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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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'first literacy' Search Results



Concepts of Plants Held by Young Brazilian Children: An Exploratory Study

plant conception preschool and primary school pupils mental model drawings

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Claudete Rosa Cosmo , Bernadete Rocha da Silva , Sue Dale Tunnicliffe


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Children from southern and northern Brazil have a basic knowledge of plants, which they observe during their everyday life. Children ages between 3 to 10 years old (kindergarten & primary school), but the majority of them in the age group of 4-5 (total 145) were asked to draw what they think is a plant (total sample=332). Afterwards, a equal number of boys and girls randomly chosen were interviewed individually (mix ability) to list plants they said they knew and where they had seen them. Then they were asked to give exemplars of the local plants which they had seen. These data from the exploratory study show that pupils are in touch with their environment and recognize plants that are part of it. The everyday experiences of these children in school and out of school, at home and in leisure activities with family and friends, contribute to their knowledge about plants and such knowledge is complemented in the preschool and primary school classes by appropriate teaching. Educational implications of these findings are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.4.3.105
Pages: 105-117
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11

How In-Service Teachers Perceive Neuroscience as Connected to Education: An Exploratory Study

teaching learning educational neuroscience teachers

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck , Flavio Kulevicz Bartoszeck


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This exploratory study is concerned about the extent to which a sample of 163 pre-school, primary and secondary Brazilian school teachers, expressed their opinion on how neuroscience might help their teaching and pupils´ learning. Evaluation instruments for Brazilian pupils were analysed. Two questionnaires were completed by the teachers. Results of a quantitative analysis indicated that in general teachers believe that neuroscience may contribute to the teaching and learning of their subject matter. An outline for an elective neuroscience and education course is presented. Educational implications are discussed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.4.301
Pages: 301-319
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1825
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1765
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10

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Creativity is regarded as one of the cornerstones for economic and social progress in every society. There are two possible ways to get creative people to work for an enterprise or community. The first is by attracting creative employees by good working conditions – a solution for those who can afford such an approach. For communities that are not so rich, the only solution is to foster creativity by education and by helping small and medium enterprises to create products based on creative ideas and innovations. In Slovenia, proposals for nourishing creativity and innovations emerge from the government thus forgetting that creativity does not start at University or on the first day of employment. To increase creativity, immediate action should be taken throughout the educational system, recognizing that society needs not only creative artists but scientists, economists and engineers as well. Through the analysis of the legislation, syllabi and textbooks, it can be recognized that they do not promote or even allow creativity in science education; even more, they can be regarded as creativity killers. In such a way key documents and teaching resources are placing creative science teachers in the position of guerrillas in a battle against prevailing teaching methods influenced by highstakes external exams or measurable outcomes. To improve science creativity, the legislation should be changed to give creativity appropriate value, and teachers must be educated to use methods that increase creativity in students, with the aim of producing open minds that will be able to work in a creative way.

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10.12973/eu-jer.1.2.127
Pages: 127-141
cloud_download 2014
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2014
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2159
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8

Engineering Student’s Self-Efficacy Judgment to Solve Mathematical Problems in the Classroom or Online

self-efficacy perception mathematics students online learning face to face learning cognitive algebra

Maria Guadalupe Villarreal-Treviño , Ricardo Jesus Villarreal-Lozano , Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Ernesto Octavio Lopez-Ramirez , Norma Esthela Flores-Moreno


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This study explored in a sample of 560 high level education students their judgment formation to perceived self-efficacy to solve mathematical tasks. Students had to read 36 experimental vignettes describing educative scenarios to learn mathematics. Each scenario presented four manipulated pieces of information (learning modality, task difficulty, task relevance, and structure). After reading each scenario students were required to provide judgments regarding their believed self-efficacy to solve mathematical tasks described in the vignette by using a scale. Results showed that in regard to how students perceived their self-efficacy they could be grouped in two clusters (high and moderate). Most relevant factors to their judgment formation were task difficulty, task relevance and structure. Here, both groups used the same cognitive algebra mechanism to integrate factor information. Here, students valuated academic performance and feedback (e.g. difficulty and relevance) as most relevant even when they are conscious that learning is a primordial target. These and other results are discussed in the paper.

