logo logo European Journal of Educational Research

EU-JER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
7321 Parkway Drive South, Hanover, MD 21076, USA
newcomer education pull out language classes segregated language support classes structured immersion students with a migration background

Is Segregated Language Support Fit for Purpose? Insights From German Language Support Classes in Austria

Elizabeth J. Erling , Marie Gitschthaler , Susanne Schwab

In Austria, segregated German language support classes (GLSC) were introduced in the school year 2018/19 to intensively support students who had previ.


In Austria, segregated German language support classes (GLSC) were introduced in the school year 2018/19 to intensively support students who had previously little or no contact with German, the official language of instruction. These classes have been widely criticised; however, a formal evaluation of their effects has yet to be published. In absence of this evaluation, this article describes the language support model as it currently exists in Austria and reviews existing evidence about its efficacy. The literature review synthesises findings from educational research undertaken in other contexts that offer insight into features of ‘good practice’ in language support models. The article then explores the extent to which GLSC comply with these features. As such, this review allows insights into ways of ensuring students’ language and socio-emotional development – all central aspects of academic success – in language support models. It therefore allows research-informed understanding of the effects of the newly implemented model of German support classes in Austria and makes recommendations for further development.

Keywords: Newcomer education, pull-out language classes, segregated language support classes, structured immersion, students with a migration background.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Amholt, T. T., Dammeyer, J., Carter, R., & Niclasen, J. (2020). Psychological well-being and academic achievement among school-aged children: A systematic review. Child Indicators Research, 13, 1523–1548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-020-09725-9

Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Multilingual Matters.

Ball, S. J., Kelly, K., & Clegg, J. (2015). Putting CLIL into practice. Oxford University Press.

Bear, G. G., Minke, K. M., & Manning, M. A. (2002). Self-concept of students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 405–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2002.12086165

Berglund, J. (2017). Education policy: A Swedish success story? Integration of newly arrived students into the Swedish school system. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/13259.pdf

Bilgili, Ö. (2019). Policy approaches to integration of newly arrived immigrant children in schools: The case of the Netherlands (OECD Education Working Paper No. 206). https://bit.ly/3dnNvdW

Blommaert, J. (2010). The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307

Bossaert, G., Colpin, H., Pijl, S. J., & Petry, K. (2013). Truly included? A literature study focusing on the social dimension of inclusion in education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(1), 60–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2011.580464

Brisk, M., & Kaveh, Y. M. (2019, April 26). Teacher education for bi/multilingual students. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.280

Brüggemann, C., & Nikolai, R. (2016). Das Comeback einer Organisationsform: Vorbereitungsklassen für neu zugewanderte Kinder und Jugendliche [The comeback of a form of organization: Preparatory classes for newly immigrated children and adolescents]. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. https://bit.ly/2ZYG9KB

Cataldo-Schwarzl, L., & Erling, E. J. (2022). Supporting a shift in stance about translanguaging pedagogies: Insights from a teacher-researcher collaboration in Vienna. In Z. Tian and L. Shepard-Carey (Eds.), (Re)Imagining the Future of Translanguaging Pedagogies in Classrooms through Researcher-Practitioner Collaboration. Multilingual Matters. Manuscript in preparation.

Chancellery of the Republic of Austria [Bundeskanzleramt Republik Österreich]. (2019). Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich [Federal law gazette for the Republic of Austria]. https://bit.ly/3DwuOiC

Collier, V. P., & Thomas, W. P. (2017). Validating the power of bilingual schooling: Thirty-two years of large-scale, longitudinal research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37, 203–217. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190517000034

Conteh, J. (2018). Translanguaging as pedagogy: A critical review. In A. Creese, & A. Blackledge (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language and superdiversity: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 473-487). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315696010

Coyle, D. (2007). Content and language integrated learning: Towards a connected research agenda for CLIL pedagogies. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(5), 543–562. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb459.0

