logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
primary school principal self monitoring skill

Primary School Principals' Self-Monitoring Skills

Necdet Konan

The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its .


The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test, homogeneity of variances, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were used. The primary school principals' mean self-monitoring score was found to be 9.72. In addition, primary school principals' self-monitoring skills did not significantly vary in terms of gender and length of service. On the other hand, primary school principals who were class teachers had a higher level of self-monitoring skills than subject teachers; Faculty of Education graduates had a higher level of self-monitoring skills than those of other faculties', teachers serving as principals had a higher level of self-monitoring skills than both principals and assistant principals at a significant level.

Keywords: Primary school, principal, self-monitoring skill

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Ajzen, I., Timko, C., & White, J. B. (1982). Self-monitoring and the attitude-behavior relation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(3), 426-435.

Babaoglan, E. (2010). Okul yoneticilerinde duygusal zekâ [Emotional Intelligence in School Administrators]. Ahi Evran Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi,11(1), 119-136.

Bacanli, H. (1990). Kendini ayarlama becerisinin cesitli degiskenlerle iliskisi [The relationship between self-monitoring and various variables] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ankara Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu.

Bacanli, H. (1997). Sosyal Iliskilerde Benlik: Kendini Ayarlamanin Psikolojisi [Self in Social Relationships: Psychology of Self-Monitoring]. Milli Egitim Basimevi, Istanbul.

Bass, B.M. & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research & Managerial Applications (Fourth edition), Free Press, New York.

Bursalioglu, Z. (1991) Okul yonetiminde yeni yapi ve davranis [New Structure and Behavior in School Management] (9. Baski). Pegem Yayinevi, Ankara.

Buyukozturk, S., Cakmak, E. K., Akgun, O. E., Karadeniz, S. ve Demirel, F. (2008). Bilimsel Arastirma Yontemleri [Scientific Research Methods]. Pegem Yayinevi, Ankara.

Cronshaw, S. F. & Ellis, R. J. (1991). A Process investigation of self-monitoring and leader emergence. Small Group Research, 22(4), 403-420.

Dabbs, J. M., Jr., Evans, M. S., Hopper, C. H., & Purvis, J. A. (1980). Self-monitoring in conversation: What do they monitor? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 278-284.

Day, D.V., Schleicher, D.J., Unckless, A.L. & Hiller, N.J. (2002). Self-monitoring personality at work: A meta-analytic investigation of construct validity. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 390-401.

Dagli, G., Silman, F. & Caglar, M. (2008).  Liderlerin basarisinda duygusal zekânin rolu ve onemi [The role and importance of emotional intelligence for successful leadership]. Ataturk Universitesi Kazim Karabekir Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 17, 22-46.

Dobbins, G.H., Long, W.S., Dedbrick, E.J. & Clemons, T.C. (1990). The role of self-monitoring and gender on leader emergence: A laboratory and field study. Journal of Management, 16(3), 609-618.

Ellis, R. J. (1988). Self-monitoring and leadership emergence in groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14(4), 681-693.

Ellis, R.J., Adamson, R.S., Deszca, G., Cawsey, T.F. (1988). Self-monitoring and leadership emergence. Small Group Behavior, 19 (3), 312-324.

Ellis, R.J. & Cronshaw, S.F. (1992). Self-Monitoring and leadership emergence: A test of moderator effects. Small Group Research, 23(1), 113-129.

Groves, K. (2002). An examination of leader social intelligence and follower openness to organizational change as key components of charismatic leadership (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Claremont Graduate University.

Hogan, R., Curphy, G.J., & Hogan, J. (1994). What we know about leadership: Effectiveness and personality. American Psychologist, 49 (6) , 493-504.

Hynes, K., Richerdson, W.B. & Asher, W. (1979). Project talent revisited: Cross-validating self-report measures of leadership. Journal of Experimental Education, 47(2), 106-111.

Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. & Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 765-780.

Judge, T.A., Piccolo, R.F., & Kosalka,T. (2009). The bright and dark sides of leader traits: A review and theoretical extension of the leader trait paradigm. The Leadership Quarterly, 20 (6), 855–875.

Karasar, N. (2008). Bilimsel Arastirma Yontemleri [Scientific Research Methods], Nobel Yayinevi, Ankara.

Kent, R.L. & Moss, S.E. (1990). Self-monitoring as a predictor of leader emergence. Psychological Reports, 66, 875-881.

Kesken, J. ve Ayyildiz, N.A. (2008). Liderlik yaklasimlarinda yeni perspektifler: Pozitif ve otantik liderlik [New perspectives in leadership approaches: Positive and authentic leadership]. Ege Akademik Baris, 8(2), 729-754.

Kickul J. & Neuman, G. (2000). Emergent leadership behaviors: The function of personality and cognitive ability in determining teamwork performance and KSAs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(1), 27-52.

Kirkpatrick, S.A. & Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter?. The Academy of Management, 5(2), 48-60.

Koc Telli, M. (2010). Mersin Universitesi ogrencilerinin sosyal beceri duzeyleri ile yetkinlik beklentilerinin incelenmesi [An analysis of social skill level and self-efficacy of the students attending the Mersin University] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Mersin Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu.

Kumru Sarica, A. (2008). Sosyal beceri programinin ergenlerin saldirganlik duzeyine etkisi [Effects of the social skills program on the aggression of adolescents] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Mersin Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu.

Kutlu, M., Balci, S. ve Yilmaz, M. (2004). Iletisim beceri egitiminin ogrencilerin kendini ayarlama ve iyimserlik duzeylerine etkisi [The effect of communication skills training on self-monitoring and optimism levels of students]. XIII. Ulusal Egitim Bilimleri Kurultayi 6-9 Temmuz 2004 Inonu Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi, Malatya.

