Research Article
The Open-Ended Approach Framework

Lloyd Munroe

APA 7th edition
Munroe, L. (2015). The Open-Ended Approach Framework. European Journal of Educational Research, 4(3), 97-104.

Munroe L. 2015 'The Open-Ended Approach Framework', European Journal of Educational Research, 4(3), pp. 97-104.
Chicago 16th edition
Munroe Lloyd. "The Open-Ended Approach Framework," European Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 3 (2015): 97-104.


This paper describes a pedagogical framework that teachers can use to support students who are engaged in solving open-ended problems, by explaining how two Japanese expert teachers successfully apply open-ended problems in their mathematics class. The Open-Ended Approach (OPA) framework consists of two main sections: Understanding Mathematical Knowledge and Applying Mathematical Knowledge. The sections were cross-analyzed with students’ responses to provide a comprehensive analysis of how teachers use various techniques to support students. It is proposed that teachers can use this framework to create an environment that promotes learning with open-ended as well as other open problems in their mathematics classroom. The OPA framework can contribute to teacher education, the design of mathematics curricula and to educational research.

Keywords: Open-ended problems, open approach, mathematics education, teaching methods, teaching practice


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