Crul, M. (2017). Refugee children in education in Europe. How to prevent a lost generation? SIRIUS Network Policy Brief Series. https://bit.ly/3y1Bp3p

Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853596773

Cummins, J. (2015). How to reverse a legacy of exclusion? Identifying high-impact educational responses. Language and Education, 29(3), 272–279. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.994528

Dajaeghere, Y., Hooghe, M., & Claes, E. (2012). Do ethnically diverse schools reduce ethnocentrism? A two-year panel study among majority group late adolescents in Belgian schools. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(1), 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.02.010

Döll, M. (2019). Perspektive Migrationsgesellschaft: Sprachassimilativer Habitus in Bildungsforschung, Bildungspolitik und Bildungspraxis [Migration society perspective: Language assimilative habitus in educational research, policy and practice]. ÖDaF-Mitteilungen, 35, 19-26. https://doi.org/10.14220/odaf.2019.35.1.191

Duarte, J. (2011). Migrants’ educational success through innovation: The case of the Hamburg bilingual schools. International Review of Education, 57, 631–649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9251-7

Duarte, J. (2019). Translanguaging in mainstream education: A sociocultural approach. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(2), 150–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1231774

Duarte, J., & Kirsch, C. (2020). Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. In C. Kirsch, & J. Duarte (Eds.), Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning: From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (pp. 1-12). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429059674-1

Erling, E. J., Clegg, J., Rubagumya, C. M., & Reilly, C. (Eds.). (2021). Multilingual learning and language supportive pedagogies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003028383

Erling, E. J., Foltz, A., & Wiener, M. (2021). Differences in English teachers’ beliefs and practices and inequity in Austrian English language education: Could plurilingual pedagogies help close the gap? The International Journal of Multilingualism, 18(4), 570-585. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2021.1913170

Erling, E. J., & Moore, E. (2021). Introduction- Socially just plurilingual education in Europe: Shifting subjectivities and practices through research and action. The International Journal of Multilingualism, 18(4), 523-533. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2021.1913171

Erling, E. J., Radinger, S., & Foltz, A. (2020). Understanding low outcomes in English language education in Austrian middle schools: The role of teachers’ beliefs and practices. Advance online publication. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1829630

European Commission. (2008). Education and Migration: Strategies for integrating migrant children in European schools and societies. NESSE and European Commission Education & Culture DG. https://bit.ly/3e7C4az

European Commission. (2019). Integrating students from migrant backgrounds into schools in Europe: National policies and measures. Eurydice report. Publications Office of the European Union. https://bit.ly/3xW9eTs

Faulkner-Bond, M., Waring, S., Forte, E., Crenshaw, R. L., Tindle, K., & Belknap, B. (2012). Language instruction educational programs (LIEPs): A review of the foundational literature. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development. https://bit.ly/3qcwedt

Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research of Austria [Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung]. (2019). Der muttersprachliche Unterricht in Österreich: Statistische Auswertung für das Schuljahr 2017/18. Informationsblatt zum Thema Migration und Schule [Mother-tongue teaching in Austria: Statistical evaluation of the school year 2017/18. Information sheet on the topic of migration and school]. https://bit.ly/3lD7Ksk

Flores, N., & García, E. S. (2020). Power, language, and bilingual learners. In N. S. Nasir, C. D. Lee, R. Pea, & M. McKinney de Royston (Eds.), Handbook of the cultural foundations of learning (pp. 178-192). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203774977-12

García, O., & Kleyn, T. (2016). A translanguaging educational project. In O. García & T. Kleyn (Eds.), Translanguaging with multilingual students. Learning from Classroom Moments (pp. 34-54). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315695242

García, O., & Sylvan, C. E. (2011). Pedagogies and practices in multilingual classrooms: Singularities in pluralities. Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 385–400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01208.x

García, O., & Wei, L. (2013). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765

