Research Article
Extracurricular Environmental Activities in Moroccan Middle Schools: Opportunities and Challenges to Promoting Effective Environmental Education

Bouchta El-Batri, Anouar Alami , Moncef Zaki, Youssef Nafidi


APA 7th edition
El-Batri, B., Alami, A., Zaki, M., & Nafidi, Y. (2019). Extracurricular Environmental Activities In Moroccan Middle Schools: Opportunities And Challenges To Promoting Effective Environmental Education. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1013-1028. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1013

Harvard
El-Batri B., Alami A., Zaki M., and Nafidi Y. 2019 'Extracurricular Environmental Activities In Moroccan Middle Schools: Opportunities And Challenges To Promoting Effective Environmental Education', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 1013-1028.
Chicago 16th edition
El-Batri Bouchta, Alami Anouar, Zaki Moncef, and Nafidi Youssef. "Extracurricular Environmental Activities In Moroccan Middle Schools: Opportunities And Challenges To Promoting Effective Environmental Education," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 1013-1028. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1013

Abstract

The study aims to promote relevant and effective environmental education (EE) through extracurricular clubs. For this, we studied the state of play of environmental activities (EA) carried out by 48 environmental clubs belonging to urban and rural areas of the Regional Academy of Education Fez-Meknes, Morocco. These extracurricular environmental clubs remain so far without formal environmental education programs. In this study, we identified the bulk of programs offered by extracurricular environment clubs, including types of scheduled activities and percentages of achievement and student beneficiaries in urban and rural settings. In addition, we have identified the main barriers to achieving certain environmental activities. The significant correlations detected between some of the variables studied allowed us to better explain the achievements and the weaknesses of these clubs. Finally, we have made recommendations to promote relevant and effective extracurricular environmental education.

Keywords: Environmental education (EE), environmental activities (EA), environmental clubs, effective Program, student.


References

Anderson, A. (2012). Climate change education for mitigation and adaptation. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development6(2), 191-206.

Asslouj, J., Kholtei, S., Amrani-Paaza, N., & Hilali, A. (2007). Impact des activites anthropiques sur la qualite des eaux souterraines de la communaute Mzamza [Impact of human activities on the groundwater quality of the Mzamza community] (Chaouia, Maroc). Revue des sciences de l'eau/ Journal of Water Science20(3), 309-321.

Ballantyne, R., Fien, J., & Packer, J. (2001). Program effectiveness in facilitating intergenerational influence in environmental education: Lessons from the field. The Journal of Environmental Education32(4), 8-15.

Behrendt, M., & Franklin, T. (2014). A review of research on school field trips and their value in education. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 9(3), 235-245.

Boatwright, T. C. (2009). Comparison of grade point averages and dropout rates of students who participate in extracurricular activities and students who do not participate (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, United States.

Bogeholz, S. (1999). Qualitaten primarer naturerfahrung und ihr zusammenhang mit umweltwissen und umwelthandeln [Qualities of primary nature experience and their connection with environmental knowledge and environmental action]. Opladen, Germany: Leske+ Budrich.

Bogeholz, S. (2006). Nature experience and its importance for environmental knowledge, values and action: Recent German empirical contributions. Environmental education research12(1), 65-84.

Bogner, F. X. (1998). The influence of short-term outdoor ecology education on long-term variables of environmental perspective. The Journal of Environmental Education29(4), 17-29.

Bonaiuto, M., Carrus, G., Martorella, H., & Bonnes, M. (2002). Local identity processes and environmental attitudes in land use changes: The case of natural protected areas. Journal of economic psychology, 23(5), 631-653.

Boukhoubza, F., Ait, A. B., Yacoubi-Khebiza, M., Jail, A., Hassani, L., Loukili, L. I., & Nejmeddine, A. (2008). Impact of olive oil wastewater on the physicochemical and biological quality of groundwater in the Haouz plain, south of Marrakesh (Morocco). Environmental technology29(9), 959-974.

Breiting, S., & Mogensen, F. (1999). Action competence and environmental education. Cambridge journal of education29(3), 349-353.

Buchan, G. D. (2000). Obstacles to effective environmental education. International Journal of Environmental Education and Information19(1), 1-10.