Lafci, S. (1999). Bazi mesleklere gore kendini ayarlama becerileri arasindaki farklar [Self monitoring differences in various professions]. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Uludag Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Bursa.

Lewis, T.M. (2010). The influence of authenticity and emotional intelligence on the relationship between self-monitoring and leadership effectiveness (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Alliant International University, Los Angeles.

Lord, R.G., Foti, R.J. & De Vader, C.L. (1984). A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34(3), 343-378.

Lord, R.G., De Vader C.L. & Alliger, G.M. (1986). A meta-analysis of the relationship between personality traits and leadership perception: An application of validity generalization procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 402-410.

Lord, R.G., Brown, D.J., Harvey, J.L. & Hall, R.J. (2001). Contextual constraints on prototype generation and their multilevel consequences for leadership perceptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(3), 311-338.

McCann, D., & Hancock, R. D. (1983). Self-monitoring in communicative interactions: Social cognitive consequences of goal-directed message modification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19(2) 109-121.

McClelland, D.C. & Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). Leadership motive pattern and long-term success in management. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(6), 737-743.

Nahrgang, J.D., Morgeson, F.P., & Ilies, R. (2009). The development of leader-member exchanges: Exploring how personality and performance influence leader and member relationships over time. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(2), 256–266.

Norris, S.L. & Zwgingeinhaft, R.L. (1999). Self-monitoring, trust, and commitment in romantic relationships. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(2), 215-220.

Nyquist, L.V. & Spence, J.T. (1986). Effects of dispositional dominance and sex role expectations on leadership behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(1), 87-93.

Ozalp Turetgen, I. (2006). Kendini ayarlama, oz etkinlik ve dominantlik ozellikleriyle birlikte cinsiyet degiskenlerinin lider olarak algilanmadaki etkisinin deneysel ve alan calismalarinda incelenmesi [The effects of self-monitoring, self-efficacy, dominance personality, and gender traits on to be perceived as a leader: a laboratory and a field study] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Istanbul Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu.

Oztemel, K. (2000). Kendini ayarlama becerilerini algilamalari farkli ogretmenlerin rehberlik anlayislarinin bazi degiskenler acisindan incelenmesi [Studying guidance understanding of teachers with different self-monitoring skills perception according to some variables] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Ankara.

Peterson, R. S., Smith, D. B., Martorana, P. V., & Owens, P. D. (2003). The impact of chief executive officer personality on top management team dynamics: One mechanism by which leadership affects organizational performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 795–808.

Reifman, A., Klein, J.G. ve Murphy, S.T. (1989). Self-monitoring and age. Psychology and Aging, 4(2), 245-246.

Silverthorne, C. (2001). Leadership effectiveness and personality: A cross cultural evaluation. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 303-309.

Smith, J.A. & Foti, R.J. (1998). A pattern approach to the study of leader emergence. Leadership Quarterly, 9(2), 147-160.

Sorrentino, R. M., Field, N. (1986). Emergent leadership over time: The functional value of positive motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(6), 1091-1099.

Stewart, M.L. (2001). Personality Predictors of Emergent Leadership (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).  Texas A&M University.

Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 526-537.

Snyder, M., & Kendzierski, D. (1982). Acting on one's attitudes: Procedures for linking attitude and behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18(2), 165-183.

Snyder, M. & Monson, T.C. (1975). Person, situations and the control of social behavior.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(4), 637-644.

Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (1976). When actions reflect attitudes: The politics of impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(5), 1034-1042.

Sisman, M. & Tasdemir, I. (2008). Turk Egitim Sistemi ve Okul Yonetimi [Turkish Education System and School Management]. Pegem Akademi, Ankara

Sisman, M. & Turan, S. (2005). Egitim ve Okul Yonetimi [Education and School Management]. Y. Ozden (Ed.), Egitim ve okul yoneticiligi: El kitabi [Education and school management: Manual] (2. Baski). (99-146). Pegem A Yayinlari, Ankara.

Taggar, S., Hackett, R. & Saha, S. (1999). Leadership emergence in autonomous work teams: Antecedents and outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 52, 899-926.

Tait, R. (1996). The Attributes of Leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(1), 27-31.

Undal, A. (1996). Kendini ayarlama becerisinin Holland’in mesleki kisilik tiplerine gore cesitli degiskenler acisindan incelenmesi [Investigation of self-monitoring for Holland's vocational personality types on the basis of some variables] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hacettepe Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Ankara.

Yildirim, K. & Bozdogan, A.E. (2009). Ogretmen adaylarinin kendini ayarlama psikolojilerinin belirlenmesine yonelik bir durum calismasi [Determination of teacher candidates’ self-monitoring: A case study]. Ahi Evran Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 10(3), 129-134.

Zaccaro, S.J., Foti, R.J. & Kenny, D.A. (1991). Self-monitoring and trait-based variance in leadership: An investigation of leader flexibility across multiple group situations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 308-315.

Zaccaro, S.J., Gilbert, J.A., Thor, K.K. & Mumford, M.D. (1991). Leadership and social intelligence: Linking social perspectives and behavioral flexibility to leader effectiveness. Leadership Quarterly, 2(4), 317-342.

Zaccaro, S. J., Kemp, C., & Bader, P. (2004). Leader traits and attributes. In J. Antonakis, A.T. Cianciolo, & R.J. Sternberg (Eds.) The nature of leadership, (pp. 101-124) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Zanna, M. P., Olson, J. M., & Fazio, R. H. (1980). Attitude-behavior consistency: An individual difference perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(3), 432-440.