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10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.465
Pages: 465-473
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541
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1180
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3

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The aim of this research is to determine the thoughts of the teachers about the concepts of "Smart Board", "Computer", "Internet" and "Social Media" from the Instructional technologies of the secondary school teachers with different branches through metaphors. In the research, a qualitative research model was used to identify teachers' thoughts in metaphor analysis from various branches about the use of instructional technologies in the national field. Within the scope of the qualitative research model, the phenomenology design was used. In order to find out what kind of thoughts teachers have about teaching materials from the participants "Smart Board / Computer / Internet / Social Media is like / similar to…..; Because ..." they were asked to complete their covenants. As a result of the research, 25 valid metaphors belonging to the concepts of smart board, computer, social media and 27 of internet concept were obtained from secondary school teachers. The most book (f = 4) metaphor for smart board concept, brain and memory (f = 2) metaphors for computer concept, most air (f = 3) and medicine, ocean, water (f = 2) metaphors for internet concept and the drug and virus (f = 2) metaphors related to the concept of social media. The metaphors of the concept of smart board are classified into 5 conceptual categories with common characteristics related to each other, 6 categories with common features related to computer and internet concepts, and 7 conceptual categories with social media concept related to each other. In the research, it was reached that the secondary school teachers expressed positive opinions about the concept of smart board and computer, partially negative about the concept of the internet but more negative opinions about the concept of social media.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.189
Pages: 189-202
cloud_download 478
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478
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1051
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9

Scopus
11

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We are living in an age where knowledge is rapidly produced and consumed. In this period, the future of the individual and the society depends on accessing, using and producing information. This situation requires a qualified education and first literacy teaching which is the foundation of it. Primary school is the foundation of everything; likewise, the first literacy learning is the foundation of learning (Gunes, Uysal and Tac, 2016). First literacy is to create a new communication and interaction channel for the individual by teaching the symbols of humankind that it created in ten thousand years. Education performs a great miracle by making a seven-year old child comprehend this script that humankind developed in ten thousand years within a seven- or eight-month period (Guleryuz, 2001). It is desired for and expected of the children who start the first grade in primary school at the level of illiteracy to reach the level of basic literacy with qualified first literacy education under the supervision of an effective program, equipped teacher (Sagirli, 2015). Education in cursive handwriting in our country has started in Ataturk era. Ataturk demonstrated examples of the New Turkish Latin Letters on the blackboard with the cursive handwriting. Elderly and young people of the generation of Ataturk era have learned the cursive handwriting very well and used for many years. Many documents of that period such as diplomas, identity cards, registry of deeds etc. have been prepared with cursive handwriting in a clear, cursive and aesthetic form (Gunes, 2006). In our country, it has been decided to start the first literacy education with the cursive handwriting under the scope of the 2004 draft program. For nearly thirteen years, our students are becoming literate with cursive handwriting. There are many studies in literature that examine the opinions of teachers, students, and parents about the cursive handwriting. The aim of the concerned study is to express the view from the perspective of the parents of the gifted and talented students on the practice of cursive handwriting in first literacy education. Within the scope of the research, interviews were conducted with the parents of the gifted and talented students and their opinions were taken about starting the first literacy with the practice of the cursive handwriting. All of the parents are the parents of gifted and talented children who are attending primary school. The data collected during the 2016-2017 academic year have been obtained by face-to-face interviews. The answers of the parents are recorded and then reported. Screening model is used in the study that is designed by content analysis. The research is a qualitative study. Recommendations are brought at the end of the research.

description Abstract
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10.12973/eu-jer.7.2.295
Pages: 295-301
cloud_download 507
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507
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1066
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0

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2

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This study aims to evaluate elementary school math teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about classroom management. With the aim of investigating elementary school math teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about classroom management, a classroom management self-efficacy scale was developed.  The 5 point likert scale is composed of 46 items. The scale was applied to 142 math teachers working at elementary schools in Diyarbakir central district. Data were analyzed in terms of gender, seniority, classroom population and weekly course load. To analyze the data, t-test, one way variance analysis (ANOVA), Scheffe and LSD tests were used. The results showed that the math teachers have a positive self-efficacy belief of classroom management and that male teachers are better at maintaining discipline in class. In addition, the research shows that teachers with more experience are better at course design and classroom management and that classroom population has an effect on math teachers' self-efficacy beliefs about classroom management.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.3.639
Pages: 639-652
cloud_download 731
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731
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1115
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5