García-Mateus, S., & Palmer, D. (2017). Translanguaging pedagogies for positive identities in two-way dual language bilingual education. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 245–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1329016

Gatti, G., Irazuzta, I., & Martínez, M. (2017). When school meets the other: Intercultural policies in the Basque inclusive school. Patterns of Prejudice, 51(1), 89-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2016.1274157 

Gefäller, L. (2017). Language learning for migrant children in Germany: Separate or inclusive? The Migrationist. https://bit.ly/3H21hQe  

Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W. M., & Christian, D. (2006). Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499913

Gitschthaler, M., Kast, J., Corazza, R., & Schwab, S. (2021). Inclusion of multilingual students: Teachers’ perceptions on language support models. International Journal of Inclusive Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2021.2011439

Gogolin, I., Dirim, I., Klinger, T., Lange, I., Lengyel, D., Michel, U., Neumann, U., Reich, H., Roth, H.-J., & Schwippert, K. (2011). Förderung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund (FörMig): Bilanz und Perspektiven eines Modellprogramms [Supporting children and adolescents with a migration background: Balance and perspectives of a model program]. Waxmann.

Hall, C. J., & Cunningham, C. (2020). Educators’ beliefs about English and languages beyond English: From ideology to ontology and back again. Linguistics and Education, 57, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2020.100817

Hamman, L. (2018). Translanguaging and positioning in two-way dual language classrooms: A case for criticality. Language and Education, 32(1), 21-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2017.1384006

Herzog-Punzenberger, B. (2017). Ungleichheit in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft: Intergenerationale Mobilität der angeworbenen Arbeitskräfte in Österreich [Inequality in an immigration society: Intergenerational mobility of the recruited labor force in Austria]. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-16702-8

Herzog-Punzenberger, B., Le Pichon-Vorstman, E., & Siarova, H. (2017). Multilingual education in the light of diversity: Lessons learned. NESET II Report. Publications Office of the European Union. https://op.europa.eu/s/uWbW

Hofstetter, C. H. (2004). Effects of a transitional bilingual education program: Findings, issues, and next steps. Bilingual Research Journal, 28(3), 355–377. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2004.10162621

Höller, I., Itzlinger-Bruneforth, U., & Widauer, K. (2019). Schule und Unterricht in vielfältigen Lernwelten [School and teaching in diverse learning worlds]. In J. Schmich, & U. Itzlinger-Bruneforth (Eds.), TALIS 2018: Rahmenbedingungen des schulischen Lehrens und Lernens aus Sicht von Lehrkräften und Schulleitungen im internationalen Vergleich [Framework conditions of school teaching and learning from the perspective of teachers and school administrators in international comparison]. (Vol. 1, pp. 83-100). Leykam. http://doi.org/10.17888/talis2018-1

Irby, B. J., Lara-Alecio, R., Tong, F., Guerrero, C., Sutton-Jones, K. L., & Abdelrahman, N. (2019). Implementation of research-based ESL strategies with lower grade middle school ELLs in the science classroom: Findings from an experimental study. TESL-EJ: The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 22(1). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1178995.pdf

Jessner, U., & Allgäuer-Hackl, E. (2020). Multilingual awareness and metacognition in multilingually diverse classrooms. Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices, 1(1), 66–88. https://doi.org/10.1558/jmtp.17285

Karakayalı, J., zur Nieden, B., Kahveci, Ç., Groß, S., Heller, M., & Güleryüz, T. (2016). ‘Willkommensklassen’ in Berlin: Mit Segregation zur Inklusion? [‘Welcome classes' in Berlin: With segregation to inclusion?]. Berliner Institut für empirische Integrations- und Migrationsforschung [Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research] (BIM). https://bit.ly/33ylv5p

Kast, J., & Schwab, S. (2020). Teachers’ and parents’ attitudes towards inclusion of pupils with a first language other than the language of instruction. International Journal of Inclusive Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1837267

