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'working memory' Search Results



Field Dependency and Performance in Mathematics

field dependency working memory mathematics education

Onyebuchi Onwumere , Norman Reid


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Mathematics is an important school subject but one which often poses problems for learners. It has been found that learners do not possess the cognitive capacity to handle understanding procedures, representations, concepts, and applications at the same time. while the extent of field dependency may hold the key to one way by which the working memory can be used more efficiently. This study aims to explore the concept of field dependency which may offer a way forward in reducing the cognitive demands of finite working memory capacity, thus enabling higher performance to be attained. Age and gender were considered. With a sample of 120 secondary school students, the importance of working memory in relation to mathematics performance was confirmed (r = 0.55 ). The extent of field dependency was measured with a larger sample of 547, drawn from five age groups. The outcomes were related to the performance in mathematics examinations, a correlation of 0.32 being obtained overall, with every age group showing positive significant correlations. In this, the more field independent perform much better. The outcomes are interpreted in terms of the increased efficiency in the use of finite working memory capacity resources. It was found that students become more field independent with age but the rate of growth of independence declines with age. Girls tended to be slightly more field-independent than boys, perhaps reflecting maturity or their greater commitment during their years of adolescence. The findings are interpreted in terms of the way the brain processes information and the implications for mathematics education are discussed briefly.

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10.12973/eu-jer.3.1.43
Pages: 43-57
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Gender and Learner Characteristics

high ability gender learner characteristics working memory

Huda Hindal , Norman Reid , Rex Whitehead


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It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls differ in these learner characteristics and do any of the differences relate to examination performance. If the development of such learner characteristic is open to experiences in the formal learning situations, then this opens the door to possible ways to encourage the development of such characteristics, with possible concomitant enhancement of academic performance. It is found that girls outperform the boys in tests which measure extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and skills with the visual-spatial (all at p < 0.001). Confirming previous studies, the girls markedly outperform the boys in all school subject examinations but there are no differences in their measured working memory capacities. In looking at the relationships between various combinations of the measurements made, it is found that boys are much more dependent on working memory than girls in performing in examinations, and the boys are also much more dependent on employing skills related to divergent thought in achieving success in examinations. These observations are interpreted in terms of the way boys and girls learn, with girls being more conscientious and willing to memorise than the boys who, in turn, have to rely on working things out for success: girls tend to memorise; boys tend to try to work it out. This may offer an explanation of the greater success of girls in typical examinations where the accurate recall of information is so often the key to success.

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10.12973/eu-jer.2.2.83
Pages: 83-96
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Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was explored along with a survey of areas of difficulty and student attitudes. This involved looking at student perceptions of their experiences, the nature of the difficulties they have with mathematics and possible reasons for these difficulties. The overall aim is to explore the extent of the effect of working memory and to gain insights so that practical ways forward to enhance mathematics education can be identified. It was found that limited working memory capacity has a very strong influence on performance, confirming other studies. Indeed, if the cognitive load exceeds the capacity of working memory, understanding becomes a casualty, with consequent attitude deterioration. Students need to be able to see that mathematics has a purpose in being able to be applied to real-life situations. However, attempts to develop applications may often generate further working memory overload. Curricula devised by those outside the classroom can sometimes be inappropriate while topics causing the greatest problems at these ages and include areas of geometry, statistics and the applications of mathematics.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.3.283
Pages: 283-299
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15

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Anxiety that students experience during test taking negatively influences their academic achievement. Understanding how students perceive tests and how they feel during test taking could help in taking effective preventive measures. Hence, the current study focused on assessing children’s perceptions of tests using content analysis. The sample consisted of 1143 participants (566 females and 570 males) attending 3rd (n = 320), 4th (n = 420), 5th (n = 197), and 6th (n = 206) grade classes in three public schools in Istanbul, Turkey. The findings indicated that three main domains emerged from the data. The domains and the categories under each domain were as follows: evaluation (grades, success vs. failure, learning and development, and intelligence), emotions (excitement, fear and anxiety, happiness, curiosity, mixed feelings, and disappointment), and experiential process (answering questions, studying, difficulty, thinking, having fun, cheating vs. honesty, and silence). Understanding students’ experiences with testing early on in their education will give researchers and practitioners the chance to plan effective applications for treatment and prevention, which would influence students’ future achievement and experiences. The study findings could also help teachers and school counselors plan more effective teaching and counseling programs that take into account students’ anxiety levels during tests.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.159
Pages: 159-167
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646
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1365
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3