Scopus
3

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This paper aims to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish adaptation of DeBaryshe and Binder's Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI) and to investigate parents' literacy beliefs. The primary focus of this paper is to explore parents’ beliefs and practices and their relatedness on the emergent literacy of their children aged 3–7 (M=69.8 months; SD= 9.33 months). As data collection tools, we availed ourselves of the Parent Reading Belief Inventory,(PRBI), Home Literacy Inventory (HLI) and Child Literacy Behaviours (CLB). In addition, the Personal Information Form, prepared by the researchers, was utilized. Moreover, confirmatory factor analyses were performed on samples of parents from Adana, a city in southern Turkey (N= 952). The study showed that a seven-factor structure in the original form of the PRBI was validated , excluding items 8, 30 and 31. Consistent with the results of the confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis, it can be concluded that the PRBI is a valid and reliable tool to investigate the process of parents' literacy activities with their children in Turkey.

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10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.985
Pages: 985-997
cloud_download 754
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754
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954
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4

Scopus
3

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The aim of this study is to present pre-service biology teachers with reading texts about the research of Van Helmont and Joseph Priestley relate to the subject of photosynthesis, for their familiarization with the processual and contextual aspects of science and their understanding of the nature of science, and to reveal the extent to which these texts contribute to the teacher candidates. The study was carried out by “action research method”.  The sample consisted of 66 biology pre-service teachers studying at Karadeniz Technical University between the years of 2016 to 2018. In this study, two separate reading texts were prepared in order to increase pre-service teachers’ processual and contextual understanding, and after the teacher candidates had read the texts, they were asked to answer the related questions. Percentage and frequency values were determined by grouping the answers as “correct, partially correct, incorrect and unanswered”. The fact that in this study, only 47% of the pre-service teachers were able to form a correct hypothesis means that their skills in this regard are in need of development. Candidates experienced some difficulty in interpreting statements that were not given explicitly in the text. The candidates' level of critical thinking is at a good level. It has been determined that they have post-modern view as epistemological belief. There is a need for designing instructional materials covering conceptual, processual, contextual dimensions of science in different subjects at university level and presenting them to biology teachers in book format.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.2.633
Pages: 633-646
cloud_download 485
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485
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1376
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0

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The aim of this study, in which one of the qualitative research approaches, the case study design, was used, was to remedy reading problems and develop reading skills in a fourth grade primary school student with sound, syllable and word recognition exercises. The study covers 38 lesson periods in the autumn term of the 2018-2019 academic year. For developing reading skills, the strategies of “prior listening to the paragraph”, “repetitive reading” and “word repetition” were used. For determining reading errors, the “Error Analysis Inventory” was used. Data were obtained by means of observation and document examination. In the study related to determining reading status, it was established that the student had made errors such as repetition, syllabication, omission, addition and failure to notice punctuation marks. Based on the data obtained, first of all, sound, syllable and word recognition exercises were conducted with the student, and then reading exercises were carried out with texts selected to suit the level of the student’s Turkish course books and story books. Analyses were performed by taking audio and video recordings of all exercises. As a result of the intervention, the student’s desire to read increased, he began to read out loud, he began to identify sounds that he previously did not recognise or confused, and improvements in his reading skill were observed.

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10.12973/eu-jer.8.4.1269
Pages: 1269-1286
cloud_download 13932
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13932
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5839
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5

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4

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This study aimed to describe seven indicators of students’ verbal linguistic intelligence in reading subject. It used a qualitative research method. The subjects of this study were 30 students consisted of 9 male and 21 female students. They took the reading subject in the second semester of the first year. They were given a test of verbal-linguistic intelligence. Seven students were selected to be interviewed because they have verbal-linguistic intelligence and good communication. To find out the validity of the data, the researchers used triangulation of the test results and the results of interviews and triangulation of the second researcher and research assistants. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using the content analysis method which consisted of three steps, they were data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing/verification. The results of the study show that there were seven indicators of verbal-linguistic intelligence of students in reading subject, first, having excellent initial knowledge in mentioning words, second, enjoying wordplay with Scrabble, third, entertaining themselves and other students by playing tongue twisters, fourth, explaining the meaning of the words written and discussed, fifth, having difficulties in mathematics lesson, sixth, their conversation refers to something they have read and heard, and the last, having the ability to write poetry based on personal experience.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.1.117
Pages: 117-128
cloud_download 28768
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28768
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4588
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5

