Research Article
The Analysis of Teachers’ Cyber Bullying, Cyber Victimization and Cyber Bullying Sensitivity Based On Various Variables

Ahmet Yildirim , Mustafa Celikten, Tymofii Desiatov, Yevgeny Lodatko

APA 7th edition
Yildirim, A., Celikten, M., Desiatov, T., & Lodatko, Y. (2019). The Analysis Of Teachers’ Cyber Bullying, Cyber Victimization And Cyber Bullying Sensitivity Based On Various Variables. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1029-1038.

Yildirim A., Celikten M., Desiatov T., and Lodatko Y. 2019 'The Analysis Of Teachers’ Cyber Bullying, Cyber Victimization And Cyber Bullying Sensitivity Based On Various Variables', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 1029-1038.
Chicago 16th edition
Yildirim Ahmet, Celikten Mustafa, Desiatov Tymofii, and Lodatko Yevgeny. "The Analysis Of Teachers’ Cyber Bullying, Cyber Victimization And Cyber Bullying Sensitivity Based On Various Variables," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 1029-1038.


In recent years, cyberbullying, which can be considered as a new form of bullying, has emerged as a result of developments in the field of technology and communication. Cyberbullying has become a social problem which has affected individuals’ lives negatively. The key to success in the elimination of cyberbullying and its negative effects lies in cyberbullying sensitivity. The present study aims to analyze teachers’ cyberbullying and cyber victimization experiences and levels of cyberbullying sensitivity based on some variables which are supposed to develop awareness regarding cyberbullying. Using survey as a research model, the present study focused on 346 teachers working at schools affiliated with Ministry of National Education in Tasova District located in Amasya (Turkey). “Personal Information Form”, “The Revised Cyberbullying Inventory for University Students” and “Cyberbullying Sensitivity Scale” were used as data collection tools. SPSS package program was used for data analysis and frequency and percentage values of demographic variables. Independent T test was used for gender and marital status variables, and One-Way ANOVA test was used for age and level of education variables. The findings of the present study revealed that most of the participants used social media websites actively and spent at least 2 or 3 hours on these websites on a daily basis. Teachers usually have a Facebook and/or Instagram account, and benefit from social media for research purposes and playing games. It can be stated that teachers have a significantly high level of cyberbullying sensitivity. However, it was also indicated that even though participants worked as a teacher, they still did cyberbully and suffered from cyber victimization in the past. While a significant difference was observed only in the dimension of cyber sensitivity in terms of marital status, age and level of education, a significant difference wasn’t observed in the dimensions of cyberbullying, cyber victimization and cyber sensitivity in terms of gender.

Keywords: Cyberbullying, cyber victimization, cyberbullying sensitivity, teachers.


Akbulut, Y., & Eristi, B. (2011). Cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(7), 1155–1170. https://doi:10.14742/ajet.910

Akcan, G., & Ozturk, E. (2017). The investigation of predictors of cyberbullying and cyber victimization in university students. Forensic Research & Criminology International Journal, 4(5). https://doi:10.15406/frcij.2017.04.00128

Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2010). Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy and gender. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(4), 387–397. https://doi:10.1007/s10578-010-0176-3

Aricak, O. T. (2009). Psychiatric symptomatology as a predictor of cyberbullying among university students. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 34, 167–184. https://doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm

Ayas, T., & Horzum, M. B. (2011). Ogretmenlerin sanal zorbalik algilarinin cesitli degiskenlere gore incelenmesi [Investigation of teachers' perceptions of cyber bullying according to various variables]. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(2), 619-640.

Baker, O. E., & Tanrikulu, I. (2010). Psychological consequences of cyber bullying experiences among Turkish secondary school children. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2771-2776.

Baldry, A. C., Farrington, D. P., & Sorrentino, A. (2017). School bullying and cyberbullying among boys and girls: Roles and overlap. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 26(9), 937-951.

Belsey, B. (2008). Cyberbullying an emerging threat to the always on generation. Retrieved from http://www. cyberbullying. ca/pdf/Cyberbullying

Beringer, A. (2011). Teacher’s perceptions and awareness of cyberbullying among middle school students (Counselor education master’s theses). The College at Brockport, State University of New York, NY, USA.

Betts, L. R. (2015). Cyber bullying behaviours. In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (pp. 6727–6735). https://doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch661

Betts, L. R. (2016). Cyberbullying approaches, consequences and interventions. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi:10.1057/978-1-137-50009-0

Buyukozturk, S. (2012). Ornekleme yontemleri [Sampling Methods]. Retrieved from

Campfield, D. C. (2008). Cyber bullying and victimization: Psychosocial characteristics of bullies, victims and bully/victims. (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA.

Chadwick, S. (2014). Impacts of cyberbullying, building social and emotional resilience in schools. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04031-8

Dalmaz, E. (2014). Universite ogrencilerinde siber zorbalik/magduriyet, depresyon ve anksiyete arasindaki iliskinin incelenmesi [Examining the relationship between cyber bullying / victimization, depression and anxiety among university students] (Unpublished master's thesis). Halic University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Derks, D., Fischer, A. H., & Bos, A. E. (2008). The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: A review. Computers in human behavior, 24(3), 766-785.

Dilmac, B. (2009). Psychological needs predicting cyber bullying: A preliminary study for undergraduate students. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 9 (3), 1291–1325.

Doane, A. N., Kelley, M. L., Chiang, E. S., & Padilla, M. A. (2013). Development of the cyberbullying experiences survey. Emerging Adulthood, 1(3), 207–218. https://doi:10.1177/2167696813479584.

