The Effects of Anxiety, Shyness and Language Learning Strategies on Speaking Skills and Academic Achievement
APA 7th edition
Oflaz, A. (2019). The Effects Of Anxiety, Shyness And Language Learning Strategies On Speaking Skills And Academic Achievement. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 999-1011. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.999
Oflaz A. 2019 'The Effects Of Anxiety, Shyness And Language Learning Strategies On Speaking Skills And Academic Achievement', European Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), pp. 999-1011.
Chicago 16th edition
Oflaz Adnan. "The Effects Of Anxiety, Shyness And Language Learning Strategies On Speaking Skills And Academic Achievement," European Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 4 (2019): 999-1011. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.999
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between foreign language anxiety, shyness, language learning strategies, speaking scores and academic achievement of university preparatory students learning German. In addition, it was aimed to determine how the independent variables predict the speaking scores and academic achievement. The research sample consisted of 110 students (75 female and 35 males). Three instruments used in the study were: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale; Strategy Inventory of Language Learning and Shyness Scale. The results of this study revealed that a moderate significant negative relationship (r= -.434) was present between the students' foreign language learning anxiety and academic achievement. Besides, a significant and negative relationship (r= -.290) was found between foreign language anxiety and speaking scores of students. According to the correlation analysis, no significant relationship was identified between shyness, academic achievement and speaking scores of students. According to the analysis, a significant positive relationship was found between the students' language learning strategies and their academic achievements (r= .275). Namely, these data showed that, the level of academic achievement increases as the use of strategy increases. Similarly, shyness and foreign language anxiety show a moderate positive correlation (r= .419). According to these findings, it may be stated that shyness increases as speaking anxiety rises. Besides, it was determined that students' shyness, foreign language anxiety and language learning strategies predicted 26.4 % of their academic achievement. The results indicated that independent variables were positive predictors of students’ academic achievement. Finally, suggestions were made for German teachers to reduce the effects of shyness and anxiety in the process of foreign language learning.
Keywords: Foreign language anxiety, shyness, language learning strategies, academic achievement.
Aghajani, M., & Amanzadeh, H. (2017). The effect of anxiety on speaking ability: an experimental study on EFL learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4(7), 154-164.
Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: the case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 155-168.
Alfarez, D. N., Wiegert O., & Krugers H. J. (2006) Stress, corticosteroid hormones and hippocampal synaptic function. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 5, 521–529.
Altan, M. Z. (2004). Nationality & language learning strategies of ELT major university students. Asian EFL Journal, 6(2), 1-11
Awan, R., Azher, M., Anwar, M., & Naz, A. (2010). An investigation of foreign language classroom anxiety and its relationship with students' achievement. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7(11), 33-40.
Aydin, B. (1999). A study of sources of foreign language classroom anxiety in speaking and writing classes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey.
Bashosh, S., Nejad, M. A., Rastegar, M., & Marzban, A. (2013). The relationship between shyness, foreign language classroom anxiety, willingness to communicate, gender, and efl proficiency. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(11), 2098-2106. doi:10.4304/tpls.3.11.2098-2106
Budak, S. (2000). Psikoloji sozlugu [Dictionary of psychology]. Ankara, Turkey: Science and Art Publications.
Cakici, D. (2016). The correlation among efl learners’ test anxiety, foreign language anxiety and language achievement. English Language Teaching, 9(8), 190-203.
Cheek, J. M., & Briggs, S. R. (1990). Shyness as a personality trait. In W. R. Crozier (Ed.), Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 315-337). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571183.012
Chen, H.J. (2007). Foreign language anxiety; a study of bilingual elementary school (Unpublished master's thesis). Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan.
Chishti, K.H., Amin, F., & Yousaf, T. (2018). Relationship between shyness and academic achievement among adolescents in Karachi. Bahria Journal of Professional Psychology, 17(1), 83-98.
Chu, H. R. (2008). Shyness and EFL learning in Taiwan: A study of shy and non-shy college students’ use of strategies, foreign language anxiety, motivation, and willingness to communicate (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas, Austin, USA.