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8

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Summative assessment of students' writing predicts not only the extent to which the course learning objectives have been achieved but also reveals the relevance of the assessment design with the construct of writing being assessed. Any dichotomy between the assessment criteria and the construct of writing or between the assessment criteria and test scoring procedures can produce unreliable and invalid interpretations of the students' writing proficiency. Assuming cohesion as a measure of writing quality, the present study chose samples of academic writing which did not specify cohesion as a descriptor in the assessment scale. A cohesion index was, therefore, developed to investigate how cohesive devices created texture in the sample texts and correlated with the test scores. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that cohesive devices were positively associated with appropriate use to create texture; however, they only weakly correlated with the test scores. The findings imply that there is the need for developing assessment criteria which consistently measures the text-forming resources to reliably ascertain the writing proficiency of the students. The study recommends a research initiative based on an analytical assessment criteria to ensure a more accurate analysis of the role of cohesion in text-formation and writing quality.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.523
Pages: 523-535
cloud_download 694
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694
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1082
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5

Scopus
3

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This study aims to investigate the impact of using a LEGO Education program, specifically the “MoreToMath” kit, on the achievement of Deferent Levels of Elementary Students. The quantitative research design was used in this research study, and the participants were comprised of 120 elementary school students in the 2nd grade, in Amman, Jordan. A quasi-experimental research method and the MANCOVA were used, and a study tool to measure achievement was developed by the researcher for which the validity and reliability of achievement were verified. The results of the study show that there was a statistically significant improvement (α ≤0.05) in the achievement of the experimental study group, that studied using LEGO education, over the control group. There is also a statistically significant difference (α ≤ 0.05) between the arithmetic means of the three sub-groups of students’ previous achievement levels— high, middle, and low— and by using the Least Significant Differences (LSD) test we notice that there are significant differences between the high and low sub-groups, as well as between the middle and low. However, that there are no significant differences between the high and middle level sub-groups; and there is also no statistically significant interaction between the groups (experimental, control) and the levels of pre-achievement seen in the post-achievement levels. The study results indicate that the use of new technological tools, like the “MoreToMath” kit, may be beneficial in teaching mathematics as they tend to motivate students, and can lead to higher achievement for elementary students of different mathematics aptitude levels.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.603
Pages: 603-610
cloud_download 896
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896
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1193
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4

Scopus
3

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Teacher education has been innovated in Brunei to support the ongoing inclusive education and curriculum reforms. This survey investigated the development of essential instructional skills in initial Brunei trainee teachers. The sample consisted of 109 student teachers (71 females and 38 males). Significant mean scores (Mean ≥ 4, p< .05) and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the levels of proficiency and enablers of success in teaching. Participants were proficient on 15 of the 28 skills measured by the Teacher Behaviors Checklist (Approachable; Confident; Effective communicator; Encourages; Enthusiastic; Flexible; Good listener; Humble; Prepared; Professional; Rapport; Respectful; Sensitive; Striving to be a better teacher; Understanding). From independent groups, T-tests and One-Way ANOVA analyses, other significant trends in participants’ performance emerged at p< .05 level of evaluation. Females scored highest on Humble and Realistic expectations while males scored highest on Understanding. Trainee teachers aged 31-35 scored highest on: Promoting critical thinking; and Providing constructive feedback, than counterparts. Participants with higher degrees (e.g. Master of Arts) scored higher on Authoritative skills than those with lower degrees (e.g. Bachelor of Arts). Trainees with teaching experience scored significantly higher on: Accessible; Knowledge about the subject matter; and Technological competence, than those with no experience. The findings suggest the need to help pre-service teachers to gain proficiency in all teacher skills to improve the quality of education in the country. Further research was recommended.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.685
Pages: 685-698
cloud_download 605
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605
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878
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3