Dowell, E. B., Burgess, A. W., & Cavanaugh, D. J. (2009). Clustering of internet risk behaviors in a middle school student population. Journal of School Health, 79(11), 547–553.

Erdur-Baker, O., & Kavsut, F. (2010). Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109–125. https://doi:10.1177/1461444809341260.

Erdur-Baker, O., & Kavsut, F. (2007). Akran zorbaliginin yeni yuzu: Siber zorbalik [The new face of peer bullying: Cyber bullying]. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 27, 31–42.

Frankel, R. J., Wallen, E. N., & Hyun, H. H. (2011). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Gezgin, D. M., & Cuhadar, C. (2012). ). Bilgisayar ve ogretim teknolojileri egitimi bolumu ogrencilerinin siber zorbaliga iliskin duyarlilik duzeyinin incelenmesi [Investigation of the sensitivity level of cyber bullying of computer and instructional technology education students]. Egitim Bilimleri Arastirmalari Dergisi/ Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 2(2). 93-104.

Healey, J. (Ed.). (2011). Dealing with bullying. Thirroul: Australia: Spinney Press.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J.W. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hoff, D. L., & Mitchell, S. N. (2009). Cyberbullying: Causes, effects, and remedies. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(5), 652-665.

Karasar, N. (2006). Bilimsel arastirma yontemleri [Scientific research methods] (16th ed.). Ankara, Turkey: Nobel.

Kilinc, I., & Gunduz, S. (2017) Lise ogrencilerinin siber duyarlilik, internet bagimliligi ve insani degerlerinin incelenmesi [Investigation of cyber sensitivity, internet addiction and human values of high school students]. Trakya Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi/ Trakya University Journal of Education Faculty, 7(2), 262-283.

Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, N., & Markos, A. (2014). Cyber-bullying: An investigation of the psychological profile of university student participants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 204–214. https://doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2014.04.001.

Linderholm, A. (2019). Teacher awareness and perceptions of social media use and cyberbullying in belize (Unpublished master’s thesis). Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.

Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., Freiburger, T. L., & Ricketts, M. L. (2012). Battle of the sexes: An examination of male and female cyber bullying. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 6(1), 904–911.

O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800–804. https://doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0054.

Ozdemir, M., & Akar, F. (2011). Examination of high school students’ opinions on cyberbullying in terms of various variables. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 17(4), 605-626.

Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., Connolly, J. A., Yuile, A., McMaster, L., & Jiang, D. (2006). A developmental perspective on bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 376-384.

Redmond, P., Lock, J., & Smart, V. (2017, March). Pre-service teachers’ perceptions about identifying, managing and preventing cyberbullying. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1057-1064). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Salmela-Aro, K., Upadyaya, K., Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., & Alho, K. (2017). The dark side of internet use: Two longitudinal studies of excessive internet use, depressive symptoms, school burnout and engagement among Finnish early and late adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence, 46(2), 343-357. https://doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0494-2.

Sam, D. L., Bruce, D., Agyemang, C. B., Amponsah, B., & Arkorful, H. (2018). Cyberbullying victimization among high school and university students in Ghana. Deviant Behavior, 40(11), 1035-1321.

Scaglione, J., & Scaglione, A. R. (2006). Bully-Proofing Children: A Practical, Hands-On Guide to Stop Bullying. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Schenk, A. M., Fremouw, W. J., & Keelan, C. M. (2013). Characteristics of college cyberbullies. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2320–2327. https://doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.05.013.

Simsek, N., Sahin, D., & Evli, M. (2019). Internet addiction, cyberbullying, and victimization relationship in adolescents: a sample from Turkey. Journal of addictions nursing, 30(3), 201-210. https://doi:10.1097/JAN.000000000000000296.

Taiwo, R. (2015). Cyber Behavior. In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition (pp. 2972-2980). IGI Global.

Tanrikulu, I. (2015). The Relationships between Cyber Bullying Perpetration Motives and Personality Traits: Testing Uses and Gratifications Theory (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Tanrikulu, T., Kinay, H., & Aricak, O. T. (2013). Siber zorbaliga iliskin duyarlilik olcegi: Gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi [Sensitivity scale for cyber bullying: Validity and reliability study]. Trakya Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi/Trakya University Journal of Education Faculty, 3(1), 38–47.

Topcu, C., & Erdur-Baker, O. (2010). The Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory (RCBI): Validity and reliability studies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 660–664.

Topcu, C., & Erdur-Baker, O. (2012). Affective and cognitive empathy as mediators of gender differences in cyber and traditional bullying. School Psychology International, 33(5), 550–561. https://doi:10.1177/0143034312446882

Valkenburg, P. M., & Soeters, K. E. (2001). Children's positive and negative experiences with the Internet: an exploratory survey. Communication Research, 28(5), 652-675.

Vaterlaus, J. M., Patten, E. V., Roche, C., & Young, J. A. (2015). Gettinghealthy: The perceived influence of social media on young adult health behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 151-157,

Villanti, A. C., Johnson, A. L., Ilakkuvan, V., Jacobs, M. A., Graham, A. L., & Rath, J. M. (2017). Social media use and access to digital technology in US young adults in 2016. Journal of medical Internet research, 19(6), 196. https://doi:10.2196/jmir.7303.

Yaman, E., Eroglu, Y., & Peker, A. (2011). Basa cikma stratejileri ile okul zorbaligi ve siber zorbalik [Coping strategies with school bullying and cyber bullying]. Istanbul, Turkey: Kaknus.

Yilmaz, H. (2010). An examination of preservice teachers’ perceptions about cyberbullying. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 6(4), 263-270.