Busseri, M. A., & Rose‐Krasnor, L. (2009). Breadth and intensity: Salient, separable, and developmentally significant dimensions of structured youth activity involvement. British journal of developmental psychology27(4), 907-933.

Carleton-Hug, A., & Hug, J. W. (2010). Challenges and opportunities for evaluating environmental education programs. Evaluation and program planning33(2), 159-164.

Chanse, V., Mohamed, A., Wilson, S., Dalemarre, L., Leisnham, P. T., Rockler, A., ... & Montas, H. (2017). New approaches to facilitate learning from youth: Exploring the use of Photovoice in identifying local watershed issues. The Journal of Environmental Education48(2), 109-120.

Chawla, L., & Cushing, D. F. (2007). Education for strategic environmental behavior. Environmental Education Research13(4), 437-452.

Chhokar, K., Dua, S., Taylor, N., Boyes, E., & Stanisstreet, M. (2011). Indian secondary students’ views about global warming: Beliefs about the usefulness of actions and willingness to act. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(5), 1167-1188.

Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of personality and social psychology58(6), 1015-1026.

Corraliza, J. A., & Berenguer, J. (2000). Environmental values, beliefs, and actions: A situational approach. Environment and behavior, 32(6), 832-848. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160021972829

CSEFRS. (2015). For a school of equity, quality and promotion. A strategic vision of reform 2015-2030 (Report 2015). Morocco: Higher Council for Education, Training and Scientific Research Retrieved from https://www.csefrs.ma/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Re%CC%81sume%CC%81-vision-Anglais.pdf

DeWitt, J., & Storksdieck, M. (2008). A short review of school field trips: Key findings from the past and implications for the future. Visitor studies, 11(2), 181-197.

El Batri, B., Nafidi, Y., Alami, A., Chenfour, D., & Zaki.  M. (2018, November). L’education environnementale dans l’enseignement primaire Marocain : Representations, Connaissances et Activites [Environmental education in Moroccan elementary education: Representations, knowledge and activities]. Paper presented at the 3rd Edition of the International Conference on Pedagogical Approaches and E-Learning (APELʻ2018), EST-Fez, Morocco.

El Batri, B., Alami, A., Zaki, M., Nafidi, Y., & Chenfour, D. (2019). Promotion of the environmental knowledge and behavior through the Moroccan syllabus of sciences in the middle school. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(4), 371-381.

Feldman, A. F., & Matjasko, J. L. (2007). Profiles and portfolios of adolescent school-based extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Adolescence30(2), 313-332.

Fien, J., Scott, W., & Tilbury, D. (2001). Education and conservation: Lessons from an evaluation. Environmental Education Research7(4), 379-395.

Fujita, K. (2006). The effects of extracurricular activities on the academic performance of junior high students. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences5(1), 1-16.

Goldsmith, P. A. (2004). Schools' role in shaping race relations: Evidence on friendliness and conflict. Social Problems51(4), 587-612.

Gough, S., & Scott, W. (2003). Sustainable development and learning: Framing the issues. London, England:  Routledge.

Hadjichambis, A. C., Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D., Ioannou, H., Georgiou, Y., & Manoli, C. C. (2015). Integrating sustainable consumption into environmental education: a case study on environmental representations, decision making and intention to act. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education10(1), 67-86.

Ham, S. H., & Sewing, D. R. (1988). Barriers to environmental education. The Journal of Environmental Education19(2), 17-24.

Heimlich, J. E., & Ardoin, N. M. (2008). Understanding behavior to understand behavior change: A literature review. Environmental education research14(3), 215-237.

Higde, E., Oztekin, C., & Sahin, E. (2017). Turkish pre-service science teachers' awareness, beliefs, values, and behaviours pertinent to climate change. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education26(3), 253-263.

Hines, J. M., Hungerford, H. R., & Tomera, A. N. (1987). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta-analysis. The Journal of environmental education18(2), 1-8.

Howard, A. K., & Ziomek-Daigle, J. (2009). Bonding, achievement, and activities: School bonding, academic achievement, and participation in extracurricular activities. Georgia School Counselors Association Journal16(1), 39-48.

Hultsman, W. Z. (1992). Constraints to activity participation in early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence12(3), 280-299.

Humphreys, C., & Blenkinsop, S. (2018). Ecological identity, empathy, and experiential learning: A young child's explorations of a nearby river. Australian Journal of Environmental Education34(2), 143-158.