Scopus
2

Developing MeMoRI on Newton’s Laws: For Identifying Students’ Mental Models

memori-nl mental models instrument newton's laws students' mental models

Nuzulira Janeusse Fratiwi , Achmad Samsudin , Taufik Ramlan Ramalis , Antomi Saregar , Rahma Diani , Irwandani , ,


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The identification of students’ mental models is crucial in understanding their knowledge of scientific concepts. This research aimed to develop a Mental Models Representation Instrument on Newton's Laws (MeMoRI-NL). The ADDIE (Analyzing, Designing, Developing, Implementing and Evaluating) model was used as a research method. The sample consisted of 30 students of 15-16 years-old at one of senior high school in Tatar Pasundan. The data was examined using Rasch analysis on validity, reliability, level of difficulty, and distributions of students’ mental models. Students’ mental models were classified as Scientific (SC), Synthetic (SY), Synthetic almost Misconception (SYM), and Initial (IN) model. Based on the evaluating stage, students’ mental models are mostly in the SYM and IN model. Consequently, it can be concluded that the Mental Models Representation Instrument on Newton's Laws (MeMoRI-NL) can be developed using the ADDIE model and most of the students' mental model has not been following scientific knowledge. Based on this research, teachers or educators should enhance students' mental models, especially for female students.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.2.699
Pages: 699-708
cloud_download 645
visibility 943
11
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645
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943
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11

Scopus
14

Primary School Students’ Creative Thinking Skills in Mathematics Problem Solving

mathematics problem solving creative thinking primary students

Erna Yayuk , Purwanto , Abdur Rahman As’ari , Subanji


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This study aims to analyze students’ creative thinking skills in answering the problem-solving questions. This study employs qualitative design, involving 110 fifth graders in Malang Municipality and Regency as the subjects. The obtained data were analyzed using the descriptive-explorative approach. The findings reveal that the high-achievers in Mathematics showed good skills in the aspects of fluency and flexibility, but were still struggling in the novelty aspect.  The average-achievers showed good skills in flexibility aspects but were lacking in the fluency and novelty aspects. They showed an understanding of Mathematics problems but found it difficult to decide the solving strategies, and thus their answers were lacking in structure and less systematic. When solving a problem, the calculation made seemed rushing, was less careful, and frequented with trial and error strategy. The low-achievers showed difficulties in understanding the problems. Their answers were not systematic, not well-structured, and not detailed. This indicates that the low-achievers had not shown creative thinking skills in fluency, flexibility, and novelty aspects.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1281
Pages: 1281-1295
cloud_download 1488
visibility 1543
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1488
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1543
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20

Scopus
15

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New Inquiry-Based Learning (NIBL) was developed to improve students’ multiple higher-order thinking skills (MHOTS), such as thinking critically, analytically, creatively, and practically (CACP). This study aimed to examine the increase of students’ MHOTS ability, their perceptions of the NIBL model, and the contribution of the NIBL model to the learning outcomes.  A quasi-experiment of the nonequivalent control group design was implemented in this study. Research subjects were university students majoring in chemistry education and enrolling in the Organic Chemistry course. The experiment and the control groups consisted of 34 and 32 students, respectively. The collected data were analyzed by using t-test and ANCOVA procedures. N-Gain scores were calculated to measure the differences in the increase in learning outcomes. Eta square values measured the contribution of NIBL. The results of this study revealed that there were differences in the learning outcomes of the experiment and control group. The CACP thinking skills and the mastery of organic chemistry concepts of the experiment group increased significantly. The N-Gain scores of practical thinking skills aspect were on medium category, and for critical, analytical, and creative thinking, as well as for mastery of organic chemistry concepts were on high categories. For the control group, the N-Gain scores of all categories were on low or medium categories. The NIBL model effectively improved the prospective chemistry teachers’ M-HOTS in terms of CACP thinking skills and contributed significantly to the increase in the students’ mastery of organic chemistry concepts.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.3.1309
Pages: 1309-1325
cloud_download 1279
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3
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1279
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1063
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3

Scopus
5

Flipped Classroom Educational Model (2010-2019): A Bibliometric Study

flipped classroom educational model bibliometric study publication trend flipped classroom mapping

