logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Headquarters
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
new teacher career new teacher readiness new teacher competence professional teacher teacher professional education

Readiness and Competence of New Teachers for Career as Professional Teachers in Primary Schools

J. Julia , Herman Subarjah , M. Maulana , Atep Sujana , I. Isrokatun , Dadan Nugraha , Dewi Rachmatin

This study aims at exploring the problem of the readiness and competence of new teachers to teach in primary schools. This study specifically focuses .

T

This study aims at exploring the problem of the readiness and competence of new teachers to teach in primary schools. This study specifically focuses on identifying the readiness of new teachers to conduct teaching professionally, and analyzing their competence in conducting teaching. This study employs a mixed-method research design with data collected from two different approaches: a qualitative approach by conducting interviews and observation, and a quantitative approach by conducting a survey. The data were collected from lecturers, graduate teachers working as teachers, graduate teachers working not as teachers, and users of graduate teachers. The results of data collection and analysis were made into several themes. The results showed that the majority of graduates were ready to join the workforce as professional teachers with the risk that they had to accept the lack of welfare and legitimacy as unprofessional teachers because they had to attend further professional education programs. The education provided by the lecturers during their study in their institution in the aspects of knowledge and skills in the field of study and pedagogy became the foundation for new teachers in starting their careers as professional teachers in schools. A good educational process had produced teachers who have competencies with good categories in various aspects.

Keywords: New teacher career, new teacher readiness, new teacher competence, professional teacher, teacher professional education.

cloud_download PDF
Cite
Article Metrics
Views
2374
Download
2022
Citations
Crossref
6

Scopus
8

References

Ahuvia, A. (2008). If money doesn’t make us happy, why do we act as if it does? Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(4), 491-507.

Akkerman, S., Admiraal, W., Brekelmans, M., & Oost, H. (2008). Auditing quality of research in social sciences. Quality & Quantity, 42(2), 257-274.

Alkharusi, H., Kazem, A. M., & Al-Musawai, A. (2011). Knowledge, skills, and attitudes of preservice and inservice teachers in educational measurement. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(2), 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2011.560649

Apriani, L., & Julia, J. (2019). Digital application in teaching musical traditional instrument for children. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1318, 1-6.

Ashton, P. T., & Webb, R. B. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement. Longman Publishing Group.

Bahcivan, E., Gurer, M., Yavuzalp, N., & Akayoglu, S. (2019). Investigating the relations among pre-service teachers’ teaching/learning beliefs and educational technology integration competencies: A structural equation modeling study. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28(5), 579-588.

Bakah, M. A. B., Voogt, J. M., & Pieters, J. M. (2012). Updating polytechnic teachers’ knowledge and skills through teacher design teams in Ghana. Professional Development in Education, 38(1), 7-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2011.576265.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs.

Baskerville, D. (2012). Integrating on-line technology into teaching activities to enhance student and teacher learning in a New Zealand primary school. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 21(1), 119-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2012.659887

Borman, G. D., & Dowling, N. M. (2008). Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 367-409.

Brockmann, M., Clarke, L., Mehaut, P., & Winch, C. (2008). Competence-based vocational education and training (VET): the cases of England and France in a European perspective. Vocations and Learning, 1(3), 227-244.

Brown, A. L., Lee, J., & Collins, D. (2015). Does student teaching matter? Investigating pre-service teachers’ sense of efficacy and preparedness. Teaching Education, 26(1), 77-93.

Brown, A. L., Myers, J., & Collins, D. (2019). How pre-service teachers’ sense of teaching efficacy and preparedness to teach impact performance during student teaching. Educational Studies, 45(1),1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2019.1651696.

Bruhwiler, I. (2015). Teachers’ remarks about their salaries in 1800 in the Helvetic Republic. Paedagogica Historica, 51(3), 264-279. https://doi.org/10.1080/00309230.2014.934695.

Carcary, M. (2009). The research audit trial enhancing trustworthiness in qualitative inquiry. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 7(1), 11-24.

Centre of Study for Policies and Practices in Education. (2000). Learning standards, teaching standards and standards for school principals: A comparative study. OECD. Retrieved from https://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv:60276.

