Learning to Teach for Social Justice as a Cross Cultural Concept: Findings from Three Countries
APA 7th edition
Cochran-Smith, M., Ludlow, L., Ell, F., O'Leary, M., & Enterline, S. (2012). Learning To Teach For Social Justice As A Cross Cultural Concept: Findings From Three Countries. European Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), 171-198. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.171
Cochran-Smith M., Ludlow L., Ell F., O'Leary M., and Enterline S. 2012 'Learning To Teach For Social Justice As A Cross Cultural Concept: Findings From Three Countries', European Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), pp. 171-198.
Chicago 16th edition
Cochran-Smith Marilyn, Ludlow Larry, Ell Fiona, O'Leary Michael, and Enterline Sarah. "Learning To Teach For Social Justice As A Cross Cultural Concept: Findings From Three Countries," European Journal of Educational Research 1, no. 2 (2012): 171-198. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.171
All over the world, countries are paying close attention to how teachers are recruited, selected, and prepared for the nation’s schools. Increasingly, teachers are expected to teach all students to high standards at the same time that they play a major role in meeting rising expectations regarding social equity. Preparing teachers for these challenges is among the most pressing and complex tasks in teacher education. In response to these and other challenges, some initial teacher education programs now include among their major goals preparing teachers to teach for social justice, work toward equity and access for all students, and/or challenge inequities in existing educational systems and policies. This article focuses on three initial teacher education programs—one each in the United States, New Zealand, and Ireland. Although these programs differ from one another in many ways, they also share some goals related to teaching for social justice and equity. The article examines longitudinal survey data regarding teacher candidates’ scores on the “Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs” scale, which was designed to measure candidates’ endorsement of beliefs consistent with the concept of teaching for social justice. For each of the three research sites, the article analyzes: (a) demographic and teacher quality contexts, (b) initial teacher education program goals related to social justice/social equity, and (c) the results of surveys administered to teacher candidates at entry to and exit from the programs. The article concludes with discussion of learning to teach for social justice as a cross-cultural concept.
Keywords: Learning to teach, social justice, cross cultural concept
Achinstein, B., & Ogawa, R. (2006). (In)Fidelity: What the Resistance of New Teachers Reveals about Professional Principles and Prescriptive Educational Policies. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 30-63.
Adams, M., & Bell, L. (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge.
Anyon, J. (2003). Radical possibilities: Public policy, urban education, and a new social movement. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ayers, W., Quinn, T., & Stovall, D. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of social justice in education. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Banks, J. (Ed.) (2009a). The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. New York, Routledge.
Banks, J. (2009b). Multicultural education: Dimensions and Paradigms. Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. J. Banks. New York, Routledge: 9-32.
Beckmann-Dierkes, N. and Fuhrmann, J. (2011). Immigration Country Norway-Demographic Trends and Political Concepts. KAS International Reports, 2.
Bishop, R. (2008). A culturally responsive pedagogy of relations. In C McGee and D. Fraser (Eds.) The Professional Practice of Teaching (pp. 154-171). Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.
Brisk, M. (Ed.) (2007). Language, Culture and Community in Teacher Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Associates/AACTE.
Carroll, S., & Flynn, S. (2012, March 7). Quinn to retain 235 DEIS posts. The Irish Times. Retrieved from http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2012/0221/breaking61.html
Castles, S. (2009). World population movements, diversity, and education. The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. J. Banks. New York, Routledge.
Central Statistics Office. (nd). Census 2006 Principal Demographic Results. Available at: http://www.cso.ie/census/Census2006_Principal_Demographic_Results.htm
Cochran-Smith, M. (1991). Learning to teach against the grain. Harvard Educational Review, 51(3), 279-310.
Cochran-Smith, M. (1995). Color blindness and basket making are not the answers: Confronting the dilemmas of race, culture, and language diversity in teacher education. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 493-522.
