logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
pedagogical content knowledge kindergarten teachers

Analysis of Kindergarten Teachers on Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Mutiara Sari Dewi , Punaji Setyosari , Dedi Kuswandi , Saida Ulfa

This research aims to determine the relationship between the seven components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge possessed by kindergarten teachers. The.


This research aims to determine the relationship between the seven components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge possessed by kindergarten teachers. The animal theme was chosen to determine the pedagogical content knowledge component profile of 30 kindergarten teachers, with data obtained through classroom observation, interviews, learning plan documentation. This study employed a mixed-method design, a type of sequential explanatory research with the structural equation modeling-partial least squares and descriptive tests used to quantitative and qualitatively analyze the data obtained. The result showed that: the relationship between the components is specified in the context of using themes to learn in the kindergarten; analysis of the relationships between the components is carried out separately, such as the relationship of all 7 (seven) components to 1 (one) pedagogical content knowledge component of kindergarten teachers; Orientation of teaching has the strongest relationship with Knowledge of Instructional Strategies for Teaching; Knowledge of assessment of early childhood education has the weakest relationship with knowledge of early childhood education subject matter; pedagogical content knowledge components for kindergarten teachers that are often found and associated with other components in a learning episode are orientation of teaching, knowledge of early childhood education curriculum, and knowledge of instructional strategies; there are pedagogical content knowledge component for kindergarten teacher that often found and connection with other component in a learning episode.

Keywords: Pedagogical content knowledge, kindergarten, teachers.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Abell, S. K. (2008). Twenty years later: does pedagogical content knowledge remain a useful idea? International Journal of Science Education, 30(10), 1405–1416. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690802187041

Aksu, Z., & Kul, U. (2017). Turkish adaptation of the survey of pedagogical content knowledge in early childhood mathematics education. International Journal of Eurasia Social Science, 8(30), 1832–1848.

Alexander, A. D. (2016). Preschool teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for science [Master’s thesis, University of Miami]. University of Miami  Archive. http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_theses

Aljojo, N., Munshi, A., Almukadi, W., Zainol, A., Alanaya, I., Albalawi, H., Alharbi, G., Almadani, N., Almohammadi, E., Kadu, A., & Abdulghaffar, N. A. (2019). The design and implementation of an arabic pronunciation application for early childhood. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 9(2), 136–152. https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.486

Awang, Z., Wan Afthanorhan, W. M. A., & Asri, M. A. M. (2015). Parametric and non parametric approach in structural equation modeling (SEM): The application of bootstrapping. Modern Applied Science, 9(9), 58–67. https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v9n9p58

Bautista, A., Ng, S. C., Munez, D., & Bull, R. (2016). Learning areas for holistic education: kindergarten teachers’ curriculum priorities, professional development needs, and beliefs. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 10(1), 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40723-016-0024-4

Bertram, A. (2014). CoRes and PaP-eRs as a strategy for helping beginning primary teacher develop their pedagogical content knowledge. Educacion Quimica, 25(3), 292–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0187-893X(14)70545-2

Cobanoglu, F., & Sevim, S. (2019). Child-friendly schools : An assessment of kindergartens. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(4), 637–650. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.5.4.637

Creswell, W. J. (2011). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research.  SAGE.

Dejonckheere, P. J. N., De Wit, N., Van de Keere, K., & Vervaet, S. (2016). Exploring the classroom: Teaching science in early childhood. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(3), 149–164. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.5.3.149

Dodge, D. T., & Colker, L. J. (2001). The creative curriculum for early childhood (3rd ed.). Teaching Strategie Inc.

Eames, C., Williams, J., Hume, A., & Lockley, J. (2011). CoRe: a way to build pedagogical content knowledge for beginning teachers. In Teaching and Learning Reserach Initiative.

Ersan, C. (2020). Turkish preschool teachers’ opinions on aggression: Uncertainty of relational aggression. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(2), 471–487. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.471

Eurydice. (2009). Early childhood education and care in europe: tackling social and cultural inequalities. European Commission. https://doi.org/10.2797/18055

Fernandez, C. (2014). Knowledge base for teaching and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): Some useful models and implications for teachers’ training. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 60, 79–100.

Figueiredo, M. P., Gomes, H., & Rodrigues, C. (2018). Mathematical pedagogical content knowledge in early childhood education: tales from the ‘great unknown’ in teacher education in Portugal. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 26(4), 535–546. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2018.1487164

Fukkink, R., Jilink, L., Op den Kelder, R., Zeijlmans, K., Bollen, I., & Koopman, L. (2019). The development of interaction skills in preservice teacher education: A mixed-methods study of Dutch pre-service teachers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 47(3), 321–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-019-00927-7

Gjertrud, S., Follo, G., & Pareliussen, I. (2016). Betwixt the wild, unknown and the safe: Play and the affordances of nature within an early childhood education and care institution in Norway. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education, 1(1), 1–103.

Hair, J. F. Jr., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). SAGE.

Hashweh, M. Z. (2005). Teacher pedagogical constructions: A reconfiguration of pedagogical content knowledge. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(3), 273–292. https://doi.org/10.1080/13450600500105502

Inan, H. Z. (2010). Examining pre-school education teacher candidates’ content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 10(4), 2309–2323.

Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy, J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14(1), 6–23. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014694

Jones, A., & Moreland, J. (2017). Considering pedagogical content knowledge in the context of research on teaching: An example from technology. Waikato Journal of Education, 9, 65–76. https://doi.org/10.15663/wje.v9i0.387

Jordan, R. L. P., Bratsch-Hines, M., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2018). Kindergarten and first grade teachers’ content and pedagogical content knowledge of reading and associations with teacher characteristics at Rural Low-Wealth Schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 190–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.05.002

Kabita, B., & Grace, S. (2016). Science and mathematics teaching through local games in preschools of Botswana. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 6(29), 1–9.

Kankam, G., & Abroampa, W. K. (2015). Early childhood education pre-service teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in teaching psychosocial skills across the kindergarten curriculum in Ghana. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research In Early Childhood Education, 10(1), 67–86. https://doi.org/10.17206/apjrece.2016.10.1.67

Karal, I. S., & Alev, N. (2016). Development of pre-service physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) throughout their initial training. Teacher Development, 20(2), 162–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2015.1124138

Keller, M. M., Neumann, K., & Fischer, H. E. (2017). The impact of physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and motivation on students’ achievement and interest. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(5), 586–614. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21378

Kennedy, A., Horne, E., Dolan, K., Herrera, C., Malutan, N., & Noetzel, K. (2015). The project approach meta-project: Inquiry based learning in undergraduate early childhood teacher education. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(7), 907–917. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-3-7-15

Lan, H., & Fielding, B. R. (2012). Social learning, language and literacy. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(1), 24. https://doi.org/232100 00037

Lee, J. (2010). Exploring kindergarten teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics. International Journal of Early Childhood, 42(1), 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-010-0003-9

Lee, J. E. (2017). Preschool teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics. International Journal of Early Childhood, 49(2), 229–243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-017-0189-1

Lillvist, A., Sandberg, A., Sheridan, S., & Williams, P. (2014). Preschool teacher competence viewed from the perspective of students in early childhood teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching International Reseacrh and Pedagogy, 40(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2013.864014

Loughran, J., Mulhall, P., & Berry, A. (2004). In search of pedagogical content knowledge in science: Developing ways of articulating and documenting professional practice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(4), 370–391. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20007

Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., & Borko, H. (2002). Nature, sources, and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge (4th ed., pp. 95–132). Association for the Education of Teachers in Science.

Magnusson, S., Obispo, S. L., & Borko, H. (2002). Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge, January. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47217-1

Martella, J., & Connors-Tadros, L. (2014). Evaluating early childhood educators: prekindergarten through third grade. American Institutes for Research.

McCray, J. S., & Chen, J. Q. (2012). Pedagogical content knowledge for preschool mathematics: Construct validity of a new teacher interview. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 26(3), 291–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2012.685123

Mei-ju, C., Chen-hsin, Y., & Pin-chen, H. (2014). The beauty of character education on preschool children’s parent-child relationship. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143, 527–533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.431

Morrison, G. S. (2007). Early childhood education today. In P. Julie (Ed.), Educating Zimbabwe for the 21st Century: What Every Educator Should Know (3rd ed.). Nova Science Pub Inc. https://doi.org/10.7810/9781927131763_5

Murray, F. B., Hufnagel, P., Gruber, H. E., Voneche, J., & Voneche, J. (1979). The Essential Piaget. Educational Researcher, 8(11), 20. https://doi.org/10.2307/1174291

National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2019). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8.

Newsome, J., Taylor, J. A., Carlson, J., Gardner, A. L., Wilson, C. D., & Stuhlsatz, M. A. M. (2019). Teacher pedagogical content knowledge, practice, and student achievement. International Journal of Science Education, 41(7), 944–963. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1265158

Nilsson, P., & Karlsson, G. (2019). Capturing student teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) using CoRes and digital technology. International Journal of Science Education, 41(4), 419–447. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2018.1551642

Nilsson, P., & Loughran, J. (2012). Exploring the development of pre-service science elementary teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 23(7), 699–721. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-011-9239-y

Park, S., & Chen, Y. C. (2012). Mapping out the integration of the components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): Examples from high school Biology classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(7), 922–941. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21022

Park, S., & Oliver, J. S. (2008). Revisiting the conceptualisation of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): PCK as a conceptual tool to understand teachers as professionals. Research in Science Education, 38(3), 261–284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-007-9049-6

Seefeldt, C., & Wasik, B. A. (2006). Early education: Three, four, and five year olds go to school (2nd ed.). Pearson Education.

Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.57.1.j463w79r56455411

Suh, J. K., & Park, S. (2017). Exploring the relationship between pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and sustainability of an innovative Science teaching approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 64, 246–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.01.021

Wood, C. (2005). Parent letter kindergarten-developmental characteristics. Northeast Foundation for Children.

Wu, P., Yu, S., & Zhang, L. (2019). The function and integration of components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in classroom teaching: a case study of business English teachers. Educational Studies, 45(4), 440–455. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2018.1509770

Zakaria, Z., Setyosari, P., Sulton, & Kuswandi, D. (2019). The effect of art-based learning to improve teaching effectiveness in pre-service teachers. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 7(3), 531–545. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.606963

Zhang, Y. (2015). Pedagogical content knowledge in early mathematics: What teachers know and how it associates with teaching and learning. [Master’s thesis, Loyola University Chicago]. Loyola University Chicago eCommons. http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_diss/1499