Kocaj, A., Kuhl, P., Kroth, A., Pant, H. A., & Stanat, P. (2014). Wo lernen Kinder mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf besser? Ein Vergleich schulischer Kompetenzen zwischen Regel- und Förderschulen in der Primarstufe [Where do children with special educational needs learn better? A comparison of school competencies between regular and special needs schools in primary education]. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie [Cologne Journal of Sociology and Social Psychology], 66, 165-191. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11577-014-0253-x

Koehler, C., & Schneider, J. (2019). Young refugees in education: The particular challenges of school systems in Europe. Comparative Migration Studies, 7, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-019-0129-3

Lessard, A., Butler-Kisber, L., Fortin, L., & Marcotte, D. (2014). Analyzing the discourse of dropouts and resilient students. The Journal of Educational Research 107(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2012.753857

Lindholm-Leary, K. J., & Genesee, F. (2014). Student outcomes in one-way, two-way, and indigenous language immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 165-180. https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.01lin

Lindholm-Leary, K. J., & Hernandez, A. (2011). Achievement and language proficiency of Latino students in dual language programmes: Native English speakers, fluent English/previous ELLs, and current ELLs. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32(6), 531– 545. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2011.611596

Lucas, T., & Villegas, A. M. (2011). A framework for preparing linguistically responsive teachers. In T. Lucas (Ed.), Teacher preparation for linguistically diverse classrooms: A resource for teacher educators (pp. 3-17). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203843239

Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18

Marsh, H. W., Tracey, D. K., & Craven, R. G. (2006). Multidimensional self-concept structure for preadolescents with mild intellectual disabilities: A hybrid multigroup-mimic approach to factorial invariance and latent mean differences. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 795–818. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405285910

May, S. (Ed.). (2013). The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and bilingual education. Routledge.

Mayrhofer, L., Oberwimmer, K., Toferer, B., Neubacher, M., Freunberger, R., Vogtenhuber, S., & Baumegger, D. (2019). Indikatoren C: Prozesse des Schulsystems [Indicators C: Processes of the school system]. In K. Oberwimmer, S. Vogtenhuber, L. Lassnigg, & C. Schreiner (Eds.), Nationaler Bildungsbericht Österreich 2018 – Band 1: Das Schulsystem im Spiegel von Daten und Indikatoren [National education report Austria 2018 - Volume 1: The school system as reflected by data and indicators]. Leykam. http://doi.org/10.17888/nbb2018-1.2

Melo-Pfeifer, S. (2018). The multilingual turn in foreign language education. In A. Bonnet, & P. Siemund (Eds.), Foreign language education in multilingual classrooms (pp. 191-212). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/hsld.7

Mensing, M. (2021). Integrating students from migrant backgrounds into the education system in Austria [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. University of Vienna.

Moinolnolki, N., & Han, M. (2017). No child left behind: What about refugees? Childhood Education, 93(1), 3-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2017.1275231

Möller, J., Hohenstein, F., Fleckenstein, J., Köller, O., & Baumert, J. (Eds.). (2017). Erfolgreich integrieren: Die Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin [Successful integration: The Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin]. Waxmann.

Müller, B., & Schweiger, H. (2018). Stellungnahme von Forschenden und Lehrenden des Bereichs Deutsch als Zweitsprache der Universitäten Graz, Innsbruck, Salzburg und Wien zum Bildungsprogramm 2017 bis 2022 der österreichischen Bundesregierung [Statement by researchers and teachers of German as a Second Language at the Universities of Graz, Innsbruck, Salzburg and Vienna on the Austrian Federal Government’s education program 2017 to 2022]. https://bit.ly/3otWMaF

Nilsson, J., & Axelsson, M. (2013). “Welcome to Sweden...”: Newly arrived students' experiences of pedagogical and social provision in introductory and regular classes. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 6(1), 137-164. https://www.iejee.com/index.php/IEJEE/article/view/37