J. Julia , Nurul Afrianti , Kamal Ahmed Soomro , Tedi Supriyadi , Dewi Dolifah , I. Isrokatun , E. Erhamwilda , Dedah Ningrum


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Nowadays, teaching and learning activity employing the flipped classroom model has an important position in the process of providing education. This research aimed at identifying and analyzing articles examining the flipped classroom model that has been published in several reputable international journals issued in the 2010-2019 timeframe, which was conducted using bibliometric studies. The research was conducted using a 4-stages systematic mapping method: (1) searching for articles using the Publish or Perish application in the Scopus database, (2) classifying the articles for the bibliometric analysis, (3) checking and completing the metadata of those articles, and (4) conducting bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer application. The bibliometric analysis produced seven findings, as follows: (1) the trend of flipped classroom publications continued to increase from 2013-2019; (2) the ten most contributive journals has published 88 articles by 2019; (3) the ten most cited articles has produced 1,155 citations; (4) the three highest order of author keywords most widely used in flipped classroom articles were flipped classroom, active learning, and blended learning; (5) author collaboration with strong links only occurred in 21 authors through one document; (6) institutional collaboration with strong links formed through 28 collaborating institutions; and (7) state statistics were formed into three clusters and spread across various countries through contributions from authors who were in charge of 456 institutions. The flipped classroom model can be concluded as an educational model that is currently popular among researchers.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1377
Pages: 1377-1392
cloud_download 2104
visibility 2794
21
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2104
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2794
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21

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26

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This research aimed at analyzing the influence of ‘Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning’ model assisted by realia media, in which it was to improve the scientific literacy and critical thinking skill of primary school students, especially for the material of energy. This quasi-experiment research used single factor independent groups design. The research sample of this research were fourth grade students of SD Inpres Oeba 2 Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, of which students were in the academic year of 2019/2020. The technique of sample collection was carried out purposive sampling for 2 classes. The IVA class was used as the experimental class (POGIL model assisted by the realia media), in which it consisted of 30 students and the IVB class was used as the control class (expository learning) that consisted of 28 students. The learning was carried out in four meetings. The data of scientific literacy and the results test of critical thinking were collected by means of objective test on the energy material. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data using significance level of 0.05. The results indicate that (1) There is a significant difference between the students’ scientific literacy who gain the POGIL learning assisted by the realia media and the students’ scientific literacy who get the expository learning; and (2) There is a significant difference between the critical thinking of students who get POGIL learning assisted by realia media and the students who get the expository learning. It can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the scientific literacy and the students’ critical thinking taught by the POGIL learning that assisted by realia media to the students who use expository learning. Since there is a significant difference, it means that the POGIL learning assisted by realia media has an influence on the students' scientific literacy and critical thinking.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1635
Pages: 1635-1647
cloud_download 1357
visibility 1445
18
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1357
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1445
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18

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10

Analysis of Kindergarten Teachers on Pedagogical Content Knowledge

pedagogical content knowledge kindergarten teachers

Mutiara Sari Dewi , Punaji Setyosari , Dedi Kuswandi , Saida Ulfa


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This research aims to determine the relationship between the seven components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge possessed by kindergarten teachers. The animal theme was chosen to determine the pedagogical content knowledge component profile of 30 kindergarten teachers, with data obtained through classroom observation, interviews, learning plan documentation. This study employed a mixed-method design, a type of sequential explanatory research with the structural equation modeling-partial least squares and descriptive tests used to quantitative and qualitatively analyze the data obtained. The result showed that: the relationship between the components is specified in the context of using themes to learn in the kindergarten; analysis of the relationships between the components is carried out separately, such as the relationship of all 7 (seven) components to 1 (one) pedagogical content knowledge component of kindergarten teachers; Orientation of teaching has the strongest relationship with Knowledge of Instructional Strategies for Teaching; Knowledge of assessment of early childhood education has the weakest relationship with knowledge of early childhood education subject matter; pedagogical content knowledge components for kindergarten teachers that are often found and associated with other components in a learning episode are orientation of teaching, knowledge of early childhood education curriculum, and knowledge of instructional strategies; there are pedagogical content knowledge component for kindergarten teacher that often found and connection with other component in a learning episode.

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10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1701
Pages: 1701-1721
cloud_download 1767
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1767
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1259
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6

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4

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