Condon, M., & Ruth-Sahd, L. (2013). Responding to introverted and shy students: Best practice guidelines for educators and advisors. Open Journal of Nursing, 3, 503-515. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2013.37069.
Crozier, W.R. (2004). Shyness and students' perceptions of seminars. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 4(1), 27-34.
Cryan, J. F. (2010). Depression. In Koob, G., Moal, M. (Eds), Encyclopedia of behavioral neuroscience (pp.382-387). London: Elsevier, Academic Press.
Cuceloglu, D. (1991). Insan ve davranisi [Human and behavior] (2nd ed.). Istanbul, Turkey: Remzi.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
D’Souza, L. (2003). Influence of shyness on anxiety and academic achievement in high school students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 18, 109-118.
Del Angel, M. C., & Gallardo, K. E. (2014). Language learning strategies and academic success: A Mexican perspective. Universitas Psychologica, 13(2), 703-713. doi:10.11144/Javeriana.UPSY13-2.llsa
Ely, C. M. (1986). An analysis of discomfort, risktaking, sociability, and motivation in the L2 classroom. Language Learning, 36(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1986.tb00366.x
Demirdas, O., & Bozdogan, D. (2013). Foreign language anxiety and performance of language learners in preparatory classes. Turkish Journal of Education, 2(3), 4-13.
Fillmore, L. W. (1979). Individual differences in second language acquisition. In Charles J. Fillmore (Ed). Individual differences in language ability and language behavior. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. L. (1996). Anxiety about foreign language learning among high school women. The Modern Language Journal, 80(2), 199-212.
Green, J., & Oxford, R. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297.
Gungor, A. (2001). Utangaclik olceginin gelistirilmesi gecerlik ve guvenilirlik calismalari [Development of shyness scale, validity and reliability]. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 2(15), 17-22.
Hewitt, E., & Stephenson, J. (2011). Foreign language anxiety and oral exam performance: A replication of phillips’s MLJ study. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 170-189. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01174.x
Henderson, L., & Zimbardo, P. (1998). Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112-126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000071
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. doi: 10.2307/327317
Horwitz, E. K. (1986). Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a foreign-language anxiety scale. Tesol Quarterly, 20(3), 559-562.
Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hosseininik, S.S., & Lancy D.S. (2012). Effectiveness of Morita therapy on reduction of shyness among adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 38(3), 62-67.
Joels M., Karst H., Alfarez D., Heine V. M., Qin Y., Riel E. V., … Krugers, H. J. (2004). Effects of chronic stress on structure and cell function in rat hippocampus and hypothalamus. Stress, 7(4), 221–231. doi: 10.1080/10253890500070005
Joels, M., & Krugers, H. J. (2007). LTP after stress: up or down? Neural plasticity, 2007, Article ID 93202. https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/93202
Jones, W.H., Briggs, S.R., & Smith, T.G. (1986). Shyness: conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(3), 629- 639. doi: 10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.529
Juhana, J. (2012). Psychological factors that hinder students from speaking in English class (A case study in a senior high school in South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia). Journal of Education and Practice, 3(12), 100-110.
Keller, K., Troesch L. M., & Grob A. (2013). Shyness as a risk factor for second language acquisition of immigrant preschoolers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2013.07.001
Khalil, A. (2005). Assessment of language learning strategies used by Palestinian EFL learners. Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2005.tb02458.x|
Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman.
Lee, H. (2014). Psychological treatment of older adults, a holistical model. New York, NY: Springer.
Liu, M. (2006). Anxiety in Chinese EFL students at different proficiency levels. System, 34(3), 301-316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.04.004
Macaro, E. (2001). Learning strategies in foreign and second language classrooms. London: Continuum O’Malley, J., & Chamot, A. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
MacIntyre, P.D., & Gardner, R.C. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44(2), 283-305. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01103.x
MacIntyre, P. D. (1995). How does anxiety affect second language Learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. The Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 90-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb05418.x
MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: a review of literature for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning (pp. 24-43). New York, NY:McGraw Hill.