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This study aimed to describe seven indicators of students’ verbal linguistic intelligence in reading subject. It used a qualitative research method. The subjects of this study were 30 students consisted of 9 male and 21 female students. They took the reading subject in the second semester of the first year. They were given a test of verbal-linguistic intelligence. Seven students were selected to be interviewed because they have verbal-linguistic intelligence and good communication. To find out the validity of the data, the researchers used triangulation of the test results and the results of interviews and triangulation of the second researcher and research assistants. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using the content analysis method which consisted of three steps, they were data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing/verification. The results of the study show that there were seven indicators of verbal-linguistic intelligence of students in reading subject, first, having excellent initial knowledge in mentioning words, second, enjoying wordplay with Scrabble, third, entertaining themselves and other students by playing tongue twisters, fourth, explaining the meaning of the words written and discussed, fifth, having difficulties in mathematics lesson, sixth, their conversation refers to something they have read and heard, and the last, having the ability to write poetry based on personal experience.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.117
Pages: 117-128
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4582
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5

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8

The Impacts of Mathematics Instructional Strategy on Students with Autism: A Systematic Literature Review

mathematics instructional design autism spectrum disorder systematic literature review

Nur Choiro Siregar , Roslinda Rosli , Siti Mistima Maat , Aliza Alias , Hasnah Toran , Kannamah Mottan , Siti Muhibah Nor


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Mathematics is one of the most challenging subjects for many students. A similar problem is faced by special needs students, such as students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Various instructional strategies are implemented by specialists to help ASD students understand mathematics in schools. To explore the impacts of an instructional strategy of mathematics on ASD students, the authors conducted a review of literature from 2011 to 2017 using various databases including ProQuest Digital Dissertations and Theses Full Text, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. A total of 39 articles were found. Most of the instructional strategy aimed to assist ASD students in solving mathematics problems. The implications of the study are also discussed in this literature review, which indicates that teachers need to use the appropriate instructional strategy to meet the needs of students with ASD and maximize their mathematics learning outcomes in schools.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.729
Pages: 729-741
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1454
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1541
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7

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3

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Learning models that can improve critical thinking, skills collaborate, communicate, and creative thinking are needed in the 21st-century education era. Critical and creative thinking are the two essential competencies of the four skills required in the 21st century. However, both are still difficult to achieve well by students due to a lack of thinking skills during mathematics learning. This study was conducted to determine the model of learning that is appropriate to develop students' critical and creative thinking skills. The study used three-class samples from eighth grade. The first class is given the problem-posing lesson; the second class is given contextual learning and third class as a control class. The results of the study indicate that improving students' critical and creative thinking skills are included in the moderate category for types using contextual learning and problem-posing. Also, it is found that contextual learning is more effective for improving critical thinking skills when compared with learning problem posing and expository learning. Meanwhile, learning problem posing is more useful to enhance creative thinking skills compared with contextual and expository learning.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.877
Pages: 877-887
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1333
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1542
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20

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13

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This research aims to test (1) the effectiveness between problem posing learning model with Indonesian realistic mathematical education approach and problem posing learning model on written mathematical communication skills, (2) the effectiveness between field-independent and field-dependent cognitive styles on written mathematical communication skills, (3) the effectiveness between problem posing learning model with Indonesian realistic mathematical education approach and problem posing learning model on the written mathematical communication skills from each cognitive style, and (4) the effectiveness between field-independent and field-dependent cognitive styles on written mathematical communication skills from each learning model. This quantitative research employed a quasi-experimental method. The research sample consisted of 240 fifth-grade elementary school students in Jebres District, Surakarta, Indonesia. Data collection techniques included tests of written mathematical communication skills and cognitive styles. The data were analyzed using prerequisite (normality, homogeneity, and balance), hypothesis, and multiple-comparison tests. The findings prove that (1) PP model with Indonesian realistic mathematical education approach is more effective than the PP and direct instruction models, (2) field-independent cognitive style is better than field dependent, (3) PP with Indonesian realistic mathematical education is as effective as the PP model, but more effective than the direct instruction model, and the PP model is more effective than the direct instruction model in each cognitive style, and (4) in the PP learning model with Indonesian realistic mathematical education approach, field-independent cognitive style is same skill as with field-dependent, but field-independent is better than field-dependent cognitive style in the PP and direct instruction learning models.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.979
Pages: 979-994
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12

