Research Article
Impact of Flexible and Non-flexible Classroom Environments on Learning of Undergraduate Students

Canan Demir-Yildiz , Ramazan Samil Tatik

APA 7th edition
Demir-Yildiz, C., & Tatik, R.S. (2019). Impact Of Flexible And Non-flexible Classroom Environments On Learning Of Undergraduate Students. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1159-1173.

Demir-Yildiz C., and Tatik R.S. 2019 'Impact Of Flexible And Non-flexible Classroom Environments On Learning Of Undergraduate Students', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 1159-1173.
Chicago 16th edition
Demir-Yildiz Canan, and Tatik Ramazan Samil. "Impact Of Flexible And Non-flexible Classroom Environments On Learning Of Undergraduate Students," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 1159-1173.


The physical factors, which were studied less often than the other factors affecting students' learning, were considered in this study. The present study investigated the effect of the flexibility and non-flexibity of the physical classroom setting on undergraduate students' learning. The study adopted a mixed-method research design. The quantitative phase of the study employed the quasi-experimental method of research utilizing the pretest-posttest non-equivalent groups design. T Test and the Repeated Measures ANOVA test was used to compare the group means. In the qualitative phase of the study, the students received a questionnaire with open-ended questions to gather their opinions, and the data were analysed in NVIVO 11. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of learning; however, the achievement scores of both groups were found to be high. Furthermore, the views received from both groups indicated that the physical environment influenced learning in terms of motivation and enthusiasm.

Keywords: Physical classroom environment, flexible classroom setting, learning, undergraduate students, faculty of education.


Ghazali, F. A. (2017). Scrutinizing the factors affecting fluency of English among Arab learners. European Journal of Educational Research, 6(2), 135-144. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.6.2.135.

Buyukozturk, S., Cakmak, E. K., Akgun, O. E., Karadeniz, S., & Demirel, F. (2017). Bilimsel arastirma yontemleri [Scientific Research Methods]. Ankara, Turkey: Pegem Yayincilik.

Chan, T. C. (1988). The aesthetic environment and student learning. School Business Affairs, 54(1), 26-27.

Clark, H. (2002). Building education: the role of the physical environment in enhancing teaching and learning - issues in practice. London, UK: Institute of Education.

Classrooms (n.d.). Retrieved from http://

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th Edition). London: Routledge.

Eryilmaz, S., Adalar, H., & Icinak, A. (2015). E-learning as a teaching strategy actively used in Fatih Project. European Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 38-47. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.4.1.38

Folkins, J. W., Friberg, J. C. & Cesarini, P. A. (2015). University classroom design principles to facilitate learning: The instructor as advocate. Planning for Higher Education Journal, 43(2), 45-62.

Frith, K. (2015). Are your school interiors giving you a pedagogical edge? Retrieved from 

Gilavand, A. (2016). The comparison of iranian and foreign students’ motivations to choose dentistry field of study. International Journal of Pediatrics, 4(6), 1993-2010.

Gilavand, A., Espidkar F., & Fakhri, A. (2015). A comparative evaluation of depression and anxiety rate among native and non-native students of dentistry school at Ahvaz Jundishapour University of medical sciences. Educational Development of Jundishapur, 6(2),185-90.

Green, S. B., & Salkind, N. J. (2005). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: analyzing and understanding data (4th Edition) Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Gump, P. V. (1987). School and classroom environment. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 691-732). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Haertel, G. D., Walberg, H. J., & Haertel, E. H. (1981). Socio-psychological environments and learning: A quantitative synthesis. British Educational Research Journal, 7, 27-36.

Hannah, R. (2013). The effect of classroom environment on students learning (Honors thesis). Lee Honors College, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. Scholarworks at WMU. (Paper 2375).

Horne-Martin, S. (2002). The classroom environment and its effects on the practice of teachers. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22(1-2), 139-156.

Kekare, S. H. (2015). Classroom physical environment and academic achievement of students. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2(3), 116-120.

Korir, D. K., & Kipkemboi, F. (2014). The impact of school environment and peer influences on subjects academic performance in Vihiga Country, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 240-251.

Lackney, J. A. (2008). Teacher environmental competence in elementary school environments. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(2), 133-159.

Lyons, J. B. (2001). Do school facilities really impact a child’s education? Retrieved from

McAllister, K., & Hadjri, K. (2013). Inclusion and the special educational needs (SEN) resource base in mainstream schools: physical factors to maximise effectiveness. Support for Learning, 28(2), 57-65.

MacAulay, D. J. (1990). Classroom environment: A literature review. Educational Psychology, 10(3), 239-253.

Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L., Gloeckner, G. W., & Barrett, K. C. (2004). SPSS for introductory statistics: use and interpretation (2nd ed.). London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Moore, G. T., & Lackney, J. A. (1993). School design: crisis, educational performance and design applications, Children's Environments, 10(2), 99-112.

Moos, R. H., & Trickett, E. J. (1987). Classroom environment scale manual (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Neill, S. (2008). Flexible learning spaces: the integration of pedagogy, physical design, and instructional technology. Marketing Education Review, 18(1), 47-53.

Puteh, M., Che Ahmad C. N., Mohamed Noh, N., Adnan, M., & Ibrahim, M. H. (2015). The classroom physical environment and its relation to teaching and learning comfort level. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(3), 237-240. DOI: 10.7763/IJSSH.2015.V5.460

Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children's responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent, & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology: Social competence in children (pp. 49-74). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Rydeen, J. E. (1993). Designs for learning. American School Board Journal, 180(4), 34-36.

Schneider, M. (2003). Linking school facility conditions to teacher satisfaction and success. Retrieved from on May 9, 2019,

Strange, C. C., & Banning, J. H. (2001). Educating by design: creating campus learning environments that work.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Stricherz, M. (2000). Bricks and mortar boards. Education Week, 20(14), 30-32.

Suleman, Q., & Hussain, I. (2014). Effects of classroom physical environment on the academic achievement scores of secondary school students in Kohat Division, Pakistan. International Journal of Learning & Development, 4(1), 71-82. doi:10.5296/ijld.v4i1.5174.

Treagust, D. F., & Wahyudi, (2004). The status of science classroom learning environments in Indonesian lower secondary schools. Learning Environments Research, 7(1), 43-63.

Walker, D., & Lambert, L. (1995). Learning and leading theory: A century in the making. In L. Lambert et al. (Eds.), The constructivist leader (pp. 1-27). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Yildirim, A., & Simsek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel arastirma yontemleri [Qualitative research methods in social sciences] (9th ed.). Ankara, Turkey: Seckin.

Young, E., Green, H. A., Roehrich-Patrick, L., Joseph, L., & Gibson, T. (2003). Do K-12 school facilities affect education outcomes? (Staff Information Report). The Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. Retrieved from