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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
apos theory cognitive style field independent spatial thinking

The Spatial Thinking Process of the Field-Independent Students based on Action-Process-Object-Schema Theory

Henry Suryo Bintoro , Y.L. Sukestiyarno , Mulyono , Walid

Spatial thinking has roles to facilitate learners to remember, understand, reason, and communicate objects and the connections among objects that are .


Spatial thinking has roles to facilitate learners to remember, understand, reason, and communicate objects and the connections among objects that are represented in space. This research aims to analyze the spatial thinking process of students in constructing new knowledge seen from the field-independent cognitive style learners based on Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) theory. APOS theory is used to explore spatial thinking processes which consist of mental structures of action, process, object, and schema. This research is qualitative research with an exploratory method. It provided the students' opportunity to solve problems alternately until the method found the most appropriate subjects for the research objectives. The subjects were 2 students of Mathematics Education in the fourth semester of Universitas Muria Kudus Indonesia. The data collection techniques were started by distributing the validated and reliable spatial thinking questions, the cognitive style question, and the interview. The applied data analysis consisted of data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The findings showed (1) spatial thinking process of holistic-external representation typed learners were indicated by the representative thinking element, abstract-illustrative figure expression to communicate and complete the tasks correctly, (2) spatial thinking process of the holistic-internal representation typed learners were indicated by the representative means, having ideas, connecting with the previous knowledge in the forms of symbols and numbers, and finding the final results correctly although incomplete.

Keywords: APOS theory, cognitive style, field-independent, spatial thinking.

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