Grit-S Scale among Omani and American Universities’ Students

Amal Alhadabi , Said Aldhafri, Hussain Alkharusi, Ibrahim Al-Harthy, Hafidha AlBarashdi, Marwa Alrajhi

APA 7th edition
Alhadabi, A., Aldhafri, S., Alkharusi, H., Al-Harthy, I., AlBarashdi, H., & Alrajhi, M. (2019). Psychometric Assessment And Cross-Cultural Adaptation Of The Grit-S Scale Among Omani And American Universities’ Students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1175-1191.

Alhadabi A., Aldhafri S., Alkharusi H., Al-Harthy I., AlBarashdi H., and Alrajhi M. 2019 'Psychometric Assessment And Cross-Cultural Adaptation Of The Grit-S Scale Among Omani And American Universities’ Students', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 1175-1191.
Chicago 16th edition
Alhadabi Amal, Aldhafri Said, Alkharusi Hussain, Al-Harthy Ibrahim, AlBarashdi Hafidha, and Alrajhi Marwa. "Psychometric Assessment And Cross-Cultural Adaptation Of The Grit-S Scale Among Omani And American Universities’ Students," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 1175-1191.


The current study aimed to adopt and assess the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of Grit-S among Omani and American students (N = 487) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The scale’s construct validity was estimated by investigating its associations with achievement goal orientations (AGOs). EFA results suggested that a two-factor solution (i.e., perseverance of effort [G_PE] and consistency of interest [G_CI]) was the best factorial structure, explaining 47.74% and 51.02% of the variance in the Omani and American samples, respectively. The factors had good reliability coefficients in the two samples. Related to the intercultural differences, G_PE explained more variance among Omanis (31.02%) relative to American sample, whereas G_CI explained a larger proportion of variance among Americans (36.86%) compared with Omani sample. The first level of measurement invariance, configural invariance, was not supported, necessitating the investigation of the other levels of measurement invariance using a new sample. Grit correlated positively with mastery and performance-approach goals (r = .29 and .12, respectively) and negatively with avoidance goals (r = -.25), supporting the scale’s construct validity. These findings showed that Grit-S scale can be used as valid and reliable assessment tool to assess student interest and perseverance in the academic context in Arabic/Omani and American cultures.

Keywords: Grit, psychometric properties, achievement goal orientations, cross-cultural study.


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