Cochran-Smith, M. (1999). Learning to teach for social justice. In G. Griffin (Ed.), The education of teachers: Ninety-eighth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (pp. 114-144). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cochran-Smith, M. (2004). Walking the Road: Race, Diversity and Social Justice in Teacher Education. New York: Teachers College Press.
Cochran-Smith, M. (2005). "The New Teacher Education: For Better or For Worse?" Educational Researcher, 34(6): 181-206.
Cochran-Smith, M. (2010). Toward a Theory of Teacher Education for Social Justice. In A. Hargreaves, M. Fullan, D. Hopkins & A. Lieberman (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Educational Change (pp. 445-467). New York, NY: Springer.
Cochran-Smith, M., Barnatt, J., Lahann, R., Shakman, K., & Terrell, D. (2009). Teacher Education for Social Justice: Critiquing the Critiques In Ayres, W., Quinn, T., & Stovall. D. (Eds.) The Handbook of Social Justice in Education. Taylor and Francis, Publishers, 625-639. In W. Ayres, T. Quinn & D. Stovall (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Justice in Education (pp. 625-639). London, UK: Taylor and Francis.
Cochran-Smith, M., Shakman, K., Jong, C., Terrell, D., Barnatt, J., & McQuillan, P. (2009). Good and just teaching: The case for social justice in teacher education. American Journal of Education, 115(3): 3347-377.
Corona, J. (2010). Annual policy report on migration and asylum 2009. Ireland. Dublin: Economic and Social Research Institute.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The Flat World and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Darling-Hammond, L., French, J., & Garcia-Lopez, S. (2002). Learning to Teach for Social Justice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Economic Policy Institute (2008). A broader, bolder approach to education.
Enterline, S., Cochran-Smith, M., Ludlow, L.H. & Mitescu, E. (2008). Learning to Teach for Social Justice: Measuring change in the beliefs of teacher candidates. The New Educator, 4: 267-290.
Fraser, N. (2003). Social justice in an age of identity politics: Redistribution, recognition and participation. In N. Fraser & A. Honneth (Eds.), Redistribution or recognition: A political-philosophical debate (pp. 7-109). London, UK: Verso.
Fraser, N., & Honneth, A. (2003). Redistribution or recognition: A political-philosophical debate. London, UK: Verso.
Furlong, J., Cochran-Smith, M., & Brennan, M. (Eds.) (2009). Policy and politics in teacher education: International perspectives. London, UK: Routledge, Taylor, & Francis.
Gadsden, V., Davis, J.E., & Artiles, A. (Eds.). (2009). Risk, Schooling, and Equity. Review of Research in Education, 33.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research and Practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Gay, G. and Howard, T. (2000). Multicultural teacher education for the 21st century.The Teacher Educator, 36(1), 1-16.
Gewirtz, S., & Cribb, A. (2002). Plural conceptions of social justice: Implications for policy sociology. Journal of Education Policy, 17(5), 499-509.
Goodwin, A. (2000). Teachers as (multi)cultural agents in schools. In R. Carter (Ed.), Addressing cultural issues in organizations: Beyond the corporate context (pp. 104-114). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hirasawa, Y. (2009). Multicultural education in Japan. The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. J. Banks. New York, NY: Routledge.
Howe, K. (1997). Understanding equal educational opportunity: Social justice, democracy, and schooling. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Howe, K. (1998). The interpretive turn and the new debate in education. Educational Researcher, 27(8), 13-20.
Ireland Department of Education and Skills. (2010). Better literacy and numeracy for children and young people. Dublin: Author. Retrieved from http://www.education.ie/servlet/blobservlet/pr_literacy_numeracy_national_plan_2010.pdf?language=EN
Irvine, J. (1990). Black students and school failure. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.