Mah, L., Szabuniewicz, C., & Fiocco A. J. (2016). Can anxiety damage the brain? Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(1), 56–63. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000223.
Martin S. J., Grimwood P. D., & Morris R. G. M. (2000). Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 649–711. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.649
Naiman, N., Froanhlich, M., Stern, H.H., & Toedesco, A. (1978). The good language learner research in education series no. 7. Toronto, Canada: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Namaghi, S. A. O., Safaee S. E., & Sobhanifar A. (2015). The effect of shyness on English speaking scores of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Literature, Languages and Linguistics, 12, 22-28.
Noormohamadi, R. (2009). On the relationship between language learning strategies and foreign language anxiety. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 39-52.
Oh, J. (1992). Learning strategies used by university EFL students in Korea. Language Teaching, 1, 3-53.
O'Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L. & Russo, R. P. (1985). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35(1) 21-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1985.tb01013.x
Ordulj, A., & Grabar, I. (2012). Shyness and foreign language anxiety. In , A.Akbarov ( Eds), 2nd International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics Proceedings(pp.215-222).ISBN:978-9958-834-35-6 https://fltal.ibu.edu.ba/assets/fltal/userfiles/documents/Proceeding-Book-(Version1.2).pdf
Oxford, R. L., & Ehrman, M. (1995). Adult’s language learning strategies in an intensive foreign language program in The United States. System, 23(3), 359–386.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers .
Park, G. (1994). Language learning strategies: why do adults need them? Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA.
Paul, J. (2013). A closer examination of the relation between child shyness and academic performance in china (Unpublished master's thesis). Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
Pazouki, M., & Rastgar, M. (2009). Extraversion-introversion, shyness and EFL proficiency. Psychological Research, 12(1-2), 78-91.
Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with highly anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Foreign language anxiety: From theory to research to classroom practices (pp. 101–108). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Phillips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. The Modern Language Journal, 76(1), 14-26.
Reber, A.S. (1990). The penguin dictionary of psychology. New York, NY: Penguin Books
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 117-131.
Sadeghi, K., & Soleimani, M. (2016). The relationship between anxiety, shyness, ambiguity tolerance, and language learning strategies. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 11(1), 70-87. doi: 10.1080/22040552.2016.1187652.
Sapir, S., & Aronson, A.E. (1990). The relationship between psychopathology and speech and language disorder in neurological patients. Journal of Speech Hearing Disorders, 55, 503-509.
Spielberger, Charles D., Gorsuch, Richard L. & Lushene, Robert E. (1970). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Stern, H.H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Tang, A., Schmidt, L.A. (2017). Shyness and sociability. In Zeigler-Hill V., Shackelford T. (Eds), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. Cham, Switzerland: Springer,.
Toth, Z. (2008). A foreign language anxiety scale for Hungarian learners of English. WoPaLP, 2, 55-78.
Vogel S., & Schwabe L. (2016). Learning and memory under stress: Implications for the classroom. NPJ Science of Learning, 29(1), 16011. doi:10.1038/npjscilearn.2016.11
Watanabe, Y. (1990). External variables affecting language learning strategies of Japanese EFL learners: Effects of entrance examination, years spent at college/university, and staying overseas (Unpublished master's thesis). Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
Wenden, A. L. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.
Wilson, J. T. S. (2006). Anxiety in learning English as a foreign language: Its associations with students’ variables, with overall proficiency, and with performance in an oral test (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
Wilt, J., Oehlberg, K., & Revelle, W. R. (2011). Anxiety in personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 987-993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.11.014
Uslu, E., Sahin E., & Odemis I. S. (2016). The effect of language learning strategies on academic achievement. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 6(3), 73-78.
Young, D. J., (1986). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 23, 539-553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1986.tb01032.x|
Zimbardo, P.G. (1982). Shyness and the stress of the human connection. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: theoretical and clinical aspects (pp.466-481). New York, NY: Free Press.