Chan, D. W. (2008). General, collective, and domain-specific teacher self-efficacy among Chinese prospective and in-service teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and teacher education, 24(4), 1057-1069.

Clark, A. E., Frijters, P., & Shields, M. A. (2008). Relative income, happiness, and utility: An explanation for the Easterlin paradox and other puzzles. Journal of Economic literature, 46(1), 95-144.

Clark, A. E., & Oswald, A. J. (1996). Satisfaction and comparison income. Journal of Public Economics, 61(3), 359-381.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2013). Research methods in education. Routledge.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. SAGE Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, enhanced pearson etext with loose-leaf version access card package. Pearson Education, Inc.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. John Wiley & Sons.

Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of teacher education, 53(4), 286-302.

Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Heilig, J. V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives/Archivos Analiticos de Politicas Educativas, 13(42), 1-48.

De Ree, J., Muralidharan, K., Pradhan, M., & Rogers, H. (2015). Double for nothing? Experimental evidence on the impact of an unconditional teacher salary increase on student performance in Indonesia (Working Paper No. 21806). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w21806

Deed, C., & Lesko, T. (2015). ‘Unwalling’ the classroom: Teacher reaction and adaptation. Learning Environments Research, 18(2), 217-231.

Deed, C., Lesko, T. M., & Lovejoy, V. (2014). Teacher adaptation to personalized learning spaces. Teacher Development, 18(3), 369-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2014.919345

Derkachev, P. V. (2015, 2015/07/03). Cross-regional differences in meeting the challenge of teacher salary increase. Russian Education & Society, 57(7), 572-589. https://doi.org/10.1080/10609393.2015.1096146

Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational researcher, 38(3), 181-199.

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological science in the public interest, 5(1), 1-31.

Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., & White, M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(1), 94-122.

Dolton, P., & Klaauw, W. v. d. (1995). Leaving teaching in the UK: A duration analysis. The economic journal, 105(429), 431-444.

Doney, P. A. (2013). Fostering resilience: A necessary skill for teacher retention. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 24(4), 645-664.

Easterlin, R. A. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 27(1), 35-47.

Fahdini, R., Mulyadi, E., Suhandani, D., & Julia, J. (2014). Identifikasi kompetensi guru sebagai cerminan profesionalisme tenaga pendidik di kabupaten sumedang [Teacher competency identification as a reflection of teacher professionalism in sumedang district]. Elementary School Forum/ Mimbar Sekolah Dasar, 1(1), 33-42.

Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. (2005). Income and well-being: an empirical analysis of the comparison income effect. Journal of Public Economics, 89(5-6), 997-1019.

Ferrer‐i‐Carbonell, A., & Frijters, P. (2004). How important is methodology for the estimates of the determinants of happiness? The economic journal, 114(497), 641-659.

Ficarra, L., & Quinn, K. (2014). Teachers’ facility with evidence-based classroom management practices: An investigation of teachers’ preparation programmes and in-service conditions. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 16(2), 71-87.

Firestone, W. A. (2014). Teacher evaluation policy and conflicting theories of motivation. Educational Researcher, 43(2), 100-107.

Fischer, R., & Boer, D. (2011). What is more important for national well-being: money or autonomy? A meta-analysis of well-being, burnout, and anxiety across 63 societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 164.

Ford, T. G., Van Sickle, M. E., Clark, L. V., Fazio-Brunson, M., & Schween, D. C. (2017). Teacher self-efficacy, professional commitment, and high-stakes teacher evaluation policy in Louisiana. Educational Policy, 31(2), 202-248.

Fuller, B., Waite, A., & Torres Irribarra, D. (2016). Explaining teacher turnover: School cohesion and intrinsic motivation in Los Angeles. American Journal of Education, 122(4), 537-567.

Glewwe, P., & Muralidharan, K. (2016). Improving education outcomes in developing countries: Evidence, knowledge gaps, and policy implications. In Hanushek, E. A., Machin, S., & Woessmann, L. (Eds), Handbook of the Economics of Education (Vol. 5, pp. 653-743). Elsevier.

Goldhaber, D. (2001). Significant, but not decisive. Education Matters, 1(2), 61-65.

Grissom, J. A., Viano, S. L., & Selin, J. L. (2016). Understanding employee turnover in the public sector: Insights from research on teacher mobility. Public Administration Review, 76(2), 241-251.

Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76(2), 173-208.

Haigh, M., & Ell, F. (2014). Consensus and dissensus in mentor teachers' judgments of readiness to teach. Teaching and teacher education, 40, 10-21.

Haigh, M., Ell, F., & Mackisack, V. (2013). Judging teacher candidates' readiness to teach. Teaching and teacher education, 34(1), 1-11.

Han, I., Shin, W. S., & Ko, Y. (2017). The effect of student teaching experience and teacher beliefs on pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy and intention to use technology in teaching. Teachers and Teaching, 23(7), 829-842. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2017.1322057

Hanushek, E. A. (2007). The single salary schedule and other issues of teacher pay. Peabody Journal of Education, 82(4), 574-586.

Hanushek, E. A. (2011). The economic value of higher teacher quality. Economics of Education review, 30(3), 466-479.

Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., & Rivkin, S. G. (2004). Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of human resources, 39(2), 326-354.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In Hanushek, E., & Welch, F. (Eds), Handbook of the Economics of Education (Vol. 2, pp. 1051-1078). Elsevier.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2012). The distribution of teacher quality and implications for policy. Annu. Rev. Econ., 4(1), 131-157.

Hatfield, B. E., Burchinal, M. R., Pianta, R. C., & Sideris, J. (2016). Thresholds in the association between quality of teacher–child interactions and preschool children’s school readiness skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36(3), 561-571.

Hayes, D. (1997). Teaching competences for qualified primary teacher status in England. Teacher Development, 1(2), 165-174.

Hayes, D. (1999). Opportunities and obstacles in the competency-based training and assessment of primary teachers in England. Harvard Educational Review, 69(1), 1-29.

Heikonen, L., Pietarinen, J., Pyhalto, K., Toom, A., & Soini, T. (2017). Early career teachers’ sense of professional agency in the classroom: associations with turnover intentions and perceived inadequacy in teacher–student interaction. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 45(3), 250-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2016.1169505

Hesse-Biber, S. (2015). The problems and prospects in the teaching of mixed methods research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(5), 463-477. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2015.1062622

Housego, B. (1992). Monitoring student teachers’ feelings of preparedness to teach and teacher efficacy in a new elementary teacher education program. Journal of Education for Teaching, 18(3), 259-272.

Housego, B. E. (1990). Student teachers' feelings of preparedness to teach. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'education, 15(1), 37-56.

Ingersoll, R. M., & May, H. (2012). The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4), 435-464.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Perda, D. (2010). Is the supply of mathematics and science teachers sufficient? American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 563-594.

Jackson, C., Simoncini, K., & Davidson, M. (2013). Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(8), 30-46.

Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581-617.

Joseph, D. (2011). Early career teaching: Learning to be a teacher and staying in the job. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(9), 1-14.

Julia, J. (2019a). Shifting primary school teachers’ understanding of songs teaching methods: An action research study in Indonesia. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(3), 158-167. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.61.2019.73.158.167

Julia, J. (2019b). Technology literacy and student practice: Lecturing critical evaluation skills. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(9), 114-130. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.18.9.6

Julia, J., Iswara, P. D., & Supriyadi, T. (2019a). Redesigning and implementing traditional musical instrument in integrated technology classroom. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(10), 75-87. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v14i10.10197

Julia, J., Kurnia, D., Isrokatun, I., Wulandari, H., & Aisyah, I. (2019b). The use of the Synthesia application to simplify Angklung learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1318(1), 1-8.

Julia, J., Supriyadi, T., & Iswara, P. (2019c). Using Android-based applications to support elementary school teachers to teach songs. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1318(1), 1-7.

Julia, J., Supriyadi, T., & Iswara, P. D. (2020). Training the Non-Specialist Music Teacher: Insights from an Indonesian Action Research Study. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 547-558.

Kahneman, D., & Krueger, A. B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic perspectives, 20(1), 3-24.

Kauppinen, M., Kiili, C., & Coiro, J. (2018). Experiences in digital video composition as sources of self-efficacy toward technology use. International Journal of Smart Education and Urban Society, 9(1), 1-12.

Kee, A. N. (2012). Feelings of preparedness among alternatively certified teachers: What is the role of program features? Journal of teacher education, 63(1), 23-38.