King, J. (2006). If our objective is justice: Diaspora literacy, heritage knowledge, and the praxis of critical studyin' for human freedom. In A. Ball (Ed.), With more deliberate speed: Achieving equity and excellence in education--realizing the full potential of brown v. Board of education, 105th yearbook of the national society for the study of education (pp. 337-357). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
King, J. (2008). Critical and qualitative research in teacher education: A blues epistemology, a reason for knowing for cultural well-being. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman Nemser & J. McIntyre (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring issues in changing contexts (pp. 1094-1135). Mahweh, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, Publishers.
Koser, K. and Laczko, F. (2010). World Migration Report 2010: The Future of Migration, Building Capacities for Change. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration.
Kumashiro, K. K. (2010). Seeing the Bigger Picture: Troubling movements to end teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 56-65.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1999). Preparing teachers for diverse student populations: A critical race theory perspective. In A. Iran-Nejad & D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of research in education (Vol. 24, pp. 211-248). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Lee, C., & Ball, A. (2005). 'All that glitters ain't gold': CHAT as a design and analytic tool in literacy research. In R. Beach & J. Green (Eds.), Multidisciplinary perspectives on literacy research. Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Lipman, P. (2003). High stakes education: Inequality, globalization and urban school reform. New York, NY: Falmer Press.
Ludlow, L.H., Enterline, S. & Cochran-Smith, M. (2008a) Learning to Teach for Social Justice—Beliefs scale: An application of Rasch measurement principles. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 20, 194-214.
Ludlow, L., Pedulla, J., Enterline, S., Cochran-Smith, M., Loftus, F., Salomon-Fernandez, Y. & Mitescu, E. (2008b). From students to teachers: Using surveys to build a culture of evidence and inquiry. European Journal of Teacher Education. 31(4), 1-19.
Ludlow L.H., Enterline, S., O’Leary, M., Ell, F., Bonilla, V. & Cochran-Smith, M. (2010). Learning to teach for social justice-beliefs (LTSJ-B): An international construct invariance study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association annual meeting. Denver, CO, USA.
May, S. (2009). Critical multiculturalism and education. The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. J. Banks. New York, NY: Routledge.
McDonald, M., & Zeichner, K. (2009). Social justice teacher education. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn & D. Stovall (Eds.), The handbook of social justice in education. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.
McKenzie, P. and Santiago, P. (2005). Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers. Paris, Office for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Michelli, N., & Earley, P. (2011). Teacher Education Policy Context. In P. Earley, D. Imig & N. Michelli (Eds.), Teacher Education Policy in the United States: Issues and Tension in an Era of Evolving Expectations (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Michelli, N., & Keiser, D. (Eds.). (2004). Teacher Education for Diversity and Social Justice. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
Moll, L. (2009). 6th Annual Brown Lecture: Mobilizing culture, language and education practices: Fulfilling the promises of Mendez and Brown. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). Status and trends in the education of Hispanics (Publication No: NCES 2003-008). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/hispanics/Section1.asp.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Number and percentage distribution of 3- to 21- year olds served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Part B, and number served as a percentage of total public school enrollment, by type of disability: Selected school years, 1976–77 through 2007–08. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2010/section1/table-cwd-1.asp.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2010a). Racial/ethnic enrollment in public schools: Indicator 4. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2010/section1/indicator04.asp.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2010b). The condition of education 2010. Publication No: NCES 2010-028). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=96.
New Zealand Ministry of Education (2007). Ka hikitea – Managing for success. The Maori education strategy 2008-2012. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/theMinistry/PolicyAndStrategy/KaHikitia/PublicationsAndResources-EnglishLanguageVersions.aspx
New Zealand Ministry of Education (2010) July roll return statistics. Retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/schooling/july_school_roll_returns/6028.
New Zealand Ministry of Education. (2011). Reading literacy achievement: primary schooling. Retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/indicators/main/education-and-learning-outcomes/748.
New Zealand Teachers Council (2007). Graduating Teacher Standards: Aotearoa New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: NZTC.
North, C. (2006). More than words? Delving into the substantive meaning(s) of 'social justice' in education. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 507-535.
Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (1999). Teaching to change the world. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Orange, C. (1987). The Treaty of Waitangi. Sydney, Australia:Allen & Unwin.
Ministry of Education (2009). Pasifika Education Plan 2009-2012. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers. Paris.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2006). International Migration Outlook. Paris.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010). Educating Teachers for Diversity: Meeting the Challenge. Paris, OECD.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2011). Society at a glance: Key findings New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/38/35/47573309.pdf
Perkins, R., Moran, G., Cosgrove, J., & Shiel, G. (2010). PISA 2009: The Performance and Progress of 15-year-olds in Ireland: Summary Report. Dublin: Educational Research Centre.
Quinn, J. Stanley, C. Joyce, M. & O'Connell, P.J. (2008). Handbook on Immigration and Asylum in Ireland 2007. Dublin: ESRI.
Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. (Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Educational Research), expanded edition (1980) with foreword and afterword by B.D. Wright. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Reich, R. (2002). Bridging liberalism and multiculturalism in American education. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Rothstein, R. (2004). Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic and Education Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap. New York, NY: The Economic Policy Institute.
Saint Patrick’s College. (2009). Institutional strategy 2009-2014. Dublin: Author.
Sleeter, C. E. Teacher education, neoliberalism, and social justice. (2009). In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds). The Handbook of Social Justice in Education (pp. 611-624). New York, NY: Routledge
Smyth, E., Darmody, M., McGinnity, F., & Byrne, D. (2009). Adapting to Diversity: Irish Schools and Newcomer Students: ESRI Research Series 8. Dublin: ESR.
Spring, J. (2010). The Politics of American Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
St Patrick's College. (2009). Institutional Strategy 2009-214: Shaping 21st-century innovative, enterprising Irish knowledge society. Dublin: Author.
Taguma, M., Moonhee, K., Wurzburg, G., & Kelly, F. (2009). OECD Reviews of Migrant Education: Ireland. Paris: OECD.
US Department of Education. (2011, September). “Our Future, Our Teachers: The Obama Administration’s Plan for Teacher Education Reform and Improvement” Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.2ed.gov/inits/ed/index/html.
Villegas, A. M. and Lucas, T. (2001). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Villegas, A. and Lucas, T. (2004). Diversifying the Teacher Workforce: A Retrospective and Prospective Account. Developing the Teacher Workforce: The 103rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. M. Smylie and D. Miretzky. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Villegas, A. M. and Davis, D. (2008). Preparing teachers of color to confront racial/ethnic disparities in educational outcomes. Handbook of Research on Teacher Education( 3rd edition): Enduring Questions in Changing Contexts. M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman Nemser, J. McIntyre and K. Demers. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.
Waitangi Tribunal ( 2011). Background of the Waitangi Tribunal. Retrieved from http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/about/established.asp
Waldron, F. and Ruane, B. (Eds.) (2011). Human Rights Education: Reflections on Theory and Practice. Dublin: The Liffey Press.
Westheimer, J., & Kahne, J. (2004). Educating the 'Good Citizen': Political Choices and Pedagogical Goals. Political Science and Politics, XXXVII(2), 241-247.
Wideen, M., Mayer-Smith, J., & Moon, B. (1998). A critical analysis of the research on learning to teach: Making the case for an ecological perspective on inquiry. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 130-178.
Wright, B.D. and Linacre, M. (1998). WINSTEPS. Chicago: MESA Press.
Wright, B.D. and Masters, G.N. (1982). Rating Scale Analysis. Chicago: MESA Press.
Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Zeichner, K. (1993). Educating teachers for cultural diversity. East Lansing, MI, Michigan State University.
Zeichner, K. (2006). Reflections of a university-based teacher educator on the future of college- and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 326-340.
Zeichner, K. (2010). Economic rationalization, increased surveillance, and attacks on diversity: Neo-liberalism and the transformation of teacher education in the U.S. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1544-1552.