Hungerford, H. R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. The journal of environmental education21(3), 8-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/00958964.1990.10753743

Hunt, H. D. (2005). The effect of extracurricular activities in the educational process: Influence on academic outcomes? Sociological Spectrum25(4), 417-445.

Jackson, E. L., & Rucks, V. C. (1993). Reasons for ceasing participation and barriers to participation: Further examination of constrained leisure as an internally homogeneous concept. Leisure Sciences15(3), 217-230.

Jensen, B. B., & Schnack, K. (1997). The action competence approach in environmental education. Environmental education research3(2), 163-178.

Kamarainen, A. M., Metcalf, S., Grotzer, T., Browne, A., Mazzuca, D., Tutwiler, M. S., & Dede, C. (2013). EcoMOBILE: Integrating augmented reality and probeware with environmental education field trips. Computers & Education68, 545-556.

Kapyla, M., & Wahlstrom, R. (2000). An environmental education program for teacher trainers in Finland. The Journal of Environmental Education31(2), 31-37.

Kerry, J., Pruneau, D., Cousineau, M., Mallet, M. A., Laliberte, B., & Langis, J. (2013). Faire naitre l’espoir et l’auto-efficacite chez les jeunes par l’action environnementale communautaire [Creating hope and self-efficacy among youth through community environmental action]. Canadian Journal of Education/ Revue canadienne de l'education36(4), 3-32.

Kisiel, J. (2006). More than lions and tigers and bears: Creating meaningful field trip lessons. Science activities43(2), 7-10.

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental education research8(3), 239-260. doi:10.1080/13504620220145401

Kort-Butler, L. (2012). Extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 19(2), 12-16.

Kruse, C. K., & Card, J. A. (2004). Effects of a conservation education camp program on campers' self-reported knowledge, attitude, and behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education35(4), 33-45.

Lambrechts, W., & Hindson, J. (2016). Research and Innovation in Education for Sustainable Development. Vienna, Austria: Lambrechts & Hindson.

Lawhorn, B. (2008). Extracurricular activities. Occupational Outlook Quarterly9, 16-21.

Lipscomb, S. (2007). Secondary school extracurricular involvement and academic achievement: A fixed effects approach. Economics of Education Review26(4), 463-472.

Lousley, C. (1999). (De)Politicizing the environment club: Environmental discourses and the culture of schooling. Environmental Education Research5(3), 293-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350462990050304

Luke, T. W. (2001). Education, environment and sustainability: what are the issues, where to intervene, what must be done? Educational Philosophy and Theory33(2), 187-202.

Mahoney, J. L., Harris, A. L., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Organized Activity Participation, Positive Youth Development, and the Over-Scheduling Hypothesis. Social Policy Report. Society for Research in Child Development, 20(4), 3-32.

Malandrakis, G., Boyes, E., & Stanisstreet, M. (2011). Global warming: Greek students’ belief in the usefulness of pro-environmental actions and their intention to take action. International journal of environmental studies68(6), 947-963. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2011.590720

Marsh, H., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular school activities: The good, the bad, and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review72(4), 464-515.

Mason, M. J., Schmidt, C., Abraham, A., Walker, L., & Tercyak, K. (2009). Adolescents’ social environment and depression: social networks, extracurricular activity, and family relationship influences. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings16(4), 346-354.

Morris, J. K., Jacobson, S. K., & Flamm, R. O. (2007). Lessons from an evaluation of a boater outreach program for manatee protection. Environmental Management40(4), 596-602.

Orion, N., & Hofstein, A. (1994). Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching31(10), 1097-1119.

Pace, S., & Tesi, R. (2004). Adult's perception of field trips taken within grades K-12: Eight case studies in the New York metropolitan area. Education125(1), 30-40.

Palmberg, I. E., & Kuru, J. (2000). Outdoor activities as a basis for environmental responsibility. The Journal of Environmental Education31(4), 32-36.

Prokop, P., Tuncer, G., & Kvasnicak, R. (2007). Short-term effects of field programme on students’ knowledge and attitude toward biology: a Slovak experience. Journal of Science Education and Technology16(3), 247-255.