Kert, S. B. (2019). A proposal of in-service teacher training approach for computer science teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 477-489.

Kurien, S. A. (2011). The relation between teachers' personal teaching efficacy andstudents' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Kusumawardhani, P. N. (2017). Does teacher certification program lead to better quality teachers? Evidence from Indonesia. Education Economics, 25(6), 590-618.

Lambert, K., & Gray, C. (2019). Performing ‘teacher’: exploring early career teachers’ becomings, work identities and the [mis-]use of the professional standards in competitive educational assemblages. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 27(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2019.1663247.

Lee, J., Tice, K., Collins, D., Melton, A. J., Brown, A., & Fox, J. (2012). Assessing student teaching experiences: Pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their preparedness and efficacy. Educational Research Quarterly, 36(2), 3-19.

Lester, S. (2014). Professional standards, competence and capability. Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning, 4(1), 31-43.

Lim, Y.-J., & Kim, M.-N. (2014). Relation of Character Strengths to Personal Teaching Efficacy in Korean Special Education Teachers. International Journal of Special Education, 29(2), 53-58.

Lin, X.-F., Tang, D., Lin, X., Liang, Z.-M., & Tsai, C.-C. (2019, 2019/12/12). An exploration of primary school students’ perceived learning practices and associated self-efficacies regarding mobile-assisted seamless science learning. International Journal of Science Education, 41(18), 2675-2695. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2019.1693081

Loeb, S., & Luczak, L. D.-H. (2013). How teaching conditions predict: Teacher turnover in California schools. In Rendering School Resources More Effective (pp. 48-99). Routledge.

Loeb, S., & Page, M. E. (2000). Examining the link between teacher wages and student outcomes: The importance of alternative labor market opportunities and non-pecuniary variation. Review of Economics and Statistics, 82(3), 393-408.

Louws, M. L., Meirink, J. A., van Veen, K., & van Driel, J. H. (2018, 2018/01/02). Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns. Teachers and Teaching, 24(1), 63-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2017.1383237

Macdonald, D. (1999). Teacher attrition: A review of literature. Teaching and teacher education, 15(8), 835-848.

Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T., & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2016). Building resilience in teacher education: An evidenced informed framework. Teaching and teacher education, 54(1), 77-87.

Maulana, A., & Julia, J. (2019). Using Pazia Angklung application in understanding song scores. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1318(1), 1-6.

Mayer, D., Mitchell, J., Macdonald, D., & Bell, R. (2005). Professional standards for teachers: A case study of professional learning. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 33(2), 159-179.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., Huberman, M. A., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. SAGE Publications.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2018). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. SAGE Publications.

Mohamed, Z., Valcke, M., & De Wever, B. (2017). Are they ready to teach? Student teachers’ readiness for the job with reference to teacher competence frameworks. Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(2), 151-170.

Mohanty, M. S. (2009). Effects of positive attitude on happiness and wage: Evidence from the US data. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(6), 884-897.

Mourlam, D. J., De Jong, D., Shudak, N. J., & Baron, M. (2019). A phenomenological case study of teacher candidate experiences during a yearlong teacher residency program. The Teacher Educator, 54(4), 397-419.

Mulder, M. (2007). Competence the essence and use of the concept in ICVT. European journal of vocational training, 40(5), 5-22.

Mulder, M., Weigel, T., & Collins, K. (2007). The concept of competence in the development of vocational education and training in selected EU member states: a critical analysis. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 59(1), 67-88.

Muralidharan, K., Singh, A., & Ganimian, A. J. (2019). Disrupting education? Experimental evidence on technology-aided instruction in India. American Economic Review, 109(4), 1426-1460.

Murnane, R. J., & Olsen, R. J. (1990). The effects of salaries and opportunity costs on length of stay in teaching: Evidence from North Carolina. Journal of human resources, 25(1), 106-124.

Nolan, A., & Molla, T. (2018). Teacher professional learning through pedagogy of discomfort. Reflective Practice, 19(6), 721-735. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623943.2018.1538961

O'Neill, S., & Stephenson, J. (2013). One year on: First-year primary teachers’ perceptions of preparedness to manage misbehaviour and their confidence in the strategies they use. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 37(2), 125-146.