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The study aims at investigating basic level schoolteachers' awareness of their students' mathematics learning disability (MLD) in the context of Nepal. It is based on a mixed-method research design in that it combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches as appropriate. Using the stratified random sampling technique, 300 basic level mathematics teachers were selected from 150 basic level (grades 1-8) community and institutional schools representing the three significant ecological regions (the Mountain, the Hill, and the Terai) and demographic variables (gender, place of residence, and school type) from Province 1 of Nepal. A Mathematics Learning Disability Awareness Scale (MLDA-Scale), was developed and used to measure the basic level schoolteachers' awareness of their students' MLD. Besides, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the purposively selected basic level schoolteachers for the qualitative data. The basic level schoolteachers' awareness of MLD factor categories was calculated using descriptive statistics. Similarly, t-tests were conducted to examine the effects of the demographic variables. The qualitative data, however, were analyzed thematically. The results reveal that the majority of the basic level schoolteachers' knowledge toward their students' MLD was inadequate and that the demographic variables had no significant effects on the teachers' knowledge of their students' MLD. Finally, the study recommends developing the managerial practices regarding the MLD issue further.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.367
Pages: 367-380
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711
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913
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6

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2

Eighth Grade Students’ Misconceptions and Errors in Mathematics Learning in Nepal

mathematical conceptions misconceptions in mathematics students’ errors in mathematics nepal

Mukunda Prakash Kshetree , Bed Raj Acharya , Bishnu Khanal , Ram Krishna Panthi , Shashidhar Belbase


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This paper explores misconceptions and errors (M/Es) of eighth-grade students in Nepal with a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control and experimental groups. The treatment was implemented with teaching episodes based on different remedial strategies of addressing students' M/Es. Students of control groups were taught under conventional teaching-learning method, whereas experimental groups were treated with a guided method to treat with misconceptions and errors. The effectiveness of treatment was tested at the end of the intervention. The results showed that the new guided treatment approach was found to be significant to address students' M/Es. Consequently, the students of experimental groups made significant progress in dealing with M/Es in mathematical problem-solving at conceptual, procedural, and application levels.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1101
Pages: 1101-1121
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1231
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1216
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6

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5

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This research is motivated by a linear equations system, which is the basis for studying necessary linear algebra materials, such as rank, range, linear independent/dependent, linear transformations, characteristic values and vectors. There are still prospective mathematics teachers who have difficulty solving linear equations system and understanding the form of row echelon and reduced row echelon forms. In this study, subjects were three prospective mathematics teachers from Swadaya Gunung Jati University Cirebon who were taking matrix algebra courses. This study aims to reveal the conceptual understanding of prospective mathematics teachers in determining the solution to systems of linear equations. The results show that there are still prospective mathematics teachers who only use memory about the properties and procedures in determining whether a matrix is said to be a row echelon form or a reduced row echelon form. Then, there is still weakness in building the algorithms' relationship due to the immature knowledge of the concepts. Researchers found that many prospective mathematics teachers were more comfortable solving problems that were performed procedurally. Further research is needed to determine how the mental construction process and mathematical conceptual knowledge of prospective mathematics teachers are through meaningful learning so that conceptual understanding is maximized.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1157
Pages: 1157-1170
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562
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813
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2

Functional Measurement Applied to Engineering Students’ Test Anxiety Judgment for Online and Face-to-face Tests

test anxiety engineering students cognitive algebra information integration theory

Maria Isolde Hedlefs-Aguilar , Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Ricardo Jesus Villarreal-Lozano , Claudia Moreno-Rodriguez , Erick Alejandro Gonzalez-Rodriguez


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This study explored the cognitive mechanism behind information integration in the test anxiety judgments in 140 engineering students. An experiment was designed to test four factors combined (test goal orientation, test cognitive functioning level, test difficulty and test mode). The experimental task required participants to read 36 scenarios, one at a time and then estimate how much test anxiety they would experience in the evaluation situation described in each scenario. The results indicate three response styles (low, moderate, and high-test anxiety) among the participants. The orientation and difficulty of each given exam scenario were the most critical factors dictating test anxiety judgments. Only the moderate test anxiety group considered the test mode to be a third relevant factor. The integration mechanism for Cluster 1 was multiplicative, while for Clusters 2 and 3, it was summative. Furthermore, these last two clusters differed in terms of the valuation of the factors. These results suggest that programs that help students to cope with test anxiety need to take into account the valuation and integration mechanism that students use to integrate different information in specific examination contexts, since the way students assess their internal and external circumstances can influence how they deal with evaluative situations.