Pruneau, D., Doyon, A., Langis, J., Vasseur, L., Ouellet, E., McLaughlin, E., ... & Martin, G. (2006). When teachers adopt environmental behaviors in the aim of protecting the climate. The Journal of Environmental Education37(3), 3-12. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.37.3.3-12

Rauch, F. (2000). Schools: A place of ecological learning. Environmental Education Research6(3), 245-258.

Rauch, F. (2002). The potential of education for sustainable development for reform in schools. Environmental education research8(1), 43-51.

Rickinson, M. (2001). Learners and learning in environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 7(3), 207-320.

Rickinson, M., Dillon, J., Teamey, K., Morris, M., Choi, M. Y., Sanders, D. & Benefield, P. (2004). A review
of research on outdoor learning
. Preston Montford, Shropshire: Field Studies Council.

Russell, C. L., & Bell, A. C. (1996). A politicized ethic of care: Environmental education from an ecofeminist perspective. In K. Warren (Ed.), Women’s voices in experiential education (pp. 172–181). Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.

Saribas, D., Kucuk, Z. D., & Ertepinar, H. (2017). Implementation of an environmental education course to improve pre-service elementary teachers’ environmental literacy and self-efficacy beliefs. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education26(4), 311-326.

Sauve, L. (1996). Environmental education and sustainable development: A further appraisal. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education1(1), 7-34.

Sauve, L. (1997). L’approche critique en education relative a l’environnement : origines theoriques et applications a la formation des enseignants [The critical approach in environmental education: theoretical origins and applications to teacher training]. Revue des sciences de l'education23(1), 169-187.

Schultz, P. W., & Zelezny, L. (1999). Values as predictors of environmental attitudes: Evidence for consistency across 14 countries. Journal of environmental psychology19(3), 255-265.

Shulruf, B., Tumen, S., & Tolley, H. (2008). Extracurricular activities in school, do they matter? Children and youth services review30(4), 418-426

Simmons, D. (1998). Using natural settings for environmental education: Perceived benefits and barriers. The Journal of Environmental Education29(3), 23-31.

Sivek, D. J. (2002). Environmental sensitivity among Wisconsin high school students. Environmental Education Research8(2), 155-170.

Skamp, K., Boyes, E., & Stannistreet, M. (2009). Global warming responses at the primary secondary interface 1. students' beliefs and willingness to act. Australian Journal of Environmental Education25, 15-30.

Stern, P. C. (2000). New environmental theories: toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 407-424.

Stern, M. J., Powell, R. B., & Ardoin, N. M. (2008). What difference does it make? Assessing outcomes from participation in a residential environmental education program. The Journal of Environmental Education39(4), 31-43.

Thomson, G., Hoffman, J., & Staniforth, S. (2003). Measuring the success of environmental education programs. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society and Sierra Club of Canada.

Toyokawa, T., & Toyokawa, N. (2002). Extracurricular activities and the adjustment of Asian international students: A study of Japanese students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations26(4), 363-379.

Tudor, M. T., & Dvornich, K. M. (2001). The NatureMapping program: resource agency environmental education reform. The Journal of Environmental Education32(2), 8-14.

Tugurian, L. P., & Carrier, S. J. (2017). Children's environmental identity and the elementary science classroom. The Journal of Environmental Education48(3), 143-153.

Velazquez, L., Munguia, N., & Sanchez, M. (2005). Deterring sustainability in higher education institutions: An appraisal of the factors which influence sustainability in higher education institutions. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education6(4), 383-391.

Wals, A. E., Beringer, A., & Stapp, W. B. (1990). Education in action: A community problem-solving program for schools. The Journal of Environmental Education21(4), 13-19.

Wells, N. M., & Lekies, K. S. (2006). Nature and the life course: Pathways from childhood nature experiences to adult environmentalism. Children Youth and Environments16(1), 1-24.). Nature and the life course: Pathways from childhood nature experiences to adult environmentalism. Children Youth and Environments16(1), 1-24.

Wilson, N. (2009). Impact of extracurricular activities on students (Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout). Retrieved from http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2009/2009wilsonn.pdf

Zelezny, L. C. (1999). Educational interventions that improve environmental behaviors: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 5-14.

Zint, M., Kraemer, A., Northway, H., & Lim, M. (2002). Evaluation of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's conservation education programs. Conservation Biology16(3), 641-649.