O'reilly, D., Cunningham, L., & Lester, S. (2013). Developing the capable practitioner: Professional capability through higher education. Routledge.

O’Neill, S., & Stephenson, J. (2012). Does classroom management coursework influence pre-service teachers’ perceived preparedness or confidence? Teaching and teacher education, 28(8), 1131-1143.

Oswald, A. J. (1997). Happiness and economic performance. The economic journal, 107(445), 1815-1831.

Pantic, N., & Wubbels, T. (2010). Teacher competencies as a basis for teacher education–Views of Serbian teachers and teacher educators. Teaching and teacher education, 26(3), 694-703.

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 137-152.

Peeters, J., De Backer, F., Kindekens, A., Triquet, K., & Lombaerts, K. (2016). Teacher differences in promoting students' self-regulated learning: Exploring the role of student characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 88-96.

Peklaj, C. (2015). Teacher competencies through the prism of educational research. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 5(3), 183-204.

Pendergast, D., Garvis, S., & Keogh, J. (2011). Pre-service student-teacher self-efficacy beliefs: An insight into the making of teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(12), 46-58.

Pianta, R. C., Cox, M. J., & Snow, K. L. (2007). School readiness and the transition to kindergarten in the era of accountability. Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417-458.

Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishing.

Roller, M. R., & Lavrakas, P. J. (2015). Applied qualitative research design: A total quality framework approach. Guilford Publications.

Rots, I., Aelterman, A., Devos, G., & Vlerick, P. (2010). Teacher education and the choice to enter the teaching profession: A prospective study. Teaching and teacher education, 26(8), 1619-1629.

Rots, I., Kelchtermans, G., & Aelterman, A. (2012). Learning (not) to become a teacher: A qualitative analysis of the job entrance issue. Teaching and teacher education, 28(1), 1-10.

Rowan, L., & Townend, G. (2016). Early career teachers’ beliefs about their preparedness to teach: Implications for the professional development of teachers working with gifted and twice-exceptional students. Cogent Education, 3, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1242458

Saka, A. Z., & Saka, A. (2006). An integrative model for preparing effective teachers. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, (23), 168-176.

Saldana, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. SAGE Publications.

Sarac, H. (2018). Use of instructional technologies by teachers in the educational process: Metaphor analysis study. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(2), 189-202.

Saunders, J. O. L. (1956, 1956/05/01). The relationship of preparatory program contributions to teacher competences. The Journal of Educational Research, 49(9), 697-702. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1956.10882341

Schubert, C. (2012). Pursuing happiness. Kyklos, 65(2), 245-261.

Shulman, L. S., & Shulman, J. H. (2004). How and what teachers learn: A shifting perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36(2), 257-271.

Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal, 41(3), 681-714.

Song, H., Gu, Q., & Zhang, Z. (2020). An exploratory study of teachers’ subjective wellbeing: understanding the links between teachers’ income satisfaction, altruism, self-efficacy and work satisfaction. Teachers and Teaching, 26(1), 1-29.

Suhandani, D., & Julia (2014). Identifikasi kompetensi guru sebagai cerminan profesionalisme tenaga pendidik di kabupaten sumedang (kajian pada kompetensi pedagogik) [Teacher competency identification as a reflection of teacher professionalism in sumedang district (study on pedagogical competence)]. Elementary School Forum/ Mimbar Sekolah Dasar, 1(2), 128-141. https://doi.org/10.17509/mimbar-sd.v1i2.874.

Sultana, R. G. (2009). Competence and competence frameworks in career guidance: Complex and contested concepts. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 9(1), 15-30.

Sural, S. (2019). An examination of pre-service teachers’ competencies in lesson planning. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 7(3), 1-13.

Sutherland, L., Howard, S., & Markauskaite, L. (2010). Professional identity creation: Examining the development of beginning preservice teachers' understanding of their work as teachers. Teaching and teacher education, 26(3), 455-465.

Swabey, K., Castleton, G., & Penney, D. (2010). Meeting the standards? Exploring preparedness for teaching. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(8), 29-46.

Tait, M. (2008). Resilience as a contributor to novice teacher success, commitment, and retention. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(4), 57-75.