Nilsson, J., & Bunar, N. (2016). Educational responses to newly arrived students in Sweden: Understanding the structure and influence of post-migration ecology. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 60(4), 399-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2015.1024160 

Opriessnig, S., Waxenegger, A., & Oberwimmer, K. (2019). Evaluationsbericht. Evaluation Sprachfördermaßnahmen nach §8e SchOG. Bundesinstitut für Bildungsforschung, Innovation & Entwicklung des österreichischen Schulwesens [Evaluation report. Evaluation of language support measures according to §8e SchOG. Federal Institute for Educational Research, Innovation & Development of the Austrian School System] https://bit.ly/3GkXNHQ

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2018a). The resilience of students with an immigrant background: Factors that shape well-being. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264292093-en  

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2018b). Equity in education: Breaking down barriers to social mobility. PISA. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264073234-en

Ovando, C. J., Combs, M. C., & Collier, V. P. (2005). Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts. McGraw-Hill.

Oxford, R. (1997). Cooperative Learning, Collaborative Learning, and Interaction: Three Communicative Strands in the Language Classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 443-456. https://doi.org/10.2307/328888

Paradis, J. (2009). Second language acquisition in childhood. In E. Hoff, & M. Shatz (Eds.), Handbook of language development. Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757833.ch19

Purkarthofer, J. (2016). Begriffe von mehrsprachigkeit: Sprachliche bildung der pädagoginnen vom kindergarten bis zur erwachsenenbildung: Eine empirische untersuchung ausgewählter curricula [Conceptions of multilingualism: Language-supportive education of teachers from kindergarten to adult education: An empirical study of selected curricula.] Wien. https://bit.ly/3DrBTkz 

Purkarthofer, J., & Mossakowski, J. (2011). Bilingual teaching for multilingual students? Innovative dual-medium models in Slovene-German schools in Austria. International Review of Education, 57, 551–565. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9255-3

Ray-Subramanian, C. E. (2011). Structured English immersion. In  S. N. J. A. Goldstein (Ed.), Encyclopedia of child behavior and development. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2825

Resch, K., Gitschthaler, M., & Schwab, S. (2022). Teacher’s perceptions of separate language learning models for students with immigrant background in Austrian schools. Intercultural Education Journal. Manuscript submitted      for publication.

Roseth, C. J., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2008). Promoting early adolescents' achievement and peer relationships: The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 223–246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.2.223

Savignon, S. J. (2002). Communicative language teaching: Linguistic theory and classroom practice. In S. J. Savignon (Ed.), Interpreting communicative language teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education (pp. 1–28). Yale University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1npsh9.4

Schreiner, C., Suchań, B., & Salchegger, S. (2020). Monitoring student achievement in Austria: Implementation, results and political reactions. In H. Harju-Luukkainen, N. McElvany, & J. Stang (Eds.), Monitoring student achievement in the 21st Century (pp. 65-78). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38969-7

Schwab, S. (2018a). Peer-relations of students with special educational needs in inclusive education. In S. Polenghi, M. Fiorucci, & L. Agostinetto (Eds.), Diritti Cittadinanza Inclusione [Rights Citizenship Inclusion] (pp. 15-24). Pensa MultiMedia.

Schwab, S. (2018b). Attitudes towards Inclusive Schooling. A study on students’, teachers’ and parents’ attitudes. Waxmann.