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10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1599
Pages: 1599-1612
cloud_download 463
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463
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536
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2

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2

The Characteristics of Mathematical Literacy Based on Students’ Executive Function

executive function mathematic mathematics literacy pisa

Dani Kusuma Y.L Sukestiyarno , Wardono , Adi Nur Cahyono


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Literacy ability is an individual's ability to reason, formulate, solve, and interpret mathematically to solve problems related to daily life. Executive function is a cognitive aspect that has a relation with mathematical literacy. One of some aspects that affects the low mathematical literacy ability is the aspect of executive function. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of mathematical literacy based on the executive function aspects of 15 years old students. A qualitative method with a descriptive approach is employed in this study. The present research applies interview guidelines, questionnaires, and students' mathematical literacy tests as the instruments. Research subjects are junior high school students in grade VIII from two different schools. The result shows that the students' executive function influences mathematical literacy ability. Students' mathematical literacy ability is not fully achieved by fulfilling all the indicators involved. Another aspect found in the research is the low critical thinking ability impacts the achievement of mathematical literacy ability indicators.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.1.193
Pages: 193-206
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808
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1209
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5

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This study aimed to determine the effect of cognitive and affective factors on the performance of prospective mathematics teachers. Cognitive factors include cognitive independence level and working memory capacity, while affective factor include math anxiety. Mathematical performance was then assessed as basic math skills, advanced math skills and problem-solving ability. This research combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. In order to determine the effects of cognitive independence, working memory capacity, and math anxiety on math performance, multiple regression tests were used. To then see the effects of these three factors on problem-solving ability, a qualitative approach was used. Eighty-seven prospective math teachers participated in this study. Based on the results of the multiple regression, it was found that the level of cognitive independence affects basic math skills but has no effect on advanced math skills. Working memory capacity was seen to positively affect math performance (basic and advanced math skills, problem-solving skills), while mathematics anxiety demonstrated negative effects on advanced math skills and problem-solving skills.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1379
Pages: 1379-1391
cloud_download 701
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701
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1066
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2

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5

How Does Working Memory Capacity Affect Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving?

mathematical ability problem solving working memory capacity

Deka Anjariyah , Dwi Juniati , Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono


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Problem-solving process requires information processing, and the information processing is related to working memory capacity (WMC). This study aims to determine the effect of WMC on students' mathematical abilities and to describe the ability of the students with high and low WMC in solving mathematical problems. This research used mixed method with Sequential Explanatory Design. The quantitative data were collected through the provision of OSPAN tasks and math tests to 58 students aged 15-17 years, while the qualitative data were collected through interviews based on mathematical problem-solving tasks. The results showed that WMC had a significant effect on students' mathematical abilities (R=0.536; p=0.000). Researchers found differences in students' mathematical problem-solving abilities with high and low WMC. Students with high WMC can remember and manage information well which supports the determination of more advanced problem-solving strategies and have better attention control so that they find varied appropriate solutions. Students with low WMC experienced decreased attention control as the complexity of the tasks increased, missed important information in problem solving strategies, and did not recheck their work, leading to wrong solution/answer. The mathematical performance of students with high WMC outperformed the mathematical performance of students with low WMC.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1427
Pages: 1427-1439
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854
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814
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5

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3

Cell Phone Notifications Harm Attention: An Exploration of the Factors that Contribute to Distraction

attention cell phone distraction task switching

Althea Kaminske , Adam Brown , Anna Aylward , Mckenzie Haller


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Recent research has found that the presence of cell phones impairs attention during learning. The present experiment sought to better understand this phenomenon by measuring the effects of cell phone presence, cell phone notifications, and cell phone ownership (participant's or others) on attention. Attention was measured using a Stroop task in a within-subjects design, wherein participants (n = 105) were exposed to five experimental conditions. Cell phone notifications caused distractions, regardless of phone ownership and task difficulty, increasing the amount of time required to complete the task. However, unlike the noted literature above, the researchers did not find that the mere presence of a cell phone contributed to distraction. These results help us better understand which factors actually contribute to distraction and inattention.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1487
Pages: 1487-1494
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1319
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1316
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3