Tang, S. Y., Cheng, M. M., & Cheng, A. Y. (2014). Shifts in teaching motivation and sense of self-as-teacher in initial teacher education. Educational Review, 66(4), 465-481.

Tang, Y., He, W., Liu, L., & Li, Q. (2018). Beyond the paycheck: Chinese rural teacher well-being and the impact of professional learning and local community engagement. Teachers and Teaching, 24(7), 825-839. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2018.1470972

Tavakoli, M., & Baniasad-Azad, S. (2017). Teachers’ conceptions of effective teaching and their teaching practices: a mixed-method approach. Teachers and Teaching, 23(6), 674-688. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2016.1218326

Tekkaya, C., Cakiroglu, J., & Ozkan, O. (2004). Turkish pre-service science teachers' understanding of science and their confidence in teaching it. Journal of Education for Teaching, 30(1), 57-68.

Thomson, M. M., & Palermo, C. (2014). Preservice teachers' understanding of their professional goals: Case studies from three different typologies. Teaching and teacher education, 44(1), 56-68.

Tican, C., & Deniz, S. (2019). Pre-service teachers’ opinions about the use of 21st century learner and 21st century teacher skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 181-197.

Tigelaar, D. E., Dolmans, D. H., Wolfhagen, I. H., & Van Der Vleuten, C. P. (2004). The development and validation of a framework for teaching competencies in higher education. Higher education, 48(2), 253-268.

Torrance, D., & Forde, C. (2017). Redefining what it means to be a teacher through professional standards: Implications for continuing teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(1), 110-126.

Turkoglu, M. E., Cansoy, R., & Parlar, H. (2017). Examining relationship between teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction.  Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(5), 765-772.

Uyar, R. O., Genc, M. M. Y., & Yasar, M. (2018). Prospective preschool teachers’ academic achievements depending on their goal orientations, critical thinking dispositions and self-regulation skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 7(3), 601-613.

van der Linden, W., Bakx, A., Ros, A., Beijaard, D., & Vermeulen, M. (2012). Student teachers’ development of a positive attitude towards research and research knowledge and skills. European Journal of Teacher Education, 35(4), 401-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2011.643401

Varga, A., Koszo, M. F. z., Mayer, M., & Sleurs, W. (2007). Developing teacher competences for education for sustainable development through reflection: the Environment and School Initiatives approach. Journal of Education for Teaching, 33(2), 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607470701259564

Veenhoven, R. (1991). Is happiness relative? Social indicators research, 24(1), 1-34.

Viskovic, I., & Visnjic Jevtic, A. (2017). Development of professional teacher competences for cooperation with parents. Early Child Development and Care, 187(10), 1569-1582. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1299145

Watt, H. M., & Richardson, P. W. (2007). Motivational factors influencing teaching as a career choice: Development and validation of the FIT-Choice scale. The Journal of experimental education, 75(3), 167-202.

Williford, A. P., Maier, M. F., Downer, J. T., Pianta, R. C., & Howes, C. (2013). Understanding how children's engagement and teachers' interactions combine to predict school readiness. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 299-309.

Wilson, S. M., & Tamir, E. (2008). The evolving field of teacher education: How understanding challenge(r)s might improve the preparation of teachers. In M. Cochran-Smith, & S. Feiman-Nemser (Eds), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts (Vol. 3, pp. 908-936). Michigan State University.

Winterton, J., Delamare-Le Deist, F., & Stringfellow, E. (2006). Typology of knowledge, skills and competences: clarification of the concept and prototype. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Luxembourg.

Xuehui, A. (2018, 2018/03/04). Teacher Salaries and the Shortage of High-Quality Teachers in China’s Rural Primary and Secondary Schools. Chinese Education & Society, 51(2), 103-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/10611932.2018.1433411.

Yin, R. (2018). Case study research: Design and methods (6th ed.). SAGE Publications.

Yuan, K., Le, V.-N., McCaffrey, D. F., Marsh, J. A., Hamilton, L. S., Stecher, B. M., & Springer, M. G. (2013). Incentive pay programs do not affect teacher motivation or reported practices: Results from three randomized studies. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(1), 3-22.

Zientek, L. R. (2007). Preparing high-quality teachers: Views from the classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), 959-1001.

...