Schwab, S. (2020, January 30). Inclusive and special education in Europe. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.1230

Schwab, S., & Gitschthaler, M. (2021). Stellungnahme betreffend Deutschförderklassen und MIKA-D Test. Parlamentarische Bürgerinitiative betreffend die Abschaffung der Deutschförderklassen und des MIKA-D Tests [Statement regarding German Support Classes and the MIKA-D Test. Parliamentary citizens’ initiative concerning the abolition of German Support Classes and the MIKA-D Test]. https://bit.ly/3lFv0WS

Schwab, S., Kast, J., & Lindner, K.-T. (2020). Deutschförderklassen und Deutschförderkurse: Ergebnisse zur Befragung von Lehrer*innen [German Support Classes and German Support Courses: Results of a teachers’ survey]. https://bit.ly/3InGIz1

Schweiger, H., & Müller, B. (2021). Mangelhaft und unzureichend: Deutschförderklassen aus der Sicht von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern [Deficient and inadequate: German Support Classes from the teachers’ perspective]. In K. Resch, K.-T. Lindner, B. Streese, M. Proyer, & Schwab, S. (Eds.), Inklusive Schule und Schulentwicklung. Theoretische Grundlagen, empirische Befunde und Praxisbeispiele aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz [Inclusive school and school development: Theoretical foundations, empirical findings and practical examples from Germany, Austria and Switzerland] (pp. 43-54). Waxmann.

Statistik Austria. (2019). Schülerinnen und Schüler in Deutschförderklassen 2019/20 (vorläufige Daten) im Vergleich zu 2018/19 [Students in German language support classes 2019/20 (preliminary data) compared to 2018/19]. https://bit.ly/3ptBppc

Statistik Austria. (2021). Schülerinnen und Schüler mit nicht-deutscher Umgangssprache im Schuljahr 2019/20 [Students with non-German home language in the school year 2019/20]. https://bit.ly/31wSx4Y

Suchań, B., Höller, I., & Wallner-Paschon, C. (2019). PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich [Basic competencies at the end of compulsory education in international comparison]. Leykam. http://doi.org/10.17888/pisa2018-eb

Tajic, D., & Bunar, N. (2020). Do both ‘get it right’? Inclusion of newly arrived migrant students in Swedish primary schools. International Journal of Inclusive Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1841838

Terhart, H., & von Dewitz, N. (2018). Newly arrived migrant students in German schools: Exclusive and inclusive structures and practices. European Educational Research Journal, 17(2), 290-304. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904117722623

Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence, 96, 1-351. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED475048

Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2017). Why dual language schooling. Dual Language Education of New Mexico-Fuente Press.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2019). Global education monitoring report, 2019: Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265866

van Kampen, E., Meirink, J., Admiraal, W., & Berry, A. (2017). Do we all share the same goals for content and language integrated learning (CLIL)? Specialist and practitioner perceptions of ‘ideal’ CLIL pedagogies in the Netherlands. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(8), 855-871. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1411332

Venetz, M., Tarnutzer, R., Zurbriggen, C., & Sempert, W. (2010). Die Qualität des Erlebens von Lernenden in integrativen und separativen Schulformen: Eine Untersuchung mit der Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [The quality of learners' experiences in inclusive and separate school settings: An investigation with the Experience Sampling Method]. Zürich, Switzerland: University of Applied Sciences of Special Needs Education (HfH). https://bit.ly/3qfsA2s  

Walker, A., Shafer, J., & Iiams, M. (2004). “Not in my classroom”: Teacher attitudes towards English language learners in the mainstream classroom. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 2(1), 130–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1411332

Wentzel, K. R., Barry, C. M., & Caldwell, K. A. (2004). Friendships in middle school: Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.2.195

Wernicke, M., Hammer, S., Hansen, A., & Schroedler, T. (Eds.). (2021). Preparing teachers to work with multilingual learners. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/WERNIC6102

Young, A. S. (2014). Unpacking teachers’ language ideologies: Attitudes, beliefs, and practiced language policies in schools in Alsace, France. Language Awareness, 23(1-2), 157–171. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2013.863902

Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: A synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86, 981–1015. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626801

Ziomas, D., Bouzas, N., Capella, A., & Konstantinidou, D. (2017). Integrating refugee and migrant children into the educational system in Greece. ESPN Flash Report 2017/67 produced by the European Social Policy Network (ESPN). https://bit.ly/3op7AXw