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3

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The government has imposed social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting the education sector, including the early childhood school. Distance education offers different methods from the conventional methods, as the students are expected to gain the same skills, including critical thinking skills. Therefore, teachers must provide distance learning innovations using relevant learning media, such as multimedia-based learning. This research aims to assess the efficacy of multimedia learning in early childhood distance learning. This research is a quantitative model with a quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design. The data collection technique utilized questionnaires given to 30 samples of early childhood children. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. The results confirmed that multimedia-based learning for distance learning could develop critical thinking skills in early childhood children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study offer exploration of learning strategies to improve children’s critical thinking.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1555
Pages: 1553-1568
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1261
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964
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3

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Mathematics anxiety has always been an interesting topic to study and discuss in the world of education. This study aimed to (1) investigate the impact of teacher roles, mathematics content, and mathematics anxiety on learning motivation, and (2) explore how students manage mathematics anxiety as a stimulus in learning motivation. This research used mixed methods with embedded concurrent design. The research sample was 100 respondents. The questionnaire instrument was arranged based on a Likert scale with 5 answer choices. This study used a structural equation model and confirmatory factor analysis as data analysis methods. The research findings indicated that: (1) a significant direct impact emerged between mathematics anxiety and students' learning motivation, and there was an indirect impact between the teacher's role and mathematics content on learning motivation; (2) students could manage mathematics anxiety when they were in optimal anxiety or positive anxiety so that they could overcome mathematics anxiety as a stimulus for achievement and deconstruct anxiety into motivation according to experience and personal resources. Results of this study confirmed that the statements about mathematics anxiety which always has a negative impact on motivation and learning achievement is not universal, because mathematics anxiety does not always have a negative impact on motivation and learning achievement if this anxiety is managed effectively.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1683
Pages: 1683-1697
cloud_download 479
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479
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713
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2

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1

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Algebraic knowledge transfer is considered an important skill in problem-solving. Using algebraic knowledge transfer, students can connect concepts using common procedural similarities. This quasi-experimental study investigates the influence of algebraic knowledge in solving problems in a chemistry context by using analogical transformations. The impact of structured steps that students need to take during the process of solving stoichiometric problems was explicitly analyzed. A total of 108 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Of the overall number of students, half of them were included in the experimental classes, whereas the other half were part of the control classes. Before and after the intervention, contextual problems were administered twice to all the student participants. The study results indicate that the students of the experimental classes exposed to structured steps in solving algebraic problems and the procedural transformations scored better results in solving problems in mathematics for chemistry compared to their peers who did not receive such instruction. Nevertheless, the result shows that although the intervention was carried out in mathematics classes, its effect was more significant on students' achievements in chemistry. The findings and their practical implications are discussed at the end of the study.

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10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1781
Pages: 1781-1796
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345
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0

Generalization of Patterns Drawing of High-Performance Students Based on Action, Process, Object, and Schema Theory

apos generalization high-performance pattern drawing

Andi Mulawakkan Firdaus , Wasilatul Murtafiah , Marheny Lukitasari , Nurcholif Diah Sri Lestari , Tias Ernawati , Sri Adi Widodo


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This study is qualitative with descriptive and aims to determine the process of generalizing the pattern image of high performance students based on the action, process, object, and schema (APOS) theory. The participants in this study were high performance eighth-grade Indonesian junior high school. Assignments and examinations to gauge mathematical aptitude and interviews were used to collect data for the study. The stages of qualitative analysis include data reduction, data presentation, and generating conclusions. This study showed that when given a sequence using a pattern drawing, the subjects used a number sequence pattern to calculate the value of the next term. Students in the action stage interiorize and coordinate by collecting prints from each sequence of numbers in the process stage. After that, they do a reversal so that at the object stage, students do encapsulation, then decapsulate by evaluating the patterns observed and validating the number series patterns they find. Students explain the generalization quality of number sequence patterns at the schema stage by connecting activities, processes, and objects from one concept to actions, processes, and things from other ideas. In addition, students carry out thematization at the schematic stage by connecting existing pattern drawing concepts with general sequences. From these results, it is recommended to improve the problem-solving skill in mathematical pattern problems based on problem-solving by high performance students', such as worksheets for students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.12.1.421
Pages: 421-433
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446
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555
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2

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