Research Article
Contribution of CLIL Methodology to the Development of Bilingualism and Bilingual Language Competence of Slovak Secondary-School Students

Anna Hurajova


APA 7th edition
Hurajova, A. (2019). Contribution Of CLIL Methodology To The Development Of Bilingualism And Bilingual Language Competence Of Slovak Secondary-School Students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 905-919. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.905

Harvard
Hurajova A. 2019 'Contribution Of CLIL Methodology To The Development Of Bilingualism And Bilingual Language Competence Of Slovak Secondary-School Students', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 905-919.
Chicago 16th edition
Hurajova Anna. "Contribution Of CLIL Methodology To The Development Of Bilingualism And Bilingual Language Competence Of Slovak Secondary-School Students," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 905-919. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.905

Abstract

In almost all European countries, many schools offer a form of bilingual education provision according to which content subjects are taught either through two different languages or through one foreign language. This approach is known as Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The main problem addressed in this research article is the need to examine and describe the contribution of CLIL methodology to the development of bilingual language competence of students of a secondary vocational school. In addition, the study looks at the teaching and learning within a bilingual Slovak-English study program of the school, specifically at the implementation of CLIL methodology in content subjects taught within the program. Specifically, the extent, approaches, materials used in the study program to enhance bilingualism at school in general and the bilingual language competence of the students through CLIL methodology in particular, as well as opinions and perceptions of teachers and students were investigated. Three data collection tools were used – interviews with teachers and students, classroom observations and document review. The results of the study indicate that various factors inside and outside the classroom and school enhance students’ bilingual language competence with CLIL methodology playing an important but not a decisive role.

Keywords: Bilingualism, bilingual education, CLIL, qualitative research, Slovakia.


References

Aguilar, M., & Rodriguez, R. (2012). Lecturer and student perceptions on CLIL at a Spanish university. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(2), 183-197.

Barbour, R. S. (1998). Mixing qualitative methods: Qualitative assurance or qualitative quagmire? Qualitative Health Research, 8(3), 352-361.

Breidbach, S., & Viebrock, B. (2012). CLIL in Germany – Results from Recent Research in a Contested Field of Education. International CLIL Research Journal, 1(4), 5-16.

Charmaz, K. (2002). Qualitative Interviewing and Grounded Theory. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of Interview Research. Context and Method (pp. 675-694). London, UK: SAGE.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2008). Outcomes and Processes in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Current research from Europe. In W. Delanoy & L. Volkmann (Eds.), Future Perspectives for English Language Teaching (pp. 139-157). Heidelberg, Germany: Carl Winter.

De Zarobe, R. Y., & Lagabaster, D. (Eds.) (2010). CLIL in SPAIN: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.) (2000). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

European Council. (2017). European Council meeting – Conclusions. Retrieved from https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32204/14-final-conclusions-rev1-en.pdf

Eurydice. (2017). Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe – 2017 Edition. Retrieved from https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/key-data-teaching-languages-school-europe-%E2%80%93-2017-edition_en

Gierlinger, E. (2015). ‘You can speak German, sir’: on the complexity of teachers’ L1 use in CLIL. Language and Education, 29(4), 347-368.

Gondova, D. (2012). Identifying the Needs of CLIL Teachers at Lower and Upper-Secondary Schools. Journal of Interdisciplinary Philology, 3(3), 5-22.

Gonzalez, A, V.  (2011). Implementing CLIL in the primary classroom: Results and future challenges. In C. E. Urmeneta, N. Evnitskaya, E. Moore & A. Patino (Eds.),  AICLE–CLIL- EMILE Educacio Plurilingue: Experiencias, Research & Politiques (pp. 151-158).  Barcelona, Spain: Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona .

Hanesova, D. (2015). History of CLIL. In S. Pokrivcakova et al. (Ed.), CLIL in Foreign Language Education: e-textbook for foreign language teachers (pp. 7-16). Nitra, Slovakia: Constantine the Philosopher University.

Kacinova, V. (2018). Media competence as a cross-curricular competence. Communication Today, 9(1), 38-57.

Kimchi, J., Polivka, B., & Stevenson, J. S. (1991). Triangulation: operational definitions.  Nursing Research, 40(6), 364-366.

Kollarova, D., &  Ungerova, M. (2013). Quality in schools. Review of Applied Socio- Economic Research, 5(1), 112-120.

Kovacikova, E. (2013). Modernization of Teaching English as a Foreign Language by Means of CLIL Methodology in Higher Vocational Education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovakia. 

Kralikova, I. (2013). Anglicky jazyk na primarnom stupni ZS (so zameranim na metodiku CLIL) [English language at primary school (with a focus on CLIL methodology)] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.

Kubes, M. (2012). Aplikacia pristupu CLIL na hodinach matematiky v 4. rocniku ZS [Application of CLIL approach to mathematics lessons in the 4th year of primary school](Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Luprichova, J. (2013). Modernization of teaching English as a foreign language by means of CLIL methodology (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovakia.

McDougald, J. (2015). Teachers’ attitudes, perceptions and experiences in CLIL: A look at content and language. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 17(1), 25-41.

Mendez Garcia, M. D. C., & Pavon Vazquez, V. (2012). Investigating the coexistence of the mother tongue and the foreign language through teacher collaboration in CLIL contexts: perceptions and practice of the teachers involved in the plurilingual programme in Andalusia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(5), 573-592.

Papaja, K.L. (2012). The impact of students’ attitudes on CLIL. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 5(2), 28-56.

Perez-Canado, M. L. (2012). CLIL research in Europe: past, present and future. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(3), 315-341.

Perez-Canado, M. L. (2018). CLIL and Educational Level: A Longitudinal Study on the Impact of CLIL on Language Outcomes. Porta Linguarum, 29, 51-70.

Pokrivcakova, S., Menzlova, B., & Luprichova, J.   (Eds.) (2012). Obsahovo a jazykovo integrovane vyucovanie (CLIL) v ISCED 1 [Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in ISCED 1]. Bratislava, Slovakia:  Statny pedagogicky ustav.

Pokrivcakova, S. (2013). Bilingual Education in Slovakia: A Case Study. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 7(5), 10-19.

Pokrivcakova, S. (2015). CLIL in Slovakia: projects, research, and teacher training (2005-2015). In CLIL in Foreign Language Education (pp. 17-29). Nitra, Slovakia: Constantine the Philosopher University.

Sepesiova, M. (2013). Profesijne kompetencie uciteľa aplikujuceho metodiku CLIL v primarnej edukacii [Professional competencies of the teacher applying CLIL methodology in primary education] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Presov, Presov, Slovakia.

Silverman, D. (2013). Doing Qualitative Research (4th ed.). London, UK: SAGE.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

Swain, M., & Johnson, R. K. (1996). Discovering successful second language teaching strategies and practices: From programme evaluation to classroom experimentation and a response. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 17(2), 89-104.

Skodova, T. (2011). Moznosti implementacie metodiky CLIL na strednych odbornych skolach ekonomickeho zamerania [Possibilities of implementation of CLIL methodology at secondary vocational schools of economics]. In K. Vesela, B. Horvathova, E. Kovacikova, E. Mala & S. Pokrivcakova (Eds.), CA-CLIL: Blending the Unblendable? (1st ed., pp. 203-249). Nitra, Slovakia: Univerzita Konstantina Filozofa.

Vesela, K., Horvathova, B., Kovacikova, E., Mala, E., & Pokrivcakova, S. (2011). CA-CLIL:Blending the Unblendable? (1st ed.). Nitra, Slovakia: Univerzita Konstantina Filozofa.

Yin, K. R. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (3rd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.