Research Article
Scientific Creativity: The Missing Ingredient in Slovenian Science Education

Andrej Sorgo


APA 6th edition
Sorgo, A. (2012). Scientific Creativity: The Missing Ingredient in Slovenian Science Education. European Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), 127-141. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.127

Harvard
Sorgo A. 2012 'Scientific Creativity: The Missing Ingredient in Slovenian Science Education', European Journal of Educational Research , vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 127-141. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.127

Chicago 16th edition
Sorgo, Andrej . "Scientific Creativity: The Missing Ingredient in Slovenian Science Education". (2012)European Journal of Educational Research 1, no. 2(2012): 127-141. doi:10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.127

Abstract

Creativity is regarded as one of the cornerstones for economic and social progress in every society. There are two possible ways to get creative people to work for an enterprise or community. The first is by attracting creative employees by good working conditions – a solution for those who can afford such an approach. For communities that are not so rich, the only solution is to foster creativity by education and by helping small and medium enterprises to create products based on creative ideas and innovations. In Slovenia, proposals for nourishing creativity and innovations emerge from the government thus forgetting that creativity does not start at University or on the first day of employment. To increase creativity, immediate action should be taken throughout the educational system, recognizing that society needs not only creative artists but scientists, economists and engineers as well. Through the analysis of the legislation, syllabi and textbooks, it can be recognized that they do not promote or even allow creativity in science education; even more, they can be regarded as creativity killers. In such a way key documents and teaching resources are placing creative science teachers in the position of guerrillas in a battle against prevailing teaching methods influenced by highstakes external exams or measurable outcomes. To improve science creativity, the legislation should be changed to give creativity appropriate value, and teachers must be educated to use methods that increase creativity in students, with the aim of producing open minds that will be able to work in a creative way.

Keywords: creativity, education, elementary education, secondary education, innovation, strategies


References

Aberšek, B. (2004) Vocational education system in Slovenia between the past and the future. International Journal of Educational Development, 24(5), 547–558.

Beine, M., Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2008). Brain drain and human capital formation in developing countries: Winners and losers. Economic Journal, 118,(528), 631-652.

Chen, Z, & Guan, J. (2010).The impact of small world on innovation: An empirical study of 16 countries, Journal of Informetrics, 4(1), 97-106.

Creative Economy Report (2008).  The challenge of assessing the creative economy towards informed policy-making. UNCTAD/DITC/2008/2 - , 20/04/08. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf ,.

European Year of Creativity and Innovation (2009). European Ambassadors for Creativity and Innovation. Retrieved from November 27, 2010, http://create2009.europa.eu/fileadmin/Content/Downloads/PDF/Manifesto/manifesto.en.pdf

Dehaan, R. L. (2009). Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 8(3), 172-181.

Dobrowolska, B. (2010). School Culture - Teacher's Competence - Students' Creative Attitudes. Reflection on school pragmatics. New Educational Review, 20(1), 183-192.

Economy Of Culture In Europe, study prepared for the European Commission by KEA, European Affairs, Brussels, 2006. Retrieved from November 27, 2010, http://www.keanet.eu/ecoculture/studynew.pdf

Florida, R. (2004). America's looming creativity crisis. Harvard Business Review, 82(10), 122-131.

Glažar, S. A., & Devetak, I. (2010). Natural science competencies and scientific literacy of students in international studies PISA and TIMSS. In V. Grubelnik (Ed), Definition of Natural Science Competencies. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor. 2010.

Ivanuš Grmek, M., & Javornik Krečič, M. (2004). Impact of external examinations (Matura) on school lessons. Educational Studies, 30(3), 319–329.

Jang, S. J. (2009). Exploration of secondary students' creativity by integrating web-based technology into an innovative science curriculum, Computers & Education, 52(1), 247-255.

Kirton, M. J. (1976). Adaptors and innovators: A description and measure, Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 622-629.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 212-218.

Meintjes, H., & Grosser, M. (2010). Creative thinking in prospective teachers: the status quo and the impact of contextual factors, South African Journal of Education, 30(3), 361-386.

Mcwilliam, E., & Dawson, S. (2008). Teaching for creativity: towards sustainable and replicable pedagogical practice, Higher Education, 56(6), 633-643.

Mulej, M., Likar, B., Potocan, V. (2005). Increasing the capacity of companies to absorb inventions from research organizations and encouraging people to innovate. Cybernetics and Systems, 36(5), 491-512.

National Higher Education Programme For The Period 2011–2020. Daring Slovenia: A knowledge-based society. Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Retrieved from November 27, 2010, http://www.mvzt.gov.si/fileadmin/mvzt.gov.si/pageuploads/pdf/odnosi_z_javnostmi/8.9.10_NPVS.pdf

National Report Pisa (2006). The science, reading and mathematical achievements of Slovenian students [In the Slovenian language]. Pedagoški inštitut. Retrieved from November 27, 2010,http://www.pei.si/UserFilesUpload/file/raziskovalna_dejavnost/PISA/PISA2009/PISA2006NacionalnoPorocilo.pdf

Newton, L. D., & Newton, D. P. (2010). What Teachers See as Creative Incidents in Elementary Science Lessons. International Journal of Science Education, 32(15), 1989-2005.

Pšunder, M, & Harl, M., N. (2008). Connection between matura and didactic implementation of educational process in general upper secondary schools. Didactica Slovenica-Pedagoska Obzorja, 23(3-4), 105–124.

Research And Innovation Strategy Of The Republic Of Slovenia. Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Retrieved from November 27, 2010, http://www.mvzt.gov.si/fileadmin/mvzt.gov.si/pageuploads/pdf/ odnosi_z_javnostmi/IZHODI%C5%A0%C4%8CA_NRIP.pdf

Rigby, D. K., Gruver, K., & Allen, J. (2009). Innovation in Turbulent Times. Harvard Business Review, 87(6), 79-86.

Sabadie, J. A., & Johansen, J. (2010). How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital? European Journal of Education, 45(2), 236-258.

Sahlberg, P., & Oldroyd, D. (2010). Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development, European Journal of Education, 45(2), 280-299.

Simonton, D. K. (1999a). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simonton, D. K. (1999b). Talent and its development: An emergenic and epigenetic model, Psychological Review, 106(3), 435-457.

Šorgo, A. (2010).  Connecting biology and mathematics : first prepare the teachers. CBE Life Science Education, 9(3), 196-200.

Šorgo, A., & Špernjak, A. (in press) Practical work in biology, chemistry and physics at lower secondary and general upper secondary schools in Slovenia, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education,

Šorgo, A., & Šteblaj, M. (2007). Curricula and their impact on interdisciplinary integration of natural science subjects in high school. Didactica Slovenica-Pedagoska Obzorja, 22, 1-2), 113-127.

Šorgo, A., Usak, M., Aydogdu, M., Keles O., & Ambrozic-Dolinsek, J. (2011). Biology teaching in upper secondary schools: comparative study between Slovenia and Turkey, Energy education Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies, 3, 3), 305-314.

Šorgo, A., Verčkovnik, T., & Kocijančič, S. (2007) Laboratory work in biology teaching at Slovene secondary schools, Acta biologica slovenica, 50, 2), 113-124.

Stark, O., Helmenstein, C.And Prskawetz, A. (1997) A brain gain with a brain drain, Economics Letters, 55, 2), 227-234.

Strgar, J. (2010) State of scientific literacy in the field of biology. In Grubelnik, V. (ed). Definition of Natural Science Competencies. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor. 2010.

Taylor, A. R., Jones, M. G., Broadwell, B., & Oppewal, T (2008) Creativity, Inquiry, or Accountability? Scientists' and Teachers' Perceptions of Science Education, Science Education, 92, 6), 1058-1075.

Villalba, E. (2010) Monitoring Creativity at an Aggregate Level: a proposal for Europe. European Journal of Education, 45, 2, 314-330.

Whitty, G. (2010) Revisiting School Knowledge: some sociological perspectives on new school curricula, European Journal of Education, 45(1),  28-45.

Zenko, Z., Mulej, M., & Marn, J. ( 2004) Innovation before entry into the EU: The case of Slovenia, Post-Communist Economies